Right to freedom


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  • When a person is talking on telehone he is expressing his
  • Right to freedom

    1. 2. <ul><li>Six fundamental freedom [Article 19] </li></ul><ul><li>Protection in respect of conviction [Article 20] </li></ul><ul><li>Protection in life and personal liberty [Article 21] </li></ul><ul><li>Right to education. [Article 21-A] </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases [Article 22] </li></ul>
    2. 3. <ul><li>SIX FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS </li></ul><ul><li>[ ARTICLE 19 ] </li></ul>
    3. 4. <ul><li>Freedom of speech and expression; [ 19(1) (a), 19(2) ] </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to assemble peaceably and without arms; </li></ul><ul><li>[ 19(1) (b), 19(3) ] </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to form association or union; [ 19(1) (c) 19(4) ] </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India; [ 19(1) (d), 19(5) ] </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to reside and settle in any part of territory of India; [ 19(1) (e), 19(6) ] </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business. [ 19(1) (f), 19(7) ] </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>CANNOT BE CLAIMED BY FOREIGNER </li></ul>
    5. 6. 1 <ul><li>Freedom of speech and expression; [ARTICLE 19(1) (a) & 19(2)] </li></ul>
    6. 7. MEANING OF Freedom of speech and expression; <ul><li>Right to speak and express one’s opinion by: </li></ul><ul><li>Words of mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Painting </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures or </li></ul><ul><li>Any other manner. </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>To express one’s opinion or idea freely through any communicable medium </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to hold opinion without interference </li></ul><ul><li>To seek and receive information and idea through any medium. </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>SCOPE </li></ul>
    10. 11. I. Right to know and obtain information <ul><li>Freedom of information act, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of information amendment act, 2005 </li></ul>
    11. 12. <ul><li>Freedom of speech and expression includes: </li></ul><ul><li>Right to educate and to be educated </li></ul><ul><li>Right to inform and to be informed. </li></ul><ul><li>Ozair husain v. union of India AIR 2003 Delhi 103 </li></ul>
    12. 13. RESTRICTIONS/EXCEPTIONS: <ul><li>Government would be entitled to withhold information related to: </li></ul><ul><li>International investigation </li></ul><ul><li>National security and public safety </li></ul><ul><li>Investigation, detection and prevention of crime </li></ul><ul><li>Internal deliberation of the govt. </li></ul><ul><li>Information received in confidence from a source outside the govt. </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>Information, if disclosed, would violate the privacy of individual </li></ul><ul><li>Information of economic nature (including trade secretes) </li></ul><ul><li>Information about scientific discoveries. </li></ul>
    14. 15. II. RIGHT OF CITIZENS/VOTERS TO KNOW THE ANTECEDENT OF THE CANDIDATES AT ELECTION. <ul><li>Voter speak out/express by casting vote </li></ul><ul><li>Right to know the criminal past </li></ul><ul><li>Debarring candidate from contesting elections if charge have been framed against him by the court of law. </li></ul>
    15. 16. III. Freedom of silence-----right not to speak <ul><li>No person could be compelled to sing National Anthem </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of expression also include right not to speak </li></ul>
    16. 17. <ul><li>Right to reply or answer the criticism against one’s views </li></ul><ul><li>Right against sound pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Right of convict to express himself </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of press </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Freedom in the volume of news or views </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial advertisement </li></ul><ul><li>Right to exhibit film on doordarshan. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to fly the national flag </li></ul><ul><li>Art19(1) (a) recognizes no geographical barrier </li></ul>
    18. 19. RESTRICTIONS ON FREEDOM OF SPEECH AND EXPRESSION <ul><li>SECURITY OF STATE </li></ul><ul><li>Expression which incite or encourage the commission of offence </li></ul><ul><li>Danger to the security of state as well as endangering the part of the state. </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>FRIENDLY RELATION WITH THE FOREIGN STATE. </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLIC ORDER </li></ul><ul><li>DEFAMATION </li></ul><ul><li>INCITEMENT TO AN OFFENCE </li></ul>
    20. 21. 2 <ul><li>FREEDOM TO ASSEMBLE PEACEABLY AND WITHOUT ARMS </li></ul><ul><li>[ARTICLE 19(1)(b), 19(3)] </li></ul>
    21. 22. scope <ul><li>Corollary of right to freedom of speech and expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Holding assembly to hold consultation, to express one’s view. </li></ul><ul><li>To meet peacefully for consultation in respect of public affairs. </li></ul>
    22. 23. RESTRICTIONS ON FREEDOM OF FREEDOM TO ASSEMBLY 19(3)] <ul><li>Assembly must be peaceful </li></ul><ul><li>It must be unarmed </li></ul><ul><li>State may impose reasonable restrictions in the interest of public order and integrity of India </li></ul><ul><li>No right to hold assembly on private property of others. </li></ul>
    23. 24. 3 <ul><li>FREEDOM TO FORM ASSOCIATIN OR UNION [ARTICLE 19(1)(c), 19(4) </li></ul>
    24. 25. <ul><li>Corollary of right to freedom of speech and expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential to democracy </li></ul>
    25. 26. 4 <ul><li>FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT [ARTICLE 19(1)(d), 19(5) </li></ul>
    26. 27. FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT 19(1)(d), <ul><li>Right to move freely in the territory of india. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to move wherever one likes, whenever one likes. </li></ul>
    27. 28. 5 <ul><li>FREEDOM OF AND RESIDENT 19(1)(e) </li></ul>
    28. 29. OBJECT <ul><li>To make citizens national minded </li></ul><ul><li>Underline the concept that India is one unit </li></ul>
    29. 30. 6 <ul><li>FREEDOM TO PRACTICE ANY PROFESSION, OR TO CARRY ON ANY OCCUPATION, TRADE OR BUSINESS. </li></ul><ul><li>[19 (1)(g), 19(6) </li></ul>
    31. 38. <ul><li>Constitute limitations on the legitimate powers of the parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Article 20 provides protection against </li></ul><ul><li>Ex-post facto laws [20(1)] </li></ul><ul><li>Double jeopardy [20(2)] </li></ul><ul><li>Self incrimination [20(3)] </li></ul>
    32. 39. 1 EX-POST FACTO LAWS <ul><li>Law declaring offence subsequent to the commission of an offence. </li></ul><ul><li>(no one can be convicted except for violation of a law in force.) </li></ul><ul><li>(criminal law amendment act, 1952, sec 165A- IPC– bribe as a crime) </li></ul><ul><li>Law enhancing penalty subsequent to the commission of the offence. </li></ul><ul><li>(no person shall be subject to a penalty greater than that which might have been inflicted under the law in force at the time of commission of an offence.) </li></ul>
    33. 40. <ul><li>Beneficial ex-facto laws. </li></ul><ul><li>The ex-facto laws which have reduced the rigour of a criminal law, does not fall within the prohibition of Article 20(1). </li></ul><ul><li>Procedural ex-facto laws. </li></ul><ul><li>( law enacted subsequent to the commission of an offence , prescribing a new procedure, different from the ordinary procedure or trial, is not hit by Article 20(1). </li></ul>
    34. 41. 2. DOUBLE JEOPARDY [20(2)] <ul><li>No person shall be prosecuted and punished for the same offence more than once. </li></ul><ul><li>Nemo debet bis vexari </li></ul><ul><li>( no one shall be put in jeopardy twice for the same offence) </li></ul>
    35. 42. 3. SELF INCRIMINATION [20(3)] <ul><li>No person accused of an offence shall be compelled to be witness against himself. </li></ul><ul><li>Nemo tenetur prodere accussare seipsum </li></ul><ul><li>( no man is bound to accuse himself) </li></ul>
    36. 43. <ul><li>Protection is available if following ingredients are present: </li></ul><ul><li>It is protection available to a person accused of an offence </li></ul><ul><li>It is a protection against compulsion to be a witness; and </li></ul><ul><li>It is a protection against such compulsion resulting in his giving evidence against himself </li></ul>
    37. 44. <ul><li>RIGHT TO LIFE AND PERSONAL LIBERTY [ARTICLE 21] </li></ul>
    38. 45. <ul><li>Applicable to </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Non citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Only to a natural person </li></ul>
    39. 46. <ul><li>Fullest opportunity to develop one’s personality and potentiality to the highest level possible </li></ul><ul><li>Right to live decently as a member of a civilised society. </li></ul>
    40. 47. <ul><li>Right to live with human dignity </li></ul><ul><li>Right to reputation </li></ul><ul><li>Right to livelihood </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment of women at work places. </li></ul><ul><li>Right to shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Right to live in unpolluted environment </li></ul><ul><li>Right to education </li></ul>
    41. 48. <ul><li>Right against honour killing </li></ul><ul><li>Right to health and timely medical aid </li></ul><ul><li>(duty of govt. for focusing and giving priority to the health of its citizens) </li></ul><ul><li>Duty to preserve life </li></ul><ul><li>( in the hands 0f police authority and public authority) </li></ul><ul><li>No right to die or commit suicide </li></ul><ul><li>(sec. 309- IPC) </li></ul>
    42. 49. <ul><li>RIGHT TO EDUCATION [ARTICLE 21-A] </li></ul>
    43. 50. <ul><li>86 th amendment act, 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>The State shall provide free and compulsory education to children of the age of 6-14 yrs </li></ul>
    44. 51. <ul><li>PROTECTION AGAIST ARREST AND DETENTION [RTICLE 22] </li></ul>
    45. 52. <ul><li>Right to be informed of the grounds of arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Right to consult and to be defended by a legal practitioner </li></ul><ul><li>Right to be produced before the nearest magistrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Right not to detained in custody beyond 24 hours without the authority of the magistrate. </li></ul>