~ Characteristics ~ Have a nervous system to respond to their environment Locomotion relates to ability to obtain food Most animals develop from a zygote becoming a A single layer of cells surrounding a fluid- filled space forming a hollow ball of cells called a gastrula.
~ Body Plans ~ Animals that are irregular in shape are asymmetrical. Animals that are regular in shape are symmetrical.
~ Body Plans ~ An animal has radial symmetry if it can be divided along any plane, through a central axis, into equal halves. An animal has bilateral symmetry if it can be divided down its length into similar right and left halves forming mirror images of each other.
Which figure has bilateral symmetry?Which has radial symmetry?
~ Protection and Support ~ Though not all animals have a skeleton, those that do can be divided into two groups: – Those with an exoskeleton – a hard, waxy coating on the outside of the body that protects internal organs, provides a framework for support, and a place for muscle attachment. – Those with an endoskeleton – support framework within the body that protects some organs and a brace for muscles to pull against.
Major Phyla Porifera – Sponges Cnidaria – Corals and Jellyfish Platyhelminthes – Flatworms Nematoda – Roundworms Mollusca – Clams and Octopus Annelida – Earthworms Arthropoda – Insects, Spiders, and Crabs Echinodermata – Starfish and Sea Urchins Chordata – Vertebrates including MammalsCSCOPE
~Invertebrates~ 8 main phyla No backbones 95% of all animals are in this group
~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~ Sponges simplest form of animal life live in water Do not move around no symmetry Pores (holes) all over body
Porifera Simple animals Live anchored to a rock or the ocean bottom Marine or freshwater Filter-feeders Radial symmetry Lack tissues or organ systemCSCOPE
~Invertebrate Phylum Porifera~ Filter Feeders: a sponge filters particles of food from water using collar cells and then pumps the water out the osculum.
~Invertebrate Phylum Nematoda ~ Roundworms – Round, tubular body – small or microscopic – bilateral symmetry – have both a mouth and anus – Live in water or are parasites
Nematoda Free living in soil or water with many parasitic forms CDC Bilateral symmetry Most have a digestive CDC tract with two openings Hookworms, pinworms, ascaris, and trichinosis worm CDCCSCOPE
~Invertebrate Phylum Annelida ~ Class leeches parasites that feed on blood of other animals
~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ Soft bodies Hard Shells Live on land or in water have a circulatory system and a complex nervous system. Important food source for humans
Mollusca Soft bodied organisms often covered with a calcareous shell Bilateral symmetry Most have a ventral muscular foot for locomotion Chitons, snails, limpets, clams, octopus, and squidCSCOPE
~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ Class Gastropoda – snails and slugs – may have 1 shell – stomach-footed - move on stomach
~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ Class Bivalves – 2 shells hinged together – clams, oysters, scallops and mussels
~Invertebrate Phylum Mollusca ~ Class Cephalopods –squids and octopuses –internal mantel
~Invertebrate Phylum Echinodermata ~ Hard, spiny skin Live in salt water Radial symmetry name means ‘spiney skinned’ endoskeleton
Echinodermata Radial symmetry Calcareous plates often with external spines Water vascular system with tube feet for locomotion Sea lilies, starfish, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbersCSCOPE
~Invertebrate Phylum Echinodermata ~ Examples: seastar, sea urchin, sand dollar and sea cucumber
~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Body divided into sections/segments Exoskeleton Jointed legs well developed nervous system largest group of organisms on earth
Arthropoda Body is composed of a head, thorax, and abdomen with three or more pairs of joined legs Chitinous exoskeleton Molt Bilateral symmetry Shrimp, crabs, barnacles, insects, centipedes, millipedes, spiders, ticks, horseshoe crabs, and crayfishCSCOPE
~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ 3 subphylums: Classified into classes according to the number of legs, eyes and antennae they have.
~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata Class – Arachnida no antennae 4 pairs of legs 2 body regions - cephalothorax & abdomen spiders, scorpions, mites & ticks
~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Chilicerata Class Merostomata Horseshoe crabs – Ancient group of species – Changed little over 350 million years – Aquatic, mostly found on Atlantic & gulf coasts of United States.
~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum - Crustacea 5 Classes Aquatic ones have gills 2 antennae 2 body regions or segmented Shrimp, lobsters, crabs, barnacles, isopods Many species taste delicious in butter
Subphylum Uniramia: 3 classes Class Insecta (insects) Class Chilopoda (Centipedes) Class Diplopoda (Millipedes)
~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia Class Insecta no antennae 3 pairs of legs 2 body regions - head, thorax & abdomen grasshoppers, ants, butterflies, bees
~InvertebratePhylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia Class Diplopoda Millipedes segmented animals Have 2 pairs of legs per segment Primarily herbivores & decomposers
~Invertebrate Phylum Arthropoda ~ Subphylum Uniramia Class Chiopoda Centipedes Usually terrestrial carnivores Have 1 pair of antennae Are often poisonous, using modified front claws to immobilize prey