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Tenses.pptx Tenses.pptx Presentation Transcript

  • SUMMARY OF TENSES
  • We use tenses of verbs to refer to actions or situations in the present, in the past and in the futurepast
  • There are different sorts of tenses: simple tenses continuous tenses perfect tenses perfect continuous tensespast
  • present tenses present simple present continuous present perfectpast present perfect continuous
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousFORMThe present simple is formed with the infinitive of the main verb.The negative and interrogative are formed with the present tenseof the verb to do + infinitive.ExamplesI start ( he starts) work at 8.30 a.m.When do I start work?I don‟t start work until 9.00 a..m. / He doesn‟t start work until 9.00a..m.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. for habitual and repeated actionsExampleI play blues harp and dobro guitar
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. for habitual and repeated actions2. with adverbs (or expressions) of frequency( often – usually – sometimes -seldom – rarely – always – occasionally – never – twice a week - on Tuesdays – most of the time ....)ExampleHe often arrives late
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. for habitual and repeated actions2. with adverbs (or expressions) of frequency3. Certain verbs are usually only used in the simple form verbs of the senses see- hear- smell – notice – recognize verbs of emotions want – desire – refuse – forgive – wish – care – love – hate – like – dislike verbs of thinking think – feel – realize – understand – know – mean – suppose – believe – expect – remember – forgetExample Do you see what I mean? She likes my brother very much. I suppose he realizes that now.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. for habitual and repeated actions2. with adverbs (or expressions) of frequency3. Certain verbs are usually only used in the simple form4. for something that is permanently trueExample Water boils at 100° C.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuouson the time diagram past now future I get up at 7.30 a.m. every day.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the present tense of the verb to be + present participle of the main verb.ExamplesI‟m watching television.What are you doing?He isn’t coming.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. For actions happening at the moment of speaking.ExampleShe‟s reading the newspaper.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. For actions happening at the moment of speaking.2. For a temporary state.ExampleThe company is reorganizing its services.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. For actions happening at the moment of speaking.2. For a temporary state.3. For a definite arrangement in the near future.ExampleThey‟re signing the contract tomorrow.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. For actions happening at the moment of speaking.2. For a temporary state.3. For a definite arrangement in the near future. Some verbs are not usually used in a continuous formverbs of senses see – hear – smell – notice - recognizeverbs of emotion want – desire – refuse – forgive – wish – care – love – hate – like - dislikeverbs of thinking think – feel – realize – understand – know – mean – suppose – believe – expect – remember - forgetverbs of possessing own – owe – belong - possesssome other verbs seem – appear (seem) – contain – consist – keep (continue) - matter
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuouson the time diagram past now future I‟m adjusting the rotating speed
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the present tense of the verb to have + past participle of the main verb.ExamplesI‟ve finished.Where have you been?I haven’t talked to him.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. Actions in the recent past with ‘just, recently, already, at last, lately’ExampleHe has just immersed the temperature probe into the molten steel.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. Actions in the recent past with ‘just, recently, already, at last, lately’2. General experience with ‘ever – never – before – so far’ExampleThis is the highest carbon ratio I’ve ever seen.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. Actions in the recent past with ‘just, recently, already, at last, lately’2. General experience with ‘ever – never – before – so far’3. The indefinite past: we are interested in what happened, not in when it happened.ExampleI have seen the report. (I know what it is about.)He has sold the company.They have had lunch.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSE1. Actions in the recent past with ‘just, recently, already, at last, lately’2. General experience with ‘ever – never – before – so far’3. The indefinite past: we are interested in what happened, not in when it happened.4. Actions starting in the past and continuing to the present, with ‘for’ or ‘since”.ExampleThe operation has been suspended for two months.The firm has had a Belgian branch since October last year.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuouson the time diagram relationship with the present moment past now future I „ve just arrived.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuouson the time diagram past ? ? ? now future Have you been to France?
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuouson the time diagram past now future They have revised their report.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuouson the time diagram past now future We have conducted experiments on this phenomenon for almost two years.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the present perfect of the verb to be + present participle of the main verb.ExamplesI ‘ve been writing code for our new data-mining program.Has she been trying to contact me?She hasn’t been writing at all.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuousUSEWe use this tense for actions started in the past, continuing to the present and probably continuing into the future. We often use it with “for” or “since”.ExamplesI’ ve been trying to persuade him for ten years now.We ‘ve been practicing this routine since last Wednesday.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuouson the time diagram past now future 1984 2004 I „ve been driving driving lorries for twenty years..... In this sentence, the duration is emphasized, either positively or negatively. So I know what I‟m talking about! So it‟s high time I quit.
  • present simple present present perfect present perfect continuous continuouson the time diagram past now future 1984 2004 I „ve driven a Volkswagen for twenty years..... In this sentence, the duration is indicated, but the car brand is emphasized. Clearly I have confidence in this car.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouspast past tenses
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousFORMThis tense is formed by adding -ed to the infinitive. The negativeand interrogative are formed with the past tense of the verb to do+ infinitive of the main verbExamplesThey arrived at head quarters an hour ago.When did he finalize this deal?I didn’t finish until 12 o‟clock.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. For actions completed at a definite time in the past.ExampleWe signed the contract last Friday at 2 o‟clock.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. For actions completed at a definite time in the past.2. For actions which are already completed in the past: the time is understood but not stated.ExampleDid you arrive in time?
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. For actions completed at a definite time in the past.2. For actions which are already completed in the past: the time is understood but not stated.3. The ‘unreal past tense’ is used after the verb ‘to wish’ and after words and phrases such as ‘if only; it’s time; suppose’ etc. The simple past tense implies that the speaker knows that the wish or the idea is impossible. Note that the wish refers to the present time.ExamplesIf I only knew his name.I wish I were at home now.If I were in his shoes, I would fix his wagon without much scruples.It‟s time I went home.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouson the time diagram past 15.30 now future I arrived at 15.30 sharp.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the past tense of the verb to be +present participle of the main verb.ExamplesI was watching TV at 8 o‟clock yesterday.Where were you looking for my glasses this time?I wasn’t eavesdropping at all!
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. To emphasize the continuity of the past action.ExamplesShe was playing tennis with a friend.He was discussing production planning for the coming week.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. To emphasize the continuity of the past action.2. To describe an action in progress at a certain time in the past.ExamplesAt 6 p.m. I was still sleeping.At a quarter past nine I was having breakfast.Prices were going up all the time.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. To emphasize the continuity of the past action.2. To describe an action in progress at a certain time in the past.3. To describe an interrupted past action.ExamplesWhen he arrived, I was studying the quarterly reports.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. To emphasize the continuity of the past action.2. To describe an action in progress at a certain time in the past.3. To describe an interrupted past action.4. To express repeated past actions which caused irritation, annoyance. ( with always, forever)ExamplesHe was always trying to influence the personnel director.She was forever paring her nails during meetings.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouson the time diagram past now future I was working all day yesterday.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouson the time diagram past now future I was working all day yesterday. yesterday past now future I worked all day yesterday.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouson the time diagram past now future 1. I was working all day yesterday. yesterday past now future 2. I worked all day yesterday.While (1) emphasizes the continuity of the action, (2) onlyindicates that the action took place yesterday.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouson the time diagram past now future 8.30 p.m. I was watching TV at 8.30 last night.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouson the time diagram 8.30 p.m. past now future 3. I was watching TV at 8.30 last night. 8.30 p.m. past now future 4. I watched TV at 8.30 last night.Whereas 3. indicates that the action started before and continued after a certain point intime, 4. indicates that the action happened (started) at 8.30
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouson the time diagram I was browsing through your report ... past now future when he knocked at my office door.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the past tense of the verb to have + pastparticiple of the main verb.ExamplesI had never seen so many measuring tools.What assistance had he given?He hadn’t expected this outcome.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. We use this tense to describe one past action happeningbefore another past action.ExampleThe customer had left the shop by the time I found his order form.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. We use this tense to describe one past action happening before another past action.2. We use it when necessary to indicate the sequence of two actions.ExampleHe had already cleared the screen when I got behind his desk.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. We use this tense to describe one past action happening before another past action.2. We use it when necessary to indicate the sequence of two actions.3. We often us it when the second action is understood, but not stated.ExampleI hadn’t realized! (until you told me.)
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouson the time diagram past had watched future dinner TV now 1. When I had had dinner, I watched TV. had watched past TV now future dinner 2. I had dinner before I watched TV. In (1) the sequence of actions is expressed by the past perfect tense; whereas in (2) the sequence of actions is indicated by the use of before
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the past perfect tense of the verb to be +present participle of the main verb.ExamplesShe had been working as a secretary for two years when she waspromoted.What had she been writing all day?He hadn’t been listening to that tape for that long.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. We use this tense to describe a continuous past action happening before another past action. We often use it with for + time period.ExampleWe had been waiting for thirty minutes when they arrived.
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuousUSE1. We use this tense to describe a continuous past action happening before another past action. We often use it with for + time period.2. We use this tense to emphasize the continuity or duration of the past action.ExampleI had been waiting for my exam results for six weeks. (before Igot them.)
  • past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect continuouson the time diagram past 10 minutes future now 1. I had been waiting for 10 minutes when she arrived. past now 2. I waited for 10 minutes before she arrived. Whereas in (1) the past perfect continuous indicates both the sequence of the actions and the continuity of the first action; in (2) the sequence of the actions is indicated by before. (1.) emphasizes the duration.
  • future tenses future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect continuous going to present continuouspast present simple
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSEWe use this tense to express a pure future. Actions expressed inthe simple future are bound to happen because of the courseof time. This means that the speaker has no power over theevents, that he cannot control what will happen. For this reasonthis tense is also called the uncertain future..ExamplesHe will be sixteen years old next Friday.The baby will be born next month
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. We often use this tense with particular verbs; such as think – know – believe – suppose – expect – hope to express beliefs, convictions, hope, expectations, knowledge and opinions about the future.ExamplesI think Brazil will win.I don‟t suppose she will be promoted now
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. We often use this tense with particular verbs; such as think – know – believe – suppose – expect – hope to express beliefs, convictions, hope, expectations, knowledge and opinions about the future.2. We often use it with particular adverbs such as: probably – possibly –perhaps to express uncertainty about the future.ExamplesHe will probably ask the general manager.This matter will probably not be raised before the commission‟sfirst meeting
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. We often use this tense with particular verbs; such as think – know – believe – suppose – expect – hope to express beliefs, convictions, hope, expectations, knowledge and opinions about the future.2. We often use it with particular adverbs such as: probably – possibly –perhaps to express uncertainty about the future.3. The simple present is used in conditional clauses and time clauses. The simple future is used in the main clause (not in the if-clause).ExamplesHe ‘ll help you if you ask him.I „ll tell him the news as soon as I see him.He ‘ll be arrested the moment he sets foot on Schengen soil.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the present tense of the verb to be +going to + infinitive of the main verb.ExamplesI‟ m going to watch this football match on TV tonight.What are you going to do about this ?She isn’t going to give this party next week
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. We use this tense to talk about present intentions and plans for future actions.ExamplesI „m going to pass my exams next month.I „m going to spend two weeks in Spain this summer.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. We use this tense to talk about present intentions and plans for future actions.2. We also use going to in order to express subjective certainty on the part of the speaker.ExamplesThis boat is going to sink.It‟s going to rain, by the look
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. We use this tense to indicate definite future arrangements, actions planned in the near future. We nearly always use a future time expression with it.ExamplesHe ‘s starting his new job next Monday.I‟ m taking the 11 o‟clock train to Berlin
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. We use this tense to indicate definite future arrangements, actions planned in the near future. We nearly always use a future time expression with it.Note: do not confuse intention ( to be + going to + verb) and arrangement (to be + present participle).ExamplesI‟m going to stay in London. = intentionI‟m going to London next weekend = arrangement
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the infinitive of the main verb. Thenegative and interrogative are formed with the present tense of todo + infinitiveExamplesThe plane takes off at 7.30 local time.The match begins at 14.00 hours.You leave from Kennedy airport at noon, and arrive in Paris at15.00 hours GMT.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSEWe use this tense to talk about planned future actions. Weusually use it to describe travel plans, time tables, departures,arrivals.ExamplesThe bus leaves at 15.30.The reception starts at 19.00 hours.The ferry leaves Dover at 12.30 tomorrow and we arrive at Calaisat 13.15.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the future simple of to be + presentparticiple of the main verb.ExamplesWe‟ ll be flying to Rome this time next week.What will you be doing this time next week?They won’t be sitting in the classroom at 6 o‟clock tomorrow.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSEWe use this tense for actions that will be in progress at acertain time in the future.ExamplesAt 11.45 next Friday, I „ ll be doing my chemistry exam.I‟ ll be hiking through the States this time next year.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuouson the time diagram past now futureThis time next week I‟ll be taking my driving test.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. The future continuous is also used to express long-term arrangements, especially for travelling.ExamplesThe band will be travelling through Scandinavia at the end of themonth. They will be giving three performances there.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. The future continuous is also used to express long-term arrangements, especially for travelling.2. The future continuous is also used to ask very polite questions about future activities. By using the future continuous tense, the speaker asking the questions shows that he does not want to influence the other person‟s decision in any way at all.ExamplesWhere will you be having dinner, Sir? (secretary to boss)What will you be having, Madam? (waiter to customer)
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSE1. The future continuous is also used to express long-term arrangements, especially for travelling.2. The future continuous is also used to ask very polite questions about future activities. By using the future continuous tense, the speaker asking the questions shows that he does not want to influence the other person‟s decision in any way at all.3. The future continuous is also used to make deductions aboutExamples happening at the moment of speaking. what isHe will be working in his garden now. Otherwise, he would haveheard the phone.She hasn‟t begun making up the beds. She will still be doing thewashing up.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousFORM This tense is formed with will + have + past participle of the mainverb.ExamplesThey ‘ll have finalized their business by noon.Will they have copied all that material by Friday morning?They won’t have organized this course by the end of this year.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSEWe use this tense to describe actions which we know will (orwill not) be completed by a certain time in the future.ExamplesI „ll have finished this book by the end of the week.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuouson the time diagram past now futureExamples end of next weekBy the end of next week, I‟ll have finished my exams.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousFORMThis tense is formed with the future perfect tense of to be +present participle of rthe main verb.ExamplesBy the end of this year, we „ll have been experimenting with thispolymer for more than three months.How long will you have been living in that shack by the end of thisyear?I won’t have been living here for more than five years by the endof this year.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuousUSEWe use this tense to describe continuous and repeated actionswhich begin before a certain time in the future and willprobably continue after that time.ExamplesBy the end of this academic year, I‟ll have been teaching for 30years.
  • future simple future continuous future perfect future perfect going to ... present present simple continuous continuouson the time diagram past future now end of this academic yearExampleBy the end of this academic year, I‟ll have been teaching for 30years.