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  1. 1. SECOND COURSE GRAMMAR<br /> 7<br />CHAPTER-7<br />
  2. 2. Explain the function of a pronoun in a sentence.<br />Objectives<br />Use nominative (subjective), objective, and possessive case pronouns correctly.<br />Differentiate between personal possessive pronouns and contractions.<br />Use compound personal pronouns correctly.<br />continued<br />PP 7-1a<br />
  3. 3. continued<br />Recognize demonstrative and indefinite pronouns.<br />Objectives<br />Recognize differences in the use of interrogative and relative pronouns.<br />Use who and whom correctly in sentences.<br />PP 7-1b<br />
  4. 4. Definition of a Pronoun<br />A pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun.<br />A personal pronoun refers to<br />a person or thing. A personal <br />pronoun refers to . . . .<br />PP 7-2<br />
  5. 5. Cases of Pronouns<br />Pronouns have three cases:<br />Nominative (Subjective)<br />Objective<br />Possessive<br />The case depends on the pronoun’s function in the sentence.<br />A first-person pronoun is the one speaking.<br />A second-person pronoun is the one spoken to.<br />A third-person pronoun is the one spoken about.<br />PP 7-3<br />
  6. 6. I<br />we<br />you<br />you<br />he, she, it<br />they<br />Nominative CasePersonal Pronouns<br />The following pronouns are nominative case pronouns.<br />Singular<br />Plural<br />First Person<br />Second Person<br />Third Person<br />PP 7-4<br />
  7. 7. Using Nominative Case<br />Use nominative case when the personal pronoun is the subject of a verb.<br />He sends e-mail messages to a customer in Spain.<br />I use the telephone frequently, but she prefers to use e-mail.<br />You can send an e-mail message to many people at once.<br />It is inexpensive to use e-mail for communication.<br />PP 7-5a<br />
  8. 8. continued<br /> Using Nominative Case<br />Use the nominative case when the personal pronoun is a subject complement and follows a linking verb.<br />The most competent technician is she.<br />The supervisors are Jackie and he.<br />PP 7-5b<br />
  9. 9. continued<br /> Using Nominative Case<br />Use the nominative case when the personal pronoun is in apposition to a subject.<br />The e-mail administrators—Hugh and she—maintain our computer system on the weekends.<br />When an appositive follows a pronoun, choose the case of the pronoun that would be correct if the appositive were omitted.<br />We employees solve many problems through our Website instructions or by e-mail.<br />PP 7-5c<br />
  10. 10. continued<br /> Using Nominative Case<br />Use the nominative case when the personal pronoun is in apposition to a subject.<br />The e-mail administrators—Hugh and she—maintain our computer system on the weekends.<br />When an appositive follows a pronoun, choose the case of the pronoun that would be correct if the appositive were omitted.<br />We employees solve many problems through our Website instructions or by e-mail.<br />PP 7-5c<br />
  11. 11. me<br />us<br />you<br />you<br />him, her, it<br />them<br />Objective CasePersonal Pronouns<br />The following pronouns are objective case pronouns.<br />Singular<br />Plural<br />First Person<br />Second Person<br />Third Person<br />PP 7-6<br />
  12. 12. Using Objective Case<br />Use the objective case of personal pronouns when the pronouns are direct or indirect objects of verbs.<br />Megan asked her for a copy of the report.<br />My friend gave him my e-mail address.<br />The e-mail security presentation impressed Noberto and me.<br />PP 7-7a<br />
  13. 13. continued<br />Using Objective Case<br />Use the objective case when personal pronouns are the objects of prepositions.<br />I received two e-mail messages from her today.<br />Michelle spoke with us about Internet scams.<br />Megan sent the e-mail attachment instructions to Leo and him.<br />PP 7-7b<br />
  14. 14. continued<br />Using Objective Case<br />Use the objective case for a pronoun that is in apposition to a direct object.<br />Please call a help desk technician, Ben or me.<br />Use the objective case for a pronoun that is in apposition to an indirect object.<br />The company offered two employees, Brenda and her, specialized network security training.<br />PP 7-7c<br />
  15. 15. continued<br />Using Objective Case<br />Use the objective case for a pronoun that is in apposition to an object of a preposition.<br />The company offered specialized network security training to two employees, Brenda and her.<br />Suzanne e-mails the weekly sales figures to us managers.<br />PP 7-7d<br />
  16. 16. my, mine<br />our, ours<br />you, yours<br />your, yours<br />his, her/hers, its<br />their, theirs<br />Possessive CasePersonal Pronouns<br />Possessive pronouns indicate ownership. The following pronouns are possessive case pronouns.<br />Singular<br />Plural<br />First Person<br />Second Person<br />Third Person<br />PP 7-8<br />
  17. 17. Using Possessive Pronouns<br />Use the possessive pronouns my, your, her, his, its, our, and their to modify the nouns that follow. These possessive pronouns function as adjectives in sentences.<br />His advice about avoiding e-mail viruses was valuable.<br />We prefer to e-mail our company newsletter.<br />Change your password by Friday.<br />PP 7-9a<br />
  18. 18. continued<br />Using Possessive Pronouns<br />Do not use the possessive pronouns mine, yours, his, hers, ours, and theirs as modifiers before nouns. These pronouns stand alone and are separated from the nouns to which they refer.<br />The responsibility is yours if an attachment with a virus is opened.<br />His was the only e-mail message that I read today.<br />PP 7-9b<br />
  19. 19. Contractions and Possessive Pronouns<br />Several contractions and possessive pronouns sound alike and may cause writing difficulties.<br />These pronouns may be confusing:<br />itsit’s <br />their they’re <br />theirs there’s<br />your you’re<br />PP 7-10a<br />
  20. 20. continued<br />Contractions and Possessive Pronouns<br />Do not use the contraction it’s (a shortened form for it is) in place of its, the personal pronoun.<br />It’s difficult to use this e-mail system.<br />The company asked its employees to send their travel expenses by e-mail.<br />PP 7-10b<br />
  21. 21. continued<br />Contractions and Possessive Pronouns<br />Do not use the contraction you’re (a shortened form of you are) in place of your, the personal pronoun.<br />You’re responsible for the content of your e-mail messages.<br />You sent your e-mail message yesterday, but you’re aware that I did not receive it.<br />PP 7-10c<br />
  22. 22. continued<br />Contractions and Possessive Pronouns<br />Do not use the contraction they’re (a shortened form of they are) in place of their, the personal pronoun.<br />They’re installing our new e-mail software tomorrow.<br />Do not use the contraction there’s (shortened form for there is or there has) in place of theirs, the possessive pronoun.<br />There’s a way to cancel my print job as well as theirs through our network connection.<br />PP 7-10d<br />
  23. 23. The following are compound personal pronouns: <br />myself himself ourselves themselves<br />yourself herself yourselves itself<br />Compound Personal Pronouns <br />Compound personal pronouns consist of a personal pronoun and the suffix selfor selves.<br />Use a compound personal pronoun to add emphasis or to refer to a previously named noun or pronoun.<br />PP 7-11a<br />
  24. 24. continued<br />Compound Personal Pronouns <br />The words hisself, ourselfs, theirself, theirselves, yourselfs, or themselfs are not standard English words.<br />Use the intensive compound personal pronoun to add emphasis to a noun or to another pronoun.<br />Joan herself assured us our e-mail was not monitored.<br />I myself use e-mail every day.<br />PP 7-11b<br />
  25. 25. continued<br />Compound Personal Pronouns <br />Use the reflexive compound pronoun to refer to a noun or pronoun that is used as the subject of a sentence.<br />I gave myself a much needed vacation from my computer.<br />The employees taught themselves the new e-mail system.<br />PP 7-11c<br />
  26. 26. this<br />these<br />that<br />those<br />Demonstrative Pronouns <br />This classification of pronouns designates specific persons, places, or things. The following pronouns are demonstrative pronouns. <br />Singular<br />Plural<br />PP 7-12a<br />
  27. 27. continued<br />Demonstrative Pronouns <br />Use demonstrative pronouns to point out specific persons, places, or things. When these demonstrative pronouns modify nouns, they function as adjectives. <br />These are the messages that we received yesterday.<br />We should have sent these messages this morning.<br />PP 7-12b<br />
  28. 28. Indefinite Pronouns <br />Indefinite pronouns refer to persons, places, or things in a general way. <br />PP 7-13a<br />
  29. 29. continued<br />Indefinite Pronouns <br />all both everything no one<br /> another each few none <br /> any either many nothing<br /> anybody enough most one<br /> anyone neither everybody other<br /> anything nobody everyone others<br /> several some somebody someone<br /> something<br />Indefinite pronouns are not precise or exact.<br />PP 7-13b<br />
  30. 30. continued<br />Indefinite Pronouns <br />Use an indefinite pronoun to refer to persons, places, and things spoken about in a general way.<br />Everyone needs an up-to-date e-mail address book. <br />Many are not deleting e-mail messages from their inbox.<br />Some think that the delete key permanently erases e-mail and that nobody will ever see it.<br />PP 7-13c<br />
  31. 31. Interrogative Pronouns <br />Use interrogative pronouns to form direct and indirect questions.<br />Use a question mark at the end of a direct question and a period after an indirect question.<br />The following pronouns are interrogative:<br /> who what whose<br /> which whom whatever<br /> whoever whomever whichever<br />PP 7-14a<br />
  32. 32. continued<br /> Interrogative Pronouns <br />Examples – Direct Questions<br />Who has two or more e-mail accounts?<br />To whom will you send that message?<br />What is the name of your e-mail service provider?<br />Whatever happened to the Word attachment that I sent you?<br />PP 7-14b<br />
  33. 33. Relative Pronouns <br />Relative and interrogative pronouns are similar. (That is the major addition to the list.)<br /> who which whoever whichever <br /> whom that whomever whose<br />PP 7-15<br />
  34. 34. Case<br />Pronoun<br />Nominative<br />who, whoever<br />Objective<br />whom, whomever<br />Possessive<br />whose<br />Relative PronounsWho, Whom, Whose<br />Relate to people.<br />Require different forms for each case.<br />PP 7-16<br />
  35. 35. Relative Pronouns - That<br />Relate to things and persons (only when a class or type of person is meant).<br />Restrict the meaning of the sentence, making the words that follow necessary to the meaning of the sentence.<br />TheInternet service provider that installed our network provides 24-hour online assistance.<br />Wereceived an e-mail attachment that contained video files.<br />PP 7-17<br />
  36. 36. Relative Pronouns - Which<br />Refers primarily to things.<br />Introduces nonrestrictive (nonessential clauses).<br />Somee-mail services provide instant messaging systems, which allow you to chat with your friends.<br />Thise-mail software, which I downloaded from the Internet, eliminates junk e-mail.<br />PP 7-18<br />
  37. 37. Use of Who or Whoever<br />Who and whoever are nominative case pronouns.<br />(I, we, he, she, or they could substitute)<br />Use who or whoever to refer to persons.<br />Managers who do not use e-mail seem outdated. (They do not use e-mail.)<br />Whoever designed this laptop had my needs in mind. (She designed this laptop.)<br />PP 7-19<br />
  38. 38. Use of Whom or Whomever<br />Whom and whomever are objective case pronouns.<br /> Use whom or whomever to refer to persons.<br />(me, us, him, her, orthemcould substitute)<br />Serena Brewer, whom you met last week, saves all her important e-mail on a disk. (You met her last week.)<br />To whom was that last message addressed? (The message was addressed to him.)<br />PP 7-20a<br />
  39. 39. continued<br />Use of Whom or Whomever<br />Additional examples–<br />This is the person whomI taught how to use e-mail. (I taught her to use e-mail.)<br />Juan will hire whomever is most qualified. (Juan will hire him.)<br />Jim Darnell, for whom we have great respect, is now working for Lucent Technologies. (We have great respect for him.)<br />PP 7-20b<br />
  40. 40. Use of Whose and Who’s<br />Use the relative pronoun whose to show ownership.<br />Do not use an apostrophe with this possessive form of the pronoun.<br />Do not use the contraction who’s (who is, who has) to show possession.<br />PP 7-21a<br />
  41. 41. continued<br />Use of Whose and Who’s<br />Examples<br />Whose computer had problems accessing the network?<br />We wonder whose e-mail system is the easiest to use.<br />Who’s the best person for troubleshooting PC problems?<br />Who’s responsible for monitoring Web-based e-mail accounts?<br />PP 7-21b<br />
  42. 42. End of<br />
  43. 43. CHAPTER 8<br />ADVERBS<br />
  44. 44. 8<br />ADVERBS<br />An adverb is a single word or phrase that tells us more about a verb, an adjective a phrase or another adverb.<br />KINDS OF ADVERBS<br />ADVERBS OF MANNER (HOW?)<br />FORM. To make an adverb of manner we often add “ly” to the adjective <br /><ul><li>Quiet quietly / slow slowly / bravebravely /
  45. 45. beautifulbeautifully</li></ul>SPELLING NOTES<br /><ul><li>A final “y” following a consonant change the “y” to “I” before the suffix.</li></ul> happy happily.<br /><ul><li>A final “e” is retained. </li></ul> extreme extremely<br />Exceptions : <br /> true  truly / whole  wholly<br /><ul><li>Adjectives ending in “able”/”ible” drop the final “e” and add “y”</li></ul>capablecapably /  sensible sensibly<br />
  46. 46.
  48. 48. 8<br />ADVERBS<br />USED AS ADJECTIVES USED AS ADVERBS.<br />The back door(la puerta de atrás) Come back son (vuelve pronto)<br />A fast train (un trenrápdo) The train went fast ( el trenibarápido)<br />Theworkishard (el trabajo es duro/difícil) Theyworkhard (ellos trabajan duro/mucho/con energía)<br />You look ill (parecesenfermo) An ill-made road (unacarretera mal hecha)<br />You look well (tienesbuenaspecto) I am very well, thanks (estoymuybien, gracias)<br />The right answer (la respuestaorrecta) Turn right here ( gire a la derechaaquí)<br />I have straight hair (tengo el pelo, liso) She went straight home(ella se fuédirectamente a casa)<br />This is the wrong way(estaes la forma/maneraequivocada) He led us wrong(nosguió mal)<br />Starred words above also have “ly” form. Note the meanings:<br /><ul><li>Deeply is used chiefly of feelingsHe was deeply offended (fueofendidoprofundamente)
  49. 49. Directly can be used of time or connectionHe’ll be here directly(very soon)</li></ul> The new laws will affect us directly<br /><ul><li>Hardly is chiefly used with “any”, “ever”, “at all”, or the verb “Can”
  50. 50. He has hardly any money(casi no tienedinero) </li></li></ul><li>8<br />ADVERBS<br /><ul><li>I hardly ever go out with my classmates(casinuncasalgo con miscompañeros de clase)
  51. 51. It hardly rained at all (casi no llovió)
  52. 52. Her case is so heavy that she can hardly can lift it(sumaletaes tan pesadaquecasi no puedelevantarla)
  53. 53. I am nearly ready=I am almost ready(casiestoylista)
  54. 54. Have you seen him lately?=Have you seen him recently? (Lo has vistoúltimamente?) </li></ul>NOTE-ADJECTIVES ENDING EN .”LY” CANNNOT BE USED AS ADVERBS AND HAVE NO ADVERB FORM.To supply this deficiency we use a similar adverb or adveb phrase.<br /><ul><li>She smiles in a friendly way (ellasonríeamigablemente)
  55. 55. She is a friendly woman(ellaesunamujeramigable)
  56. 56. She welcomed us warmly(nosrecibióamigablemente)
  57. 57. Likely=adjective=probable/It is likely that it will rain today(es probable quehoyllueva)</li></li></ul><li>8<br />ADVERBS<br />POSITION OF ADVERBS OF MANNER<br />Adverbs of manner come after the verb or after the object when there is one<br /><ul><li>She danced beautifully(ellabailómaravillosamente)
  58. 58. She speaks English well (Ella habla ingles bien)</li></ul>Adverbs of place<br />Adverbs of place tell us where something happened, happens or will take place.<br />POSITION. We usually put the adverb of place after the verb and its object when there is one .<br /><ul><li>She went away(ella se fué)
  59. 59. He livesabroad(ella vive en el extranjero)
  60. 60. Bill isupstairs( Bill está en el piso de arriba)
  61. 61. Archie ate the fish under the table (Archie comió el pezdebajo de la mesa)</li></li></ul><li>8<br />ADVERBS<br />Adverbs of time<br />An adverb of time tell us when something happened, happens or will take place .We usually put the adverb of time at the beginning or end of a sentence.<br />With compound tenses, “afterwards”,”eventually”, “lately”,”now”,”recently”,”soon!”, can come after the auxiliary.<br /><ul><li>We will soon be there(pronto estaremosallí)
  62. 62. Yesterday I saw her at the supermarket( Ayer lo ví en el supermercado)
  63. 63. I saw him at the supermarket yesterday (Ayer lo ví en el supermercado)</li></ul>ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY<br />An adverb of frequency tell us how often we do something or something happens.<br />Adverbs of frequency are normally placed:<br /><ul><li>After the simple tenses of “to be”
  64. 64. He is always in time for meals (El siemprellega a tiempo a comer)
  65. 65. Before the simple tenses of all other verbs.
  66. 66. Theysometimesstay up allnightlong (ellos a veces están levantados toda la noche)
  67. 67. With compound tenses, they are placed after the first auxiliary, or with interrogative verbs after auxiliary +subject.
  68. 68. He can never understand(el nuncaentiende)
  69. 69. Have you ever ridden a camel? (¿Has montado en camello alguna vez?</li></li></ul><li>8<br />ADVERBS<br />ORDER OF ADVERBS OF MANNER, PLACE AND TIME WHEN THEY OCCUR IN THE SAME SENTENCE<br />Expressions of manner usually precede expressions of place.<br /><ul><li>He climbed awkward out of the window (El saltótorpementepor la ventyana)
  70. 70. John walked slowly out of the room )John salió de la habitación lentamente)</li></ul>But “away”, “back”,”down”,”forward”,”home”,”in”,”out”,”round”, and “up”, usually precfede adverbs of manner.<br /><ul><li>He walked away sadly (Se fuétristemente)
  71. 71. Theywent home quietly(se fueron a casa tranquilamente)
  72. 72. She looked back anxiously (Ella miróatrásansiosamente)</li></ul>TIME EXPRESSIONS CAN BE EITHER AT THE BEGINNING OR AT THE END AFTER THE ADVERBS OF MANNER AND PLACE.<br /><ul><li>They worked hard in the garden yesterday (ellostrabajaronduro en el jardínayer)
  73. 73. He lived there happily for a year (ellosvivieronfelicesallídurante un año)</li></li></ul><li>8<br />ADVERBS<br />Sentence adverbs<br />These adverbs modify the whole sentence or clause and notmally express the speaker opinion.<br /><ul><li>He isobviuouslyclever (El obviamente es inteligente)</li></ul>These adverb can be placed :<br /><ul><li>After simple tenses of “to be” or an auxiliary or modal verb.
  74. 74. He’sprobably at home now (El probablemente está en casa ahora)
  75. 75. She can probably do thejob (es obvio que ella puede hacer el trabajo)
  76. 76. Before simple tenses of another verb.
  77. 77. He probably knows your address(El probablementesabetuditrección)
  78. 78. Sheobviouslylikesyou(Es obvio que le gustas(a ella))
  79. 79. After the first auxiliary in a compound verb:
  80. 80. They have evidently sold their house (Es evidentequehanvendidosu casa)
  81. 81. In negative sentences they go before the negation.
  82. 82. He certainlyisn’t at home now( es seguro que no está en casa ahora)
  83. 83. At the beginning or at the end of a sentence.
  84. 84. Perhaps I’ll see you later (quizásteveamástarde)</li></li></ul><li>8<br />ADVERBS<br /><ul><li>Maybe you’re right ( a lo major tienesrazón)
  85. 85. Actually she speaks English really well ( verdaderamenteellahabla ingles muybien)
  86. 86. Shee speaks English really well actually</li></ul>ADVERBS OF DEGREE<br />An adverb of degree modifies an adjective ort another adverb. It’s placed before the adjective opr the adverb.<br /><ul><li>You are absolutely right (tienestoda la razón)
  87. 87. I am almost ready (Casiestoylista)</li></ul>NOTE- But “enough” follows the adjective or adverb<br /><ul><li>The box isn’tbigenough (la caja no es suficientemente grande)
  88. 88. He didn’tworkhardenough (No trabaja lo suficiente)</li></li></ul><li>8<br />ADVERBS<br />
  89. 89. 8<br />ADVERBS<br />
  90. 90. END OF<br />CHAPTER 8<br />ADVERBS<br />