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Spanish grammer book

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  • 1. Nina Pearson
    Spanish 3 Grammar book
  • 2. Table Of Contents
    Conditional + Irregulars
    Perfect Tenses
    Present
    Past
    Present Perfect Irregulars
    Subjunctive Perfect
    Tanto y Tan
    Impersonal ‘se’
    Saber vs. Conocer
    Los Mandatos
    Informal affirmative
    Informal negative
    Informal irregulars
    DOP/IOP placement
    Formal affirmative
    Formal negative
    Formal irregulars
    DOP/IOP placement
    Nosotros Affirmative
    Nosotros Negative
    Mono Verbs
    Subjunctive
    Irregulars
    Trigger phrases
    Impersonal Expressions
    Expressions of Emotion
    Conjunctions of Time
    Demonstrative Adjectives
    Demonstrative Pronouns
  • 3. Conditional
    Conditional verbs are used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture, and is translated as would, could, must have or probability.
    The student said he would study one more hour.
    To conjugate for –ar, -er, and –ir verbs
    Also, the conditional is used to express actions contradictory to fact.
    If I had time, I would go to the movies tonight.
    Important to remember: if the conditional is used to express something in the present, the future tense is used.
  • 4. Irregulars
    • For conditional, the same verbs that are irregular in the future tense are also irregular in the conditional. Their endings are regular, but their stems change in the same way that they do in the future.
    caberyo cabría
    haberyo habría
    poderyo podría
    quereryo querría
    saberyo sabría
    poneryo pondría
    saliryo saldría
    teneryo tendría
    valeryo valdría
    veniryo vendría
    deciryo diría
    haceryo haría
  • 5. Perfect Tenses
    The perfect tense in Spanish is roughly the equivalent to have taken, have bought, etc. in English. The perfect tense expresses a past action that has relevance to the present moment.
    The perfect tense in Spanish is formed by taking a form of the verb haber, followed by the past participle of the Spanish verb.
    The verb "haber" is conjugated depending on who or what is doing the action as well as when, and the Spanish past participle is formed by adding "-ado" to the stem of "-ar" verbs and "-ido" to the stem of "-er" and "-ir" verbs.
  • 6. Present
    The present perfect is formed by combining the auxiliary verb “has” or “have” with the past participle. Two verbs are required: the main verb and the auxiliary verb.
    In Spanish, the present perfect tense is formed by using the present tense of “haber” with the past participle
    The auxiliary verb is conjugated for the subject of the sentence, not the object.
    The present perfect tense is frequently used for past actions that continue into the present, or continue to affect the present. It is also often used with the adverb “ya”.
    The auxiliary verb and the past participle are neverseperated. To make the sentence negative, add the word nobefore the conjugated form of haber.
  • 7. Past
    The past perfect tense is formed by combining the auxiliary verb “had” with the past participle.The main verb and the auxiliary verb are required as well.
    In Spanish, the past perfect tense is formed by using the imperfect tense of the auxiliary verb "haber" with the past participle.
    Again, the auxiliary verb is conjugated for the subject of the sentence, not the object.
    The past perfect tense is used when a past action was completed prior to another past action. Expressions such as "ya", "antes", "nunca", "todavía" and "después" will often appear in sentences where one action was completed before another.
    The auxiliary verb and the past participle are never separated. To make the sentence negative, add the word "no" before the conjugated form of haber.
  • 8. Present Perfect Irregulars
  • 9. Subjunctive Perfect
    Formed by the present subjunctive of haber and the past participle of the main verb.
    Used when a verb or expression requiring the subjunctive in the main clause is in the present, future, or present perfect.
  • 10. Tanto y Tan
    Both tan and tanto are used to compare equality. So what’s the difference?
    Tan is used to compare an adjective or an adverb while tanto is used to compare a noun.
    Tanto can also be conjugated to agree with the noun it modifies.
  • 11. Impersonal ‘se’
    In Spanish, you add the pronoun ‘se’ in front of verbs to make a general statement.
    Impersonal voice using ‘se’ will use a singular verb since ‘se’ can be replaced by uno ("one").
    The Plural Impersonal (unknown "they") does not use ‘se’.
  • 12. Saber vs. Conocer
    Both saber and conocer express the idea “to know”. However, these verbs are not interchangeable.
    Saber
    to know a fact, to know something thoroughly, to know how to do something
    Conocer
    to be acquainted with a person, place, or thing
  • 13. Los Mandatos
    Los mandatos are formal commands.
    To conjugate:
    Start with the ‘yo’
    Drop the ‘o’
    Add the following endings:
    For –ar
    For –er or -ir
  • 14. Informal affirmative
    These commands are used when addressing someone familiar by using ‘tu’
    The ‘tu’ commands use the ‘usted’ form, not the ‘tu’!
    To form
    Put it in the ‘yo’
    Drop the ‘o’
    Add the usted ending.
    (hablar - ar + a = habla)
    (comer - er + e = come)
    (escribir - ir + e = escribe)
  • 15. Informal Negative
    The negative informal commands use the ‘tú’ form of the present subjunctive, not the usted.
    To conjugate:
    Put it in the ‘yo’
    Drop the ‘o’
    Add the opposite ‘tu’ ending
    (hablar - ar + es = hables)
    (comer - er + as = comas)
    (escribir - ir + as = escribas)
  • 16. Informal Irregulars
    These irregulars only occur with affirmative tú commands.
    decir - di
    salir - sal
    hacer - haz
    ser - sé
    ir - ve
    tener - ten
    poner - pon
    venir – ven
    As with all other verbs, to form negative informal commands with these verbs, use the "tú" form of the present subjunctive.
  • 17. DOP Placement
    A direct object receives the action of the verb. The direct object can also be a person.
    It answers the question "what?" or "whom?" with regard to what the subject of the sentence is doing.
    Often, it is desirable to replace the name of the direct object with a pronoun.
    In Spanish, we replace the name with these pronouns:
    In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the direct object pronoun.
    Place it immediately before the conjugated verb.
    Attach it directly to the infinitive.
  • 18. IOP Placement
    the indirect object answers the question "To whom?" or "For whom?" the action of the verb is performed.
    When a pronoun takes the place of the name of the indirect object, use the following pronouns:
    In an affirmative statement with one verb, the indirect object pronoun comes immediately before the conjugated verb.
    In sentences with two verbs, there are two options regarding the placement of the indirect object pronoun.
    Place it immediately before the conjugated verb
    Attach it directly to the infinitive
  • 19. NosotrosAffermative
    Nosotros commands are used when the speaker is included, and are used to express the idea "let's + verb."
    To conjugate:
    Put it in the ‘yo’
    Drop the ‘o’
    Add the opposite nosotros ending.
  • 20. Nosotros Negative
    To negate the verb, simply add a ‘no’ before the verb.
    Nolevantamos…
    No mandemos…
  • 21. Mono Verbs
    If the verb is reflexive, you drop the final ‘s’ of the command form before attaching the reflexive pronoun.
    Mosnosbecomes monos.
  • 22. Subjunctive
    The subjunctive is not a tense, rather, it is a mood. Tense refers to when an action takes place, while mood merely reflects how the speaker feels about the action.
    The subjunctive mood is used to express everything except certainty and objectivity: things like doubt, uncertainty, subjectivity, etc.
    “Because there must be some uncertainty or subjectivity to warrant the use of the subjunctive, you will usually see it in sentences that contain a main clause which introduces a quality of uncertainty or subjectivity” (Study Spanish.com)
    I hope
    I feel
    To conjugate:
    Put it in the ‘yo’
    Drop the ‘o’
    Add the opposite ending
    Important to remember! –Ar and –Er verbs stem change as normal, but the –Ir verbs change in the nosotros and vosotros!
  • 23. Irregulars
    TEN:
    VEN:
    DAR: dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den
    IR: vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan
    SABER: sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan
    HABER: haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayáis, hayan
    ESTAR: esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén
    SER: sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean
  • 24. Trigger Phrases
    a menosque ...unless ...
    antes (de) que ...before ...
    con tal (de) que ...provided that ...
    cuando ...when ...
    convieneque ...it is advisable that ...
    después (de) que ...after ...
    dudarque ...to doubt that ...
    en caso de que ...in case ...
    en cuanto ...as soon as ...
    esaconsejableque ...it's advisable that ...
    esbuenoque ...it's good that ...
    esdifícilque ...it's unlikely that ...
    esdudosoque ...it is doubtful that ...
    esfácilque ...it's likely that ...
    esfantásticoque ...it's fantastic that ...
    esimportanteque ...it's important that ...
    esimposibleque ...it's impossible that ...
    es improbable que ...it's unlikely that ...
    esinciertoque ...it's uncertain that ...
    esincreíbleque ...it's incredible that ...
    es (una) lástimaque ...it's a pity that ...
    esmaloque ...it's bad that ...
    esmejorque ...it's better that ...
    esmenesterque ...it's necessary that ...
    esnecesarioque ...it's necessary that ...
    esperarque ...to wish that ...
    esposibleque ...it's possible that ...
    esprecisoque ...it's necessary that ...
    espreferibleque ...it's preferable that ...
    es probable que ...it's probable that ...
    esraroque ...it's rare that ...
    esridículoque ...it's ridiculous that ...
    estarcontentoqueto be happy that ...
    es terrible que ...it's terrible that ...
    hastaque ...until ...
    insistir en que ...to insist that ...
    mandarque ...to order that ...
    más vale que ...it's better that ...
    mientrasque ...while ...
    negarque ...to deny that ...
    no creerque ...not to believe that ...
    no esciertoque ...it's not certain that ...
    no estarconvencido de que ...to not be convinced that ...
    no estarseguro de que ...to not be sure that ...
    no esverdadque ...it's not true that ...
    no imaginarseque ...to not imagine that ...
    no parecerque ...to not seem that ...
    no pensarque ...to not think that ...
    no suponerque ...to not suppose that ...
    ojaláque ...if only he would ...
    paraque ...in order that ...
    pedirque ...to ask that ...
    preferirque ...to prefer that ...
    prohibirque ...to prohibit that ...
    puede ser que ...it may be that ...
    quererque ...to want that ...
    recomendarque ...to recommend that ...
    rogarque ...to plead that ...
    sentirque ...to regret that ...
    sin que ...without ...
    sugerirque ...to suggest that ...
    tan pronto como ...as soon as ...
    temerque ...to fear that ...
    tenermiedo de que ...to be afraid that ...
  • 25. Impersonal Expressions
    convieneque ... it is advisable that ...
    esaconsejableque ... it is advisable that ...
    esbuenoque ... it's good that ...
    esdifícilque ... it's unlikely that ...
    esdudosoque ... it's doubtful that ...
    esfácilque ... it's likely that ...
    esfantásticoque ... it's fantastic that ...
    esimportanteque ... it's important that ...
    esimposibleque ... it's impossible that ...
    es improbable que ... it's unlikely that ...
    esinciertoque ... it's uncertain that ...
    esincreíbleque ... it's incredible that ...
    es (una) lástimaque ... it's a shame that ...
    esmaloque ... it's bad that ...
    esmejorque ... it's better that ...
    esmenesterque ... it's necessary that ...
    esnecesarioque ... it's necessary that ...
    esposibleque ... it's possible that ...
    esprecisoque ... it's necessary that ...
    espreferibleque ... it's preferable that ...
    es probable que ... it's likely that ...
    esraroque ... it's rare that ...
    esridículoque ... it's ridiculous that ...
    es terrible que ... it's terrible that ...
    más vale que ... it's better that ...
    ojaláque ...
    if only he would …
    puede ser que ... it could be that ...
  • 26. Expressions of Emotion
  • 27. Conjunctions of Time
  • 28. Demonstrative Adjectives
    Demonstrative adjectives describe the noun they are modifying.
    Adjectives answer the question “WHICH?” in relation to the noun they modify.
    This and that can also function as adjectives. The same is true in Spanish!
    Spanish has three “this and that” words while English has only two:
    Este (this)
    Ese (that)
    Aquel (that one over there)
  • 29. Demonstrative Pronouns
    Pronouns take the place of the nouns they are modifying
    este (this one - masculine)estos (these ones - masculine)esta (this one - feminine)estas (these ones - feminine)
    ese (that one - masculine)esos (those ones - masculine)esa (that one - feminine)esas (those ones - feminine)
    aquel (that one over there - masc.)aquellos (those ones over there - masc.)aquella (that one over there - fem.)aquellas (those ones over there - fem.)