Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Pharmacy Module 1
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Pharmacy Module 1

4,324
views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine, Business

1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,324
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
96
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The Pharmacy Technician: Chapter 1 History
  • 2. Five Historical Periods
    • Ancient Era: The beginning of time to 1600 AD
    • Empiric Era: 1600 to 1940
    • Industrialization Era: 1940 to 1970
    • Patient Care Era: 1970 to present
    • Biotechnology and genetic engineering: The new horizon
  • 3. The Ancient Era
    • Leaves, mud, and cool water were used to stop bleeding and heal wounds
    • Early man learned from watching injured animals’ behaviors
  • 4. Ancient Era
    • Knowledge of materials with healing properties was passed down through the tribes
    • Medical information was documented on clay tablets around 2600 BC
  • 5. The Beginnings of Pharmacy
    • The Ebers Papyrus, written around 1500 BC, contained formulas for more than 800 remedies
    • Each tribe had a designated person who was the equivalent of a priest, pharmacist, and physician all in one
  • 6. The Beginnings of Pharmacy
    • The earliest known record of the practice of pharmacy occurred in Mesopotamia around 2600 BC.
    • Herbs were the predominant form of curatives
  • 7. The Greeks
    • Hippocrates, the “father of medicine,” liberated medicine from the belief that disease was caused by spiritual reasons
    • Theophrastus, the “father of botany,” classified plants by their various parts
  • 8. The Greeks
    • Mithridates studied the adverse effects of plants and later became known as the “father of toxicology”
  • 9. The Romans
    • The Romans organized medical and pharmaceutical knowledge and converted theories into scientific rules
    • The Romans, as well as the Greeks, were responsible for preparing their own prescriptions
  • 10. The Romans
    • The Romans initiated the first job titles of various pharmacy-related personnel
  • 11. Other Pioneers
    • Dioscorides began the transition of the Greek system of knowledge into the Roman system of science; he is known as the “father of pharmacology”
  • 12. Other Pioneers
    • Galen, a Greek physician, wrote “On the Art of Healing,” and was very critical of physicians who did not prepare their own remedies
    • Cosmos and Damien, the patron saints of pharmacy and medicine, practiced both disciplines around 300 AD
  • 13. Roman Pharmacy Titles
    • Pharmacopeia — makers of remedies
    • Pharmacotritae — drug grinders
    • Unguentarii — makers of ointments
    • Pigmentarii –— makers of cosmetics
    • Pharmacopolae — sellers of drugs
    • Aromatarii — dealers in spices
  • 14. The Arabian Influence
    • Formularies — continuation of documentation of drug information
    • Dosage forms — syrups, conserves, confections, and juleps
  • 15. The Arabian Influence
    • Pharmacy shops — first appeared in Baghdad around 762 AD, and were privately owned
    • Hospital pharmacies followed in Marrakech around 1190 AD
  • 16. The Italian Influence
    • Europe’s first university was established in Salerno, and was responsible for major contributions to pharmacy and medicine
    • The Magna Carta of Pharmacy, separating pharmacy from medicine, was issued by Emperor Frederick II
    • Guilds of pharmacists were established
  • 17. New Ideas
    • A Swiss physician, Paracelsus, contradicted the Galenic theories of botanical orientation to medicine with his own theories based on chemicals
  • 18. New Ideas
    • Monasteries became host to their own pharmacies
    • Germany became the first to governmentally regulate its pharmacies
  • 19. The Influence of Royalty
    • Pharmacists who worked for royal families provided specialized services, and were known as apothecaries
    • New medicinal herbal substances, plants, trees, and seeds began to be used
    • Better documentation of this new knowledge began to occur
  • 20. The Renaissance
    • Pharmacy became separated from medicine
    • Pharmacy regulation began
    • University education of pharmacists was now required
  • 21. The Renaissance
    • Larger quantities of known and new drugs were imported from the New World and the Orient
    • New chemical medicines were introduced
  • 22. The Empiric Era
    • Pharmacopeias became the regulatory tools of government, with standardized medicines listed
    • Existing medications were questioned and tested as to their actual effectiveness
  • 23. The Empiric Era
    • In the 18th century, pharmacy began to develop in the colonies of the New World
    • In 1751, Benjamin Franklin started the first hospital in America
  • 24. The Empiric Era
    • The first hospital pharmacist was Jonathan Roberts
    • William Proctor introduced control into the practice of pharmacy in the New World
  • 25. Drugs Discovered in the 19th Century
    • Quinine
    • Caffeine
    • Morphine
    • Codeine
    • Niacin
    • Adrenalin
    • Penicillin
    • Phenobarbital
    • Testosterone
  • 26. The Industrialization Era
    • Firms other than the pharmacies themselves began centralized manufacturing of medicinal preparations
  • 27. The Industrialization Era
    • The periods of development of manufacturing pharmacy began as follows:
      • Formative (1867)
      • Botanical (1875)
      • Standardization (1882)
      • Organic Chemicals (1883)
  • 28. The Industrialization Era
      • Biological (1895)
      • Hormones (1901)
      • Vitamins (1909)
      • Antibiotics (1940)
  • 29. The Growth of Industrialization
    • Large amounts of war-related injuries required industrial manufacturing in order to meet the need for pharmaceutical products
    • Many retail pharmacists protested the industrialization of manufacturing
  • 30. The Growth of Industrialization
    • Industrialization brought about biologically prepared products, complex chemical synthesis, increased use of parenteral medications, and standardized manufacturing
  • 31. Retail Pharmacy
    • The pharmaceutical industry created new needs, to the advantage of retail pharmacy
    • Retail pharmacy has proved to be indispensable and irreplaceable as the fitting and distributing agency of medicinal products
  • 32. Retail Pharmacy
    • Manufacturing and retail pharmacy are two branches of the same tree
  • 33. The Patient Care Era
    • Increased concentration on rational, targeted research through the use of computers
    • Increased number of available medicines
  • 34. The Patient Care Era
    • Well-coordinated teams of scientists with other professions such as statisticians and financial managers
    • Multiple drug therapy, however, led to adverse reactions, interactions, and therapeutic outcomes that were greater or less than desired
  • 35. Patient-Focused Drug Therapy
    • Also thought of as drug control or drug monitoring
    • C.D. Hepler established the concept of pharmaceutical care around 1988
    • A pharmacist’s education must now focus on human behavior as it relates to providing practiced, patient-focused care
  • 36. The New Horizon
    • Research into gene therapy and genetic defects has greatly increased
    • Recombinant DNA technology is producing new medications based on the patient’s genetic make-up
  • 37. The New Horizon
    • Some medications that come from natural sources, such as insulin, are prone to producing allergies
    • Genetic research is involved in the pursuit of cures for major diseases, such as cancer