35 Years of IFAD in Nepal booklet

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  • 1. 35 YEARS IN NEPALEnabling poor rural peopleto overcome poverty
  • 2. Prepared by : Bashu Aryal, Country Programme Officer for Nepal, Lorina Sthapit and Kaushal Shrestha Front Cover: © IFAD, Lorina Sthapit Back Cover: © IFAD, Kaushal Shrestha © 2013 by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) January 20132 IFAD Nepal
  • 3. Table of ContentsMessage from the Joint Secretary of Ministry of Finance 2Message from the Country Programme Manager 3 IFAD | Enabling Poor Rural People to Overcome Poverty 7Why does IFAD intervene in Nepal? 8IFADs strategy in Nepal 11Country Strategic Opportunities Programme 12IFAD Nepal | History of Cooperation 16Ongoing Projects 17 Agricultural Development Strategy 30Completed Projects 31Monitoring and Evaluation 41IFAD’s Financing 44Disbursement 44Beneficiaries 45Contacts 46
  • 4. Message from the Joint Secretary of Ministry of Finance I am pleased to note that the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) has completed 35 years of operation in Nepal. It is a great pleasure for me that the IFAD Country Office in Nepal is planning to publish a booklet on this occasion. Nepal was one of the first countries to benefit from IFAD. Since 1977, IFAD has made tremendous efforts to help the poor in rural areas of Nepal to overcome poverty for which we pay our sincere gratitude. During these 35 years, IFAD has provided a total of US$152.8 million in loans and US$36 million in grants for a total of 16 projects across Nepal, benefitting more than 800,000 households. This booklet highlights the successful partnership between the Government of Nepal and IFAD. Recently, IFAD extended a loan and grant of US$39 million to Nepal for a new seven- year project, Kisankalagi Unnat Biu-Bijan Karyakram (Improved Seeds for Farmers Programme) with the goal of promoting inclusive, competitive and sustainable agricultural growth. This project opens more avenues to improve lives of the rural poor in Nepal. With about 76% of Nepal’s population depending on agriculture for their livelihoods, there has been little progress in reducing rural poverty through the development of agriculture. Together, IFAD and Nepal are striving towards alleviating poverty in the country through sustainable development policies and programmes in the agricultural sector of Nepal. We express sincere appreciation for IFAD’s support and hope to continue this cooperation in the future towards agricultural development in Nepal. Mr. Madhu Kumar Marasini Joint Secretary, Ministry of Finance2 IFAD Nepal
  • 5. Message from the Country Programme ManagerWith this New Year 2013, we are commemorating 35 years of cooperation andsuccessful partnership between IFAD and the Government of Nepal.This booklet is the opportunity to take stock of our activities in favour of the mostvulnerable rural people, before entering a new strategic phase of 6 years with the newCOSOP 2013-2018 under formulation.IFAD is the only international development institution established exclusively tohelp reduce poverty and food insecurity in rural areas of developing countries. Ourgoal is to empower the rural poor - men and women, youth and vulnerable groups- to help them increase their incomes and improve their food security. We believethat it is possible to overcome rural poverty, but this requires finding long-termsolutions, including: appropriate policies at national and international level, increasinginvestment in small family farms, strengthening the capacity of the rural poor and theirorganizations. IFAD supports Governments, small farmers organizations and otherdevelopment partners to work hand in hand to transform rural economies and createopportunities to improve sustainably the living conditions of rural communities.You will read in the following pages the achievements of 5 on-going IFAD fundedprojects as well as past projects in Nepal. IFAD and the Government are committedto strengthen grass root level organisations (WUPAP and PAF projects), make valuechains more profitable to smallholders (HVAP) and develop leasehold forestry (LFLP)and seeds and livestock (IFSP). Grant portfolio and policy dialogue are also importantactivities going on various innovative topics regarding agriculture development.IFAD is fully aligned with international aid effectiveness agenda by structure and byprocesses, within our dual mandate as an International Finance Institution and as aspecialized United Nations agency. In 2013 we will continue to strengthen fiduciarysystems and continue using strengthened government systems. IFAD Nepal 3
  • 6. The evaluation of the IFAD portfolio in 2012 ranked the programme 4 on scale of 6 (moderately satisfactory). The challenge for the years ahead are to improve performance of the projects at grassroots level, measure appropriately their impact on the livelihoods of the poor households and give life to the country programme concept. This will be done through enhanced team building and participatory approach with development partners from public and private sector and civil society organisations. We wish you a good reading and if interested, do not hesitate to contact IFAD funded projects and IFAD office in Nepal for more information or cooperation. Benoit THIERRY Country Program Manager © IFAD, Lorina Sthapit4 IFAD Nepal
  • 7. IFAD Nepal 5
  • 8. 6 IFAD Nepal
  • 9. IFAD Enabling Poor Rural People to Overcome PovertyThe International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), a specialized agencyof the United Nations based in Rome, was established as an international financialinstitution in 1977 following the 1974 World Food Conference. It is a unique partnershipof 168 members of the Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC),other developing countries and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation andDevelopment (OECD).IFADs goal is to enable poor rural people of developing countries to improve theirfood security and nutrition, raise their incomes and strengthen their resilience. Workingwith poor rural people, organisations, governments, donors, non-governmentalinstitutions and many other partners, IFAD focuses on country-specific solutions,which can involve increasing poor rural people’s access to financial services, markets,technology, land and other natural resources. Through low-interest loans and grants,IFAD works to develop and finance programmes and projects that enable rural poorpeople to overcome poverty themselves.IFAD tackles poverty not only as a lender, but also as an advocate for rural poorpeople. Its multilateral base provides a natural global platform on agriculture todiscuss important policy issues that influence the lives of rural poor people, as wellas to draw attention to the centrality of rural development to meeting the MillenniumDevelopment Goals (MDG).Since starting operations in 1978, IFAD has invested about US$13.9 billion in grantsand low-interest loans to 100 developing countries through projects empoweringabout 400 million people to break out of poverty, thereby helping to strengthenvibrant rural communities.© IFAD, Suraj Ratna Shakya IFAD Nepal 7
  • 10. Why does IFAD intervene in Nepal? Nepal is one of the least developed countries in the world, with a population of 26.6 million and a per capita gross domestic product (GDP) of about $630 (World Bank 2011). Approximately 83% of the population live in rural areas, and nearly one fourth of the total population live below the national poverty line. Nepal’s economy is dominated by agriculture, which accounts for one third of the GDP and employs more than two thirds of the total population. Landlocked between India and China, Nepal has a total area of 147,181 square kilometres, and altitude ranging from below 100 to above 8800 meters. Nepal is rich in biodiversity, and has a huge potential for niche agricultural products, with abundant natural resources, and various agro-climatic conditions favourable for the development of food as well as cash crops. However, the physical isolation and rugged terrain in Nepal’s hilly and mountainous regions makes it difficult to promote economic activities and deliver services. Political instability has been another major concern to developmental efforts in Nepal in the recent years. Following the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed between the Government and the Maoists in 2006, Nepal is currently transitioning from a decade-long conflict fuelled by the inherent inequalities within Nepali society. Political uncertainty, however, remains high in 2012 with no agreement in relation to the key issue of the governance structure and the formation of the new constitution. Despite of these obstacles, Nepal has achieved notable gains in poverty reduction, from a poverty incidence of 42% in 1996 to 31% in 2006, and to 25% in 2010. In addition to the expansion of road and communication networks in the country, this gain was mainly supported by the significant increase in remittances. Inadequate economic opportunities and the recent conflict resulted in migration of the youths from villages to cities, neighbouring countries and abroad, in search of alternative livelihoods. With about 1000 men travelling abroad for work everyday, remittances now constitute a significant proportion of Nepal’s GDP (23% in 2011).8 IFAD Nepal
  • 11. Pink buckwheat fields found across the hilly regions of Nepal.© IFAD, Kaushal ShresthaNepal has exceptional agricultural potentialto be developed, with abundant naturalresources, various agro-climatic conditionsfavourable for the development of food as wellas cash crops, including non-timber products,and medicinal and aromatic plants. IFAD Nepal 9
  • 12. Humla is among the most physically and economically isolated regions of Nepal. © IFAD, Suraj Ratna Shakya However, poverty remains severe, with serious problems of food security and malnutrition, especially in the hilly and mountainous regions. And the poor performance of the agricultural sector is a major cause. Poor farmers in rural areas have little access to agricultural equipment, financing, social and economic infrastructures, resulting in production systems that are mainly subsistence oriented. Furthermore, the growing migration of youths is leading to the feminization of agriculture in Nepal. Constituting more than 60% of the agricultural labour force today, women are sustaining the rural economy, but have little access to land, production technology and training. IFAD’s support is concentrated on these very villages and communities, where agriculture provides sufficient food and money to feed the family for less than three to nine months of the year.10 IFAD Nepal
  • 13. IFADs Strategy in NepalIn the present context of conflict resolution, IFADs strategy in Nepal is focused onsupporting the development policies and programmes of the government and otherpartners, especially in relation to peace building, reconciliation, reconstruction andeconomic recovery. More than ever, IFADs interventions in Nepal underscore theseefforts by addressing the issues of poverty, inequality and social marginalizationthat lie at the heart of the conflict. In particular IFAD continues to direct its supporttowards the hill and mountain areas, where poverty levels are very high and access toinfrastructure, services and markets is extremely limited.Interventions are designed to:• Help provide infrastructure and services• Target the most marginalized ethnic and social groups• Improve income-generating opportunities• Promote good governance and peace-building• Support interventions that promote community cohesion and resilience IFAD Nepal 11
  • 14. Country Strategic Opportunities Programme (COSOP) A country strategic opportunities programme (COSOP) is a framework for making strategic choices about IFAD operations in a country, identifying opportunities for IFAD financing and related partnerships, and facilitating management for results. Designed with respect to the countrys poverty reduction strategy and planning framework, the document reviews the specific rural poverty situation as a basis for determining geographic sites where IFAD will operate. It also highlights the innovation that IFAD intends to promote in the country programme. Furthermore, the COSOP includes an overview of IFADs previous operations and the lessons learned, particularly from evaluation studies, and integrates these lessons into future operational directions. COSOP I (2001-2006) The first COSOP for Nepal was implemented for a period of six years from 2001 to 2006. Prepared and approved by the IFAD Executive Board in 2000, this COSOP was formulated on the basis of the Government’s 9th Plan and the Agricultural Perspective Plan. The strategic thrust of this COSOP was sustainable livelihoods and social justice through a programme focused on remote, isolated and disadvantaged areas of the Mid- and Far-Western Hills and Mountain regions. The projects targeted dalits, janajatis, women and the poorest sections of the society. During this COSOP period, two projects, Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project and Poverty Alleviation Project in Western Terai, were under implementation, and subsequently completed. Two new loan projects, Western Uplands Poverty Alleviation Project (2003) and Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Programme (2005), were also designed and initiated during the COSOP period. The projects implemented during this COSOP had three major components: • Provision of access to natural resources in the form of 40-year leasehold forest land allocation • Rural financial services using three different modes of delivery • Community infrastructure12 IFAD Nepal
  • 15. With her daughter perched behind, a woman plucks fresh spinach for dinner.© IFAD, Kaushal ShresthaWomen constitute more than 60% of theagricultural labour force today, but have littleaccess to land, production technology andtraining, resulting in production systems thatare mainly subsistence oriented. IFAD Nepal 13
  • 16. According to the country portfolio review (CPR), undertaken in May-June 2006 to inform the second COSOP process, IFAD operations during COSOP I were successful in terms of effectiveness, with significant positive impact on the physical assets and productivity of the target groups. In addition, the review identified farmers’ organizations, research and extension services, accountability and transparency in rural areas, access to markets, and access to land and water as specific focus areas for future IFAD operations. COSOP II (2007-2012) Approved by the IFAD Executive Board in December 2006, the second COSOP provided opportunities for IFAD’s contribution to poverty reduction, reconciliation and post-conflict reconstruction over six years (2007-2012) fully aligning with the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PSR) of the government. Reflecting on the CPR 2006, the second COSOP focused on improving access to infrastructure, services and markets to tackle acute rural poverty in the hill and mountain areas. COSOP II had three strategic objectives that correspond to the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) Pillars of the Government of Nepal, as presented below: PRS Pillars COSOP Strategic Objectives I. Increased access to economic opportunities I. High and broad- based by poor farmers and producers in hill and economic growth mountain areas II. Improved community infrastructure and services II. Social sector development in hill and mountain areas III. A reduction in gender-, ethnic- and caste- III. Social inclusion and targeted related disparities through greater inclusion of programmes disadvantaged groups in development Cross-cutting theme:  Support improvements in IV. Good governance local governance and peace-building14 IFAD Nepal
  • 17. Pinara Khola Micro Hydro Power, built with support from IFAD’s Western UplandsPoverty Alleviation Project, can generate up to 11 KMW of electricity for 135 housesin Kharpunath, Humla.© IFAD, Suraj Ratna ShakyaA country programme evaluation (CPE), implemented in 2012 by the IndependentOffice of Evaluation of IFAD, concluded on the fair performance of the countryprogramme, giving it a score of 4 on a scale of 6.Marking the end of COSOP II in December 2012, consultations have alreadystarted with the Government of Nepal in formulating the third COSOP (2013-2018).The new COSOP is being designed based on CPE conclusions and Governmentof Nepal strategic orientations. A Country Programme Management Team wascreated involving 35 representatives of farmer associations, indegeneous people’sorganizations, civil society organisations, ministries and donors to discuss the keytopics of the new COSOP. IFAD Nepal 15
  • 18. IFAD Nepal | History of Cooperation Nepal became a member of IFAD in 1978 and was among the first countries to benefit from IFAD. The main strategic thrusts of the IFAD financed projects in Nepal are poverty alleviation and improvement of household food and income security of the rural poor, especially women, landless, indigenous groups and small and marginal farmers from the disadvantaged areas of the country. Integrated Rural Development Project (Sagarmatha Zone), effective from November 1979 with a loan amount of US$ 11.5 million, was the starting point of the cooperation between Nepal and IFAD. Since then, IFAD has provided US$152.8 million in loans and US$36 million in grants for a total of 16 projects, benefitting 809,853 households in rural Nepal. Ongoing • Kisankalagi Unnat Biu-Bijan Karyakram (ISFP, 2012-2019) • High-Value Agriculture Project in Hill and Mountain Areas (HVAP, 2010-2017) • Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Programme (LFLP, 2005-2013) • Poverty Alleviation Fund Phase II (PAF, 2008-2012) • Western Uplands Poverty Alleviation Project (WUPAP, 2003-2014) Completed • Skill Enhancement for Employment Project (SEEP, 2008-2011) • Local Livelihood Programme (LLP, 2006-2010) • Poverty Alleviation Project in Western Terai (PAPWT, 1997-2005) • Groundwater Irrigation and Flood Rehabilitation Project (GIFRP, 1994-2000) • Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project (HLFFDP, 1989-2003) • Production Credit for Rural Women Project (PCRWP, 1987-1997) • Aquaculture Development Project (ADP, 1986-1991) • Second Small Farmer Development Project (SSFDP, 1986-1991) • Command Area Development Project (CADP, 1981-1989) • Small Farmer Development Project (SFDP, 1980-1987) • Integrated Rural Development Project (IRDP, 1978-1988)16 IFAD Nepal
  • 19. ONGOING PROJECTSThe designations employed and the presentation of the material in this map do not imply theexpression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of IFAD concerning the delimitation of the frontiersor boundaries, or the authorities thereof.Map compiled by IFAD IFAD Nepal 17
  • 20. Kisankalagi Unnat Biu-Bijan Karyakram Improved Seeds for Farmers Programme (ISFP), 2012-2019 Total cost: US$59.7 million 
 IFAD loan: US$19.5 million 
 DSF grant: US$19.5 million 
 Directly benefiting: 150,000 households 
 Cofinancing: Heifer International (US$2.5 million) Kisankalagi Unnat Biu-Bijan Karyakram (Improved Seeds for Farmers Programme- ISFP) is a seven year project funded by IFAD to support accelerated agricultural growth. Building on an approach already tested in the IFAD-financed HVAP and LFLP, the project intends to improve formal seed and smallholder livestock by developing partnership between farmer organizations and the private sector with a sustainable approach in line with the IFAD COSOP 2006-2012. The Project was approved by the Executive Board of IFAD on September 2012, signed on December 2012 and is being implemented under Ministry of Agriculture Development. The goal of the programme is to promote competitive, sustainable and inclusive agricultural growth in the target area in order to contribute to overall economic development. It seeks to improve productivity through market-led demand for improved seeds and livestock, with focus toward testing and scaling up a model of growth led by agriculture as proposed by the national Agriculture Development Strategy (ADS). The programme covers four districts from Mid Western Region and two from Western Region with possible expansion over a few other districts after the Mid-Term Review. All targeted districts are in hill areas, some with poverty levels that are considerably above national rural averages. The target group comprises nearly 150,000 households. The programme has three components: • Support for expansion of the formal seed sector (cereals and vegetables) • Smallholder livestock commercialization (goats and dairy) • Local institutional and entrepreneurial development18 IFAD Nepal
  • 21. © IFAD, Suraj Ratna ShakyaThe first component is dedicated to extension of the formal seed sectors by introducingimproved ‘Truthfully Labeled’ seed products to replace poor quality seeds for cerealsand vegetables and will be implemented by the Project Management Office (PMO)with support from District Agriculture Development Office, Regional Seed TestingLaboratories and the private seed companies.The second component deals with the smallholder livestock commercialization targetingimprovements in goat breed and expanding dairy production and will be implementedby Heifer International with support from District Livestock Services Offices.The third component aims to develop sustainable private sector enterprises includinginstitutional growth, improved access to and control over non-financial sectors suchas agro-vets and increased outreach of microfinance institutions. PMO will implementthe third component with support from selected service provider and Sana KisanBikas Bank (Small Farmer Development Bank) together with National AgricultureCentral Cooperatives Federation.The Project is in the early stage of start-up phase and is expected to be fully operationalin a few months. IFAD Nepal 19
  • 22. High-Value Agriculture Project in Hill and Mountain Areas (HVAP) 2010-2017 Total cost: US$18.9 million 
 Approved IFAD loan: US$7.6 million 
 Approved DSF grant: US$7.6 million 
 Directly benefiting: 15,300 households 
 Cofinancing: SNV (US$0.7 million) Economic isolation is a major cause of poverty and social disharmony in the hill and mountain areas of Nepal. The High Value Agriculture Project in Hill and Mountain Areas aims to integrate poor rural people into the local rural economy to improve their living standards. The project supports poor farmers respond to the private sector’s demand for high-value crops, such as vegetables, fruits, non-timber forest products, medicinal and aromatic plants, by facilitating mutually beneficial and profitable arrangements with the buyers. The project focuses on socially excluded and vulnerable people such as Dalits, indigenous groups (Janajatis) and women, and helps them to: • Develop strong commercial links with traders to sustainably raise their incomes • Receive training and support in production and post-harvest techniques • Get better access to technical services, finances, farm supplies and market information Based on the construction of three major road corridors in Mid-Western Nepal (Chhinchu-Jajarkot, Surkhet-Dailekh, and Surkhet-Jumla), the project aims to cover 10 Mid-Western districts in two phases; 7 districts in the first phase, namely Surkhet, Salyan, Jajarkot, Dailekh, Kalikot, Jumla and Achham (far-west) and will expand to Mugu, Dolpa and Humla along with the development of roads in these districts. The Project was built on the success and lessons learned from a pilot ‘Local Livelihood Programme’ incorporating the concept of Value Chain Development. It was further refined with the concept of Inclusive Business Approach successfully tested in Latin America by SNV – the Netherlands Development Organization and works together with the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FNCCI) through its specialized arm, the Agro-enterprise Center (AEC).20 IFAD Nepal
  • 23. © IFAD, Rocky PrajapatiHigh Value Crops refer to non-traditional foodcrops that have higher market values, such asvegetables, fruits, spices, non-timber forestproducts, and medicinal and aromatic plants.Major achievements of the Project as of July 2012, including but not limited to, arethe following:• Supported 1451 households through providing production inputs and technical services in value chain initiatives• Provided skill oriented trainings to 159 farmers on apple orchard management and vegetable and turmeric production• Established value chain analysis of the seven commodities (apple, vegetable seeds, off-season vegetables, ginger, turmeric, goat meat, and timur (Xantho/ toothache tree)• Development of fund guidelines viz. value chain fund guidelines, and production and post-harvest support fund guidelines sustainable pro-poor value chain development IFAD Nepal 21
  • 24. Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF) Phase II 2006-2012 Total cost: US$124.0 million 
 Approved DSF grant: US$4.0 million 
 Directly benefiting: 200,000 households 
 Supplementary financing: US$10.0 million (2012) Cofinancing: World Bank: IDA (US$100.0 million) In Nepal, ethnic minorities, lower caste communities and women lag behind in terms of income, assets and numerous human development indicators. The Poverty Alleviation Fund aims to improve living conditions, livelihoods and empowerment among these communities, marginalized for reasons of gender, ethnicity, caste and location. The project was created with the declaration of a special act (Poverty Alleviation Fund Act, 2063) and a commitment to address the interrelated problems of rural poverty and social exclusion throughout the country. While the first phase of the project was implemented in 25 districts, the second phase increased project coverage annually and will be operating in all 75 districts by the end of 2013. Jointly funded by the World Bank under the debt sustainability framework (DSF), the second phase of the project is designed to introduce rapid development changes in remote Nepal through community-based interventions. The project has a number of components, ranging from income-generating activities and capacity building of local grassroots organizations, to infrastructure development at the community level, such as small-scale irrigation, roads and bridges, water supply, schools and health posts. Major achievements of the Project as of July 2012, including but not limited to, are the following: • Establishment of 17,898 community organizations (Cos) to implement 19,615 sub-projects • PAF supported COs are currently pursuing 16,576 Income Generation and 3039 Infrastructure related sub-projects • PAF projects have helped to increase the average income of individual household by 82.5%22 IFAD Nepal
  • 25. © IFAD, Lorina SthapitDil Kumari Pun of Libang, Rolpa, had to rely entirely on herhusband’s income before joining one of PAF’s income generatingactivities. Today, she earns her living by selling milk from thebuffalo she bought using the US$215 project loan. In 2012, shealso sold a calf and a heifer from the same buffalo for a total ofUS$225, repaying her loan fully.“I feel independent now that I have my own source of income”,she says, with a strong sense of confidence.But perhaps most of all, Dil Kumari values being able to pay forher children’s education. She feels proud to send her daughter tocollege, a big achievement in her village.According to the independent impact evaluation (IE), executed in partnership by thePAF Secretariat, Tribhuvan University and the World Bank, the project has had asignificant positive impact on household level welfare. The results further indicatethat the program is an effective tool for targeting the population considered mostvulnerable in terms of caste and ethnicity as well as most food insecure.In addition to positive growths in per capita consumption and food security, especiallyamong marginalized groups, the project has significantly reduced the incidence ofunderweight children under the age of 5, and has also increased the rate of schoolenrolment among 6-15 year old children. IFAD Nepal 23
  • 26. Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Programme (LFLP) 2005-2013 Total cost: US$16.3 million 
 IFAD loan: US$10.5 million 
 IFAD grant: US$1.2 million 
 Supplementary financing: US$ 3 million (April 2012) Directly benefiting: 44,300 households Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Programme is a community-based forest management project through which poor and food insecure households are provided degraded forestland on a 40-year renewable lease to generate income from forest products and livestock. The programme covers 22 mid-hill districts across the country where a large percentage of the population lives below the national poverty line. The project is implemented by the Department of Forests under the Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation with support from Department of Livestock Services and selected service providers. The Food and Agricultural Organization is supporting the programme by providing Technical Assistance Support to Leasehold Forestry and Livestock Programme from 2009 for a period of four years with financial support from the Government of Finland. The total amount of support for this technical assistance is US $ 3.5 million. Specifically, the programme’s objectives are to: i) improve household forage and tree crop production; ii) improve household production of livestock, especially goats, iii) provide access to microfinance services, and iv) support the governments capacity to implement leasehold forestry in a gender sensitive way. The Programme has four components: i) Leasehold Forestry and Group Formation – (group formation, social mobilization, land and forest development and post handover support); ii) Livestock Development – (fodder, forage and livestock development related activities, especially the Goats development); iii) Rural Finance – (issues associated with the microfinance to the leasehold forestry groups); and iv) Project Management and Coordination – (overall management of the project and coordination among various departments, donors and development agencies at the national and regional level).24 IFAD Nepal
  • 27. Ram Piyari and her younger son, Bibek, with the goats they received as part of theLeasehold Forestry and Livestock Programme to improve household income inDevitaar, Kavre.© IFAD, Kaushal ShresthaBetween 2003 and 2008, a significant increasein household income was observed, that canbe directly attributed to the Leasehold Forestryand Livestock Programme. Together withforest products, revenue from the sale of goatsaccounted for 46% of the income growth. IFAD Nepal 25
  • 28. LFLP group meeting in Dailekh Major achievements of the Project as of July 2012, including but not limited to, are the following: • Establishment of 4080 leasehold forestry user groups (LFUGs) • Handing over of 19,900 hectares of degraded forest land to LFUGs • Distribution of 70,000 goats to the LFUGs An impact study undertaken in March 2009 by the Food and Agricultural Organization indicates significant increase in the average income of households in the LFUGs. While households allocated with leasehold forestry plots were earning NRs 25,589 before joining the LFUG, they now earn NRs 43,768. Compared to respective poverty lines of 2003 and 2008, the poverty gap thus was reduced from 55.4% to 74.8%, a 35% improvement in the poverty situation. The increase in household income resulted from strong growth in revenue from the sale of goats, forest products and labour income. Together, the first two sources accounted for 46% of the income growth that can be directly attributed to the project.26 IFAD Nepal
  • 29. Western Uplands Poverty Alleviation Project (WUPAP)2003-2014Total cost: US$32.6 million 
IFAD loan: US$19.9 million 
IFAD grant: US$550,000Directly benefiting: 115,000 households 
Cofinancing: World Food Programme (US$4.0 million)The hill and mountain districts of Far and Mid Western Nepal are the most isolated andeconomically impoverished regions of the country. Due to poor access to markets,these districts suffer from high food prices and limited economic opportunities.The unsustainable extraction of natural resources, mainly from forests, furtherexacerbates the level of food deficit and food insecurity in the region. The WesternUplands Poverty Alleviation Project aims to strengthen the livelihood systems of therural poor in these regions in a sustainable manner. The Project has been operationalsince January 2003 under a Flexible Lending Mechanism. The Project graduated intosecond phase in 2007 and into third phase in 2012 after achieving the triggers setforth the graduation from one phase into another.The first phase covered Humla and Jumla from mid-western region, Bajhang andBajura from far-western region whereas the second phase covered seven moredistricts namely, Mugu, Dolpa, Kalikot, Jajarkot, Dailekh, Rukum and Rolpa from mid-western region.A restructuring took place during the design of the third phase reducing the numberof districts from 11 to 8 (withdrawing from Mugu, Dolpa and Jumla), reducing numberof components from five (labour intensive infrastructure, leasehold forestry and non-timber forest product, crop and livestock, rural finance and marketing, and institutionalsupport) to three (community empowerment, service delivery improvement and projectmanagement) and changing the management structure at district level. Ministry ofFederal Affairs and Local Development was the implementing agency for the first andsecond phase of the Project and Ministry of Cooperative and Poverty Alleviation forthe third phase. IFAD Nepal 27
  • 30. © IFAD, Lorina Sthapit Sunita Thapa Magar’s life has taken a turn after she received Dhaka1 weaving skill from WUPAP’s income generating project, along with nine other women in Dailekh. When her first husband left her, Sunita was stranded with no home, no work and no skill to earn a living. “I carried cement and salt working as a porter. People looked down on me, but I did not give up,” she revealed. But Sunita was determined to make her life better. Today with the help of the project she is able to earn a living by selling shawls, caps, ties, handkerchiefs and bags made of Dhaka. In addition, Sunita has developed a deep friendship with the women she weaves side by side with. But above all, she values the independence that comes with mastering a skill and is looking forward to training more women herself. 1. A traditional Nepalese cotton fabric28 IFAD Nepal
  • 31. The project focuses on landless, small or marginal farmers with particular emphasison women, youths, and other socially and economically disadvantaged groups. TheProject seeks to promote resilient livelihoods in these communities by supporting theformation of grassroots organizations that can mobilize their own resources, natural,physical, and financial, in order to obtain social justice.Major achievements of the Project as of July 2012, including but not limited to, arethe following:• Establishment of 2670 community groups• Construction of 610 community-based small-scale infrastructures – irrigating 1019.24 hectares of land, supplying drinking water to 9453 households, lighting 35,824 households by micro-hydro (448 KW), constructing 117 community buildings (school, health posts and others), 18 wooden bridges, and improving 14 trails• Establishment of 859 leasehold forestry user groups, handover of 10 710.4 hectares of forest land with a secure tenure of 40 years, domestication/cultivation of non-timber forest product (NTFP) and medicinal and aromatic plants in 856.75• Training of 132 Village Agricultural Workers and Village Animal Health Workers, 36 Village Nutrition Workers• Established value chains, technical support and marketing for various products (hand-made paper, vegetables, fruits and others) IFAD Nepal 29
  • 32. Agricultural Development Strategy (ADS) 1995-2015 Agricultural Development Strategy is a 20-year vision and a 10-year planning horizon to create an agriculture sector in Nepal that is more resilient to climate change. With Technical Assistance (TA) worth US$ 0.5 million, IFAD is one of the 11 donor agencies supporting the Government of Nepal in the preparation of ADS. The scope of the ADS includes: • Food security, agricultural productivity, connectivity and resilience • Sustainable production and resource management through climate change mitigation • Adaptation and improved land and water management and water allocation • Increased private sector development (including cooperative sector), delivering fair reward to all stakeholders in the value chain • Policies, institutions, and investments The approach of the TA provided by IFAD is based on the combination of • Broad view of the agricultural sector • External peer reviews • Effective communication and broad consultations. The TA has been implemented over the course of 4 phases: Phase 1 – Assessment, April 2011 to September 2011 Phase 2 – Vision, October 2011 to November 2011 Phase 3 – Policy Options, December 2011 to March 2012 Phase 4 – Road Map and Action Plan, April 2012 to December 2012 © IFAD, Suraj Ratna Shakya30 IFAD Nepal
  • 33. Completed Projects IFAD Nepal 31
  • 34. Skill Enhancement for Employment Project (SEEP, 2008-2011) Total cost: US$ 916,000 IFAD grant: US$ 870,000 Directly benefiting: 1225 youths and their families Skill Enhancement for Employment Project was executed with the goal of increasing livelihood opportunities for the youth in the far western districts through improved employment opportunities. The target age group ranged between 16 and 35 years with special focus on youths who were conflict affected, internally displaced and socio-economically disadvantaged groups and women.The project was implemented in five districts of Far Wester region nemaly, Bajhang, Darchula, Baitadi, Dadeldhura and Kanchanpur by the International Labour Organization (ILO). In three years time, the project provided 39 different skill trainings to a total of 1225 youths. Within six months of training completion, 72.3 % of the trainees were engaged in gainful employment and on-the job training. Altogether five saving and credit cooperatives comprising of about 200 trained youth were established in the project districts. Further, approximately 250 project beneficiaries interested in starting their own businesses were provided entrepreneurship and enterprise development training. Local Livelihood Programme (LLP, 2006-2010) Total cost: US$ 0.6 million IFAD grant: US$ 0.48 million Directly benefiting: 5134 households The overall goal of the Local Livelihood Programme was to contribute to sustainable rural poverty reduction by operationalizing and piloting the North-South corridor development approach introduced in the Tenth plan/PRSP. The project was successfully implemented by the Centre for Environment and Agricultural Policy Research, Extension and Development (CEAPRED), covering two north-south road corridors - Surkhet-Jumla and Chhinchu-Jajarkot. The districts covered by the project were Surkhet, Dailekh, Kalikot, Salyan and Jajarkot. The Programme covered 5134 households through 230 groups (female-28, male-7 and mixed 195) by the end of June 2008. Information on production and sale from 3,433 households indicated an increased average income of NRs. 7,693/household, with the highest increase of NRs. 150,000 and the lowest of NRs. 100/household. Increased income thus resulted into increased food security of 2161 households to 3-4 months, 827 households to 4-5 months and 50 households to 6-9 months.32 IFAD Nepal
  • 35. Poverty Alleviation Project in Western Terai (PAPWT, 1997-2005)Total cost: US$9.7 million
IFAD loan: US$8.9 million
 
Directly benefiting: 21,563 householdsPoverty in the Western Plains of Terai is widespread and on the increase. Economicopportunities are limited and population growth is very high. The poor in this regionare either landless or have very small plots of land to cultivate. Therefore, the PovertyAlleviation Project in Western Terai was implemented in eight districts of Nawalparasi,Rupandehi, Kapilvastu, Dang, Banke, Bardiya, Kailali and Kanchanpur with a goalof increasing the incomes and improving the welfare of small farmers, and landlesspeople, particularly women.The project encouraged local people to form small groups to manage credit, receive skillstraining and organize community development activities. The project also strengthenedinstitutional support for the groups and improved access to water resources.Groundwater Irrigation and Flood Rehabilitation Project (GIFRP, 1994-2000)Total cost: US$13.2 million
IFAD loan: US$9.9 millionDirectly benefiting: 25,000 householdsThe Terai region has good potential for agricultural development and a reasonablyrobust marketing and communications network. This project’s aims were to raise cropyields, improve farmer’s incomes and increase food security for the poor by providingirrigation systems. It also set out to repair damage to existing irrigation systems thatwere hit by the floods of July and August 1993, and to restore livelihoods to peopleliving in the flooded areas.The project offered an opportunity to research and test possible technical andinstitutional options for efficient and equitable development of groundwaterirrigation. The project benefitted a total of 10,300 beneficiaries by drilling 715 shallowtube-wells in 4850 hectares of area. 2307 villagers were given irrigation relatedtrainings and 12,7799 villagers were given agriculture-related trainings during theproject period. IFAD Nepal 33
  • 36. © IFAD, Kaushal Shrestha Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project (HLFFDP, 1990-2003) Total cost: US$20.4 million
 IFAD loan: US$12.8 million Directly benefiting: 51,800 households The objective of the project was to reduce poverty and restore degraded environments in the middle hills by leasing small sections of public forest land to groups of rural poor people who would then manage the land for their own use, and thus help regenerate it. A total of 1773 leasehold forestry groups were formed and 7457 hectares of degraded forestland were handed over to rural poor people. Evaluations carried out by IFAD (Interim, 2003) of the original Hills Leasehold Forestry and Forage Development Project (HLFFDP, 1989-2003) indicated that the approach was able to achieve twin objectives of poverty reduction as well as reforestation. The results proved the project effective in improving levels of food security, increasing biodiversity, and empowering women. The project showed that transferring sections of degraded forest to the very poor on renewable 40-year leases is an effective means of reducing poverty and reforesting the land. Annual household incomes increased from US$270 to US$405, and this in turn resulted in greater food security and improved nutrition. Environmental degradation was reversed at most sites and biodiversity increased significantly.34 IFAD Nepal
  • 37. Production Credit for Rural Women (PCRW, 1987-1997)Total cost: US$11.3 million
IFAD loan: US$6.0 million
 
Directly benefiting: 16,390 householdsRural women across Nepal are held back from improving family living standards bysocial discrimination. This project was designed to underline the important contributionwomen can make to family incomes. Ultimately it served as a model for efforts toensure that women’s interests are reflected in development policies in Nepal. Theproject covered all ecological zones of the country and all five administrative regions.The project empowered women and increased their incomes. 
The delivery of credit tothe women’s group was implemented successfully and used for services, agricultureand livestock activities. It demonstrated how they could become more confident,self-reliant and productive. More than 50,000 women were trained, and more than18,000 women’s credit groups were formed.The project successfully launched an institutional innovation and demonstrated thatassociations of resource-poor women can manage their credit needs without linksto, or credit from, the formal banking sector, with little default. Initiated as a pilot in1980 in five districts, expanded to 37 districts with support from IFAD and a parallelfunding from UNICEF, the programme covered all 75 districts in the country and is avery good example of sustainability.Aquaculture Development Project (ADP, 1986-1991)Total cost: US$23.0 million
IFAD loan: US$5.0 million
Directly benefiting: 6000 householdsAquaculture Development Project was the second phase of a project begun by theAsian Development Bank. Freshwater aquaculture has great potential for raising theincomes of small producers and landless labourers and for increasing fish exports.Traditionally, fish farming is practiced by the poorest members of the population. Fishfarming also helps improve the nation’s diet by making much-needed fish proteinmore widely available.Altogether, the project benefited 42,000 people and developed a system foraquaculture that could be replicated elsewhere. It provided credit and training tofarmers to strengthen support and extension services in the public sector. IFAD Nepal 35
  • 38. Small Farmer Development Project II (SFDP II, 1986-1991) Total cost: US$24.5 million
 IFAD loan: US$14.5 million
 IFAD grant: US$100,000 Others (GTZ, UNICEF, UNFPA): 4.0 million Government: 4.0 million Directly benefiting: 50,000 households Building on the success of the first Small Farmer Development Project, this project reached 12 additional districts and expanded on work done in the areas already covered by the first project fulfilling its objectives to increase the income and improve the well being of small farmers, landless labourers and the rural poor. At the end of the Project, the major achievements were recorded as reaching out 276 villages from 43 districts, formation of 11,703 (1 978 women) small farmers groups with 90 287 members, collection of NPR 14.5 million as savings from the groups and establishment of five regional training centers. Production credit covered about 81,000 hectares of land and financed procurement of about 58,000 animals (buffaloes and goats), irrigated 7686 ha and supported 4474 village industries/agro- processing units. The project started to federate the small farmer groups into a sizeable number of farmers considering its institutional and economic viability so as to transform the federation into a cooperative in 1988 with technical assistance from GIZ. This emerged as a very innovative model and Asian Development Bank financed the third phase of the Project. As of December 2012, a total of 267 such cooperatives at village level, and a national federation of all these cooperatives at national level have been established. A separate bank, Small Farmer Development Bank, is also established at national level to support these cooperatives. IFAD-UNICEF funded PCRW also adopted this model in 1990 and a similar number of women cooperatives are promoted in the country. This project is one of the very innovative and successful programmes in the country achieving full sustainability.36 IFAD Nepal
  • 39. Command Area Development Project (CADP, 1981-1989)Total cost: US$29.1 million
IFAD loan: US$11.2 million
ADB loan: US $ 13.5 millionUNDP grant: US$ 1.2 millionDirectly benefiting: 14,500 householdsThe Project was implemented in three districts of Kapilvastu (Banganga) and NawalParasi (West Gandaki) in Western Terai and Sarlahi (Manusmara) in Central Teraiwhere irrigation facilities existed but were under-utilized because of the lack of waterdistribution systems. The project aimed to increase food production, raise farmincomes and provide rural employment opportunities by improving irrigation facilitiesand the distribution of water to farms. The project also gave farmers the equipmentand training to maintain the improved irrigation facilities.The objectives of the project were to: i) increase the production of food grains, ii)increase farm income, iii) provide rural employment opportunities, and iv) improve thestandard of living of the rural poor living in the area. These objectives were to achievethrough rehabilitation of existing irrigation canals, construction of new canal and farmditch systems, creation of drainage and flood control systems and strengthening ofagricultural support services including inputs.By improving irrigation facilities and the distribution of water to farms, the projectincreased food production, raised farm incomes and provided rural employmentopportunities to about 14,500 households. The project also supplied equipment tothe farmers and trained them to maintain the improved irrigation facilities. IFAD Nepal 37
  • 40. © IFAD, Irshad Khan Small Farmer Development Project (SFDP, 1980-1987) Total cost: US$16.1 million
 IFAD loan: US$12.5 million
 IFAD grant: US$1.0 million
 Directly benefiting: 50,000 households The Small Farmer Development Project evolved from an approach devised under the Asian Survey for Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (ASARRD) in 1973. A Field Action and Research Pilot Project was started from two villages in Nepal in September 1975. The Mission recommended IFAD to expand the on-going pilot initiative. The objectives of the project were to: i) build an institutional base supporting the creation of small farmer groups (10-15 members), ii) provide supervised credit to enable these groups pursuing diversified range of income-generating activities, iii) adapt local delivery systems to the needs of rural poor people, and iv) provide training and technical assistance. The Project covered 138 Village Development Committees from 31 (19 hill and 12 Terai) districts and was successful in improving the level of income, employment and production rates, and developed ways to involve the poorest and most marginalized families. About 4667 small farmer groups were formed involving 42,345 members38 IFAD Nepal
  • 41. excluding 532 exclusively women groups and 4271 members. Irrigation facility wasprovided to 1659 hectors, 49 improved water mill (some with generating small amountof electricity) installed, 2703 loans extended, 1345 cottage industry units and 416other enterprises supported. Family income of participating farmers increased by anestimated 20 to 30%. Most importantly, the farmers were able to break out of thecycle of debt. The successful implementation of this Project led for a second loanfrom IFAD to Nepal.Integrated Rural Development Project (Sagarmatha Zone, IRDP, 1978-1988)Total cost: US$37.2 million
IFAD loan: US$13.0 million
ADB Loan: US$ 14.0 millionEEC Grant: US$ 3.75 millionGovernment: US$ 6.45 millionDirectly benefiting: 50,000 householdsThe project was the first Integrated Rural Development Project in Nepal. The Projectcovered three districts from Sagarmatha Zone namely, Siraha, Saptari and Udayapurincluding both the Terai lowlands, with its gentle slopes, and the steeper hill areas.The objectives of the Project were to: i) increase production and employment, ii)strengthen the income generating base in the rural economy of the project districts,and iii) improve the living conditions of the people living in the project area throughbroad-based economic development.The project addressed the root causes of poor agricultural productivity in the areaand worked to improve incomes and living standards for the poor directly benefitingto about 50,000 households. The major achievements of the Project, among others,include construction of six major link (gravel) roads, 110 kilometers in total, to the EastWest Highway, installation of 2843 Shallow Tube Wells, 15 Deep Wells and 12 TubeWells, construction of 40 irrigation schemes with a command area of 27,004 hectaresof land, establishment of 27 each agriculture and livestock rural service centers,establishment of 10 milk collection centers, one chilling centre and 20 rural markets.The Project triggered the concept of integrated rural development in the country withfunding from various donors including Canada, Switzerland, United Kingdom, UnitedStates, World Bank and Asian Development Bank. IFAD Nepal 39
  • 42. Monitoring and Evaluation Officer for WUPAP with the farmers of Kharpunath during their morning meeting © IFAD, Suraj Ratna Shakya40 IFAD Nepal
  • 43. Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)Starting from 2012, the IFAD country programme in Nepal has taken important stepstowards improved Monitoring and Evaluation systems in the IFAD funded projectswithin the country. The new and refined system is providing basis for better knowledgemanagement and improvement of the overall performance of the country portfolio.Until 2012, the Nepal country programme of IFAD had been underperformingwith respect to establishing and operating effective M&E systems and knowledgemanagement processes. There was limited generation of data beyond input andactivity levels, and what data and information was generated, was not effectivelyutilized for project management purposes. There were also limitations in effectivelycapturing and disseminating knowledge and lessons learned.Acknowledging these concerns, an improved M&E and knowledge managementsystem is in place to monitor the performance of the new COSOP. In order to managebetter for results there is a need to learn from previous experiences and use theexisting knowledge to improve performance in the future. Therefore, the new M&Esystem adopts the value-chain approach towards knowledge building. As illustratedbelow, the system works to improve dissemination of the knowledge acquired amongall the stakeholders involved at the various stages and levels of the IFAD projects andprogrammes towards effectively achieving the poverty reduction objectives. IFAD Nepal 41
  • 44. IFAD Nepal will also make use of the knowledge pyramid, illustrated below. Similar to the value-chain approach, the knowledge pyramid also works to ensure effective collection and flow of information in order to stimulate better design and policy dialogue. All projects funded by IFAD have their own knowledge pyramids that feed into the knowledge pyramid of the Country Programme of IFAD in Nepal. For a more efficient and effective knowledge management system, it will be ensured that all projects have carefully identified COSOP indicators. The IFAD Results and Impact Management System (RIMS) will be also further strengthened at project level and integrated to the project M&E systems to aid progress reports. A standardized spreadsheet has been developed as a simple tool for projects to better report on their progress against the targets set and fulfilling Government and IFAD requirements. Through workshops and ongoing support from the country office it will be ensured that the projects will adopt and use the spreadsheet to report on the COSOP and RIMS indicators.. In addition, IFAD Nepal country office will set up a simple website under IFAD Asia platform that will host documents and various analysis produced by the country programme. The COSOP and RIMS data will be annually analysed at the country programme level and presented in the IFAD Nepal website as well.42 IFAD Nepal
  • 45. Below the picture illustrates how the IFAD country level M&E system will look likeonce it is established and functioning. IFAD Nepal 43
  • 46. IFAD’s Financing Since the establishment of IFAD Nepal in 1978, a total of 16 projects have been approved for a total cost of US$435 million. With US$152.8 million in loans and US$36 million in grants from IFAD, these projects have directly benefitted 809,853 households in rural Nepal to improve their living conditions. The loans IFAD provides to Nepal are highly concessional and have particularly favorable conditions for repayment. These loans are interest-free, match with service commission of 0.75% per annum, a repayment term of 40 years and a grace period of 10 years. Further, within the Debt Sustainability Framework, Nepal benefits special conditions as all new IFAD financing are split into 50% loan and 50% grant. Disbursement IFAD disbursements in Nepal have been growing over time, from around US$1.7million in 2007 to over US$7.7million in 2012. The disbursement of fund was low during 2000’s decade reflecting the unstable political situation in the country when many development activities came to a halt. After 2007, however, the size of the country portfolio and its delivery has been growing significantly. During the 2007-2012 COSOP, WUPAP and LFLP received the largest amount of disbursements. While IFAD disbursed US$3.7 million to PAF, it is to be noted that the project receives most of its funding from the World Bank, amounting to US$100 million, making it a good example of inter-agencies cooperation. Project 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 TOTAL USD LFLP 694 240 1 382 271 1 201 463 2 945 261 1 612 159 1 789 703 9 625 097 WUPAP 837 385 891 070 2 039 142 878 333 2 846 373 4 657 363 12 149 666 PAF II 750 000 717 231 2 247 701 285 068 4 000 000 HVAP 600 000 1 009 409 1 609 409 SEEP 28 175 463 375 491 550 LLP 163 047 198 216 47 940 409 203 Total 1 694 672 2 499 732 4 038 545 5 004 200 7 306 233 7 741 543 28 284 92544 IFAD Nepal
  • 47. BeneficiariesAs illustrated in the table below, the total outreach of the Nepal country programmeduring the fiscal year 2010/2011 was about 524,000 households. Without taking intoaccount the PAF beneficiaries (as PAF is for the main part funded by the World Bank)this number would decrease to 178,000 households. LFLP and WUPAP have bothreached close to 230,000 cumulative beneficiaries during the implementation of thecurrent phases of the projects. Altogether, the total number of beneficiaries reachedby the ongoing IFAD projects in Nepal is more than 2 million people. This accounts toapproximately 8% of the rural population in the country.This number will increase by 150 000 households (700 000 people) with the start upof the new seed and breed project (ISFP). Outreach by end of Outreach during Project Target at appraisal 2010/2011 2010/2011WUPAP 610 000 228 309 174 064LFLP 264 471 229 463 3 827PAF II 2 209 000 1 619 206 345 892HVAP-IB 6 580 6 580 -HVAP 245 810 0 0Total 3 335 861 2 083 558 523 783 IFAD Nepal 45
  • 48. Contacts IFAD Ministry of Finance Bashu Aryal Kailash Pokharel Country Programme Officer Under Secretary, Ministry of Finance WFP Office Complex, Patan Dhoka Road kpokharel@mof.gov.np Lalitpur, Nepal Fax (+977 1) 4211165 Tel: +977 1 5542607 4144 Office 4211372 Fax: +977 1 5524101 b.aryal@ifad.org Benoît Thierry Country Programme Manager Via Paolo Di Dono, 44 Rome, Italy Tel: +39 0654592234 Fax: +39 0654593234 b.thierry@ifad.org Projects Kisankalagi Unnat Biu-Bijan High-Value Agriculture Project in Hill Karyakram and Mountain Areas Suryal Prasad Poudel Rajendra Prasad Bhari Project Manager Project Manager Project Liaison Office Project Management Unit Kumaripati, Lalitpur Birendranagar, Surkhet Tel and Fax: +977 1 5552977 Tel and Fax: +977 1 525 403 Email: suryapaudel@ymail.com E-mail: bhari_rp@yahoo.com www.hvap.gov.np46 IFAD Nepal
  • 49. Poverty Alleviation FundRaj Babu Shrestha,Executive DirectorPoverty Alleviation Fund NepalTahachal, KathmanduTel: +977 1 4030700Fax: +977 1 4030701E-mail: rbshrestha@pafnepal.org.npwww.pafnepal.org.npLeasehold Forestry and Livestock ProgrammeBala Ram AdhikariProgramme Coordinator, Leasehold Forestry SectionDepartment of Forest, Babar Mahal, KathmanduTel and Fax: +977 1 4257870E-mail: lflp@wlink.com.npwww.lflp.gov.npWestern Uplands Poverty Alleviation ProjectUttam Prasad NagilaProject CoordinatorProject Coordination UnitRanjha, NepalgunjTel: +977 81 565043/565232Fax: +977 81 565042E-mail: uttamngl@yahoo.comwww.wupap.gov.np IFAD Nepal 47
  • 50. IFAD Nepal 49
  • 51. Enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty Via Paolo di Dono, 44
00142 Rome, Italy
 Tel: 39-0654591
, Fax +39-065043463 E-mail ifad@ifad.org www.ifad.org, www.ruralpovertyportal.org50 IFAD Nepal