China analysis over the period and struggle


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China analysis over the period and struggle

  1. 4. HISTORY: THE HISTORY OF CHINA, AS DOCUMENTED IN ANCIENT WRITINGS, DATES BACK SOME 3,300 YEARS <ul><li>Ancient Era </li></ul><ul><li>Xia Dynasty(2100-1600 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Shang Dynasty(1700-1046BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Dynasty(1066-256 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Spring and Autumn Period(722-476BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Warring State Period(476-221 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Qing Dynasty Era221 BC to 1911 </li></ul><ul><li>Modern Era </li></ul><ul><li>Republic of China(1912-1949) </li></ul><ul><li>People’s Republic of China (From 1949) </li></ul><ul><li>Republic of China(Taiwan)(From 1945) </li></ul>
  2. 5. <ul><li>GEOGRAPHY: </li></ul><ul><li>LOCATION : </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam. </li></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATE: </li></ul><ul><li>35 00 N, 105 00 E </li></ul><ul><li>AREA: </li></ul><ul><li>total: 9,596,961 sq km </li></ul><ul><li>country comparison to the world: 4 </li></ul><ul><li>land: 9,569,901 sq km </li></ul><ul><li>water: 27,060 sq km </li></ul><ul><li>Total Boundaries- 22,117 km </li></ul><ul><li>TERRAIN: </li></ul><ul><li>mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL RESOURCES: </li></ul><ul><li>Coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest) </li></ul>
  3. 6. <ul><li>LAND USE: </li></ul><ul><li>arable land: 14.86% </li></ul><ul><li>permanent crops: 1.27% </li></ul><ul><li>other: 83.87% (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>NATURAL HAZARDS: </li></ul><ul><li>frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence </li></ul><ul><li>GEOGRAPHY NOTE: </li></ul><ul><li>world's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US); Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak </li></ul>
  4. 7. GEOGRAPHY <ul><li>Location: Eastern Asia, </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries: 22117km total, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma, Inda, Kkazakhstan, North Korea,Nepal, Russia,Tjikistan, Vietnam, Hong Kong, Macau </li></ul><ul><li>Coastline:14500km. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate:Extremely diverse, Tropicalin south to subarctic in north </li></ul><ul><li>Terrain: Mostly mountains, high plateaus, desert in west, plains, deltas and high hills in east </li></ul>
  5. 8. <ul><li>Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, petroleum, Natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, Antimony, Manganese, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Aluminum, lead zinc, Uranium and Hydro Power plant which is world’s largest. </li></ul>
  6. 9. PEOPLE <ul><li>Total population1,321,858,88 (July 2007 est.) </li></ul>Age group Percentage Male Female 0-14 20.4% 1,43,527,634 1,26,607,344 15-64 71.7% 4,87,079,770 4,60,596,384 >65 7.9% 49,683,856 54,356,900
  7. 10. UNDER QING DYNASTY <ul><li>Pourtuguese started trade in Macau in 1567 </li></ul><ul><li>East India Company talked Qing Emperor and started trade from Canton. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade from China was basically in Silk and Tea. </li></ul><ul><li>China had trade surplus in starting. </li></ul><ul><li>The surplus was reversed when Europians including East India Company started trade in Opium . </li></ul><ul><li>Qing emperor restricted trade of opium seeing the worsening condition of Chinese people. </li></ul><ul><li>Restriction led to two Opium war of 1839–1842, 1856–1860 </li></ul><ul><li>The war followed treaties of Nanjing and the Treaty of Tianjin with USA, France and UK led to open doors to 4 other ports and Hong Kong was ceded to UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade doors opened for the imperialist nations. </li></ul>
  8. 11. Treaty of Nianjing Opium war
  9. 12. <ul><li>First Sino-Japanese War 1894 –1895 . </li></ul><ul><li>Manchurian province, Korea, Taiwan was cede by Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Boxer Rebellion1898-1901 which took place in response to anti-imperialist expansion involving European opium traders, political invasion, economic manipulation, and missionaries. </li></ul><ul><li>The foreigners had to stay in legislation quarters for 55 days in exile till the 8 nations army reached to suppress the Rebellions. </li></ul><ul><li>China had to pay war indeminitty of 67-million pounds 450 million taels(37g) of silver, to be paid as indemnity to the eight nations involved. </li></ul><ul><li>Fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912. </li></ul>
  10. 14. RISE OF THE KUOMINTANG PARTY <ul><li>Qing Dynasty condition worsened and the Party leader of Nationalist party or Republic of China Sun Yet Yan took over the China. </li></ul><ul><li>He enhanced industrial growth and education. </li></ul><ul><li>Chian kai shek dictatorship after the death of Sun yet Yan in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideologically a capitalist led to increased intervention of the Capitalist and the gap between people increased. </li></ul>
  11. 15. CONDITIONS OF RURAL AREAS <ul><li>The pre-socialist was overwhelmingly rural, about 85 % of people lived in the countryside and majority of them farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>Then 362,000 squares miles were under cultivation which constituted 10 % of the total gross land. </li></ul><ul><li>90% of the Chinese population used to live in only one-sixth of the total land area. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70% of all farms were under 1 hectare. </li></ul>
  12. 16. <ul><li>Most of the rural borrowings was for such consumption purpose, and led to vicious cycle of borrowing to repay past debts and interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Estimates of the incidence of peasants indebtness in 1930s range39 to 56 % </li></ul><ul><li>More than three fourth of farm credit was given by merchants , landlordwealthy farmers, village shops and the interest rate ranged from 20 to 40 %. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who were unable to pay back had to give their lans in return. This led to the farmers lose their lands to lenders and again they were </li></ul>
  13. 17. FORMATION OF PEOPLES REPUBLIC OF CHINA <ul><li>Mao was working as a librarian at Beijing University it was than he came in the influence of Marx. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao continued to work among the peasants of Hunan Province. </li></ul><ul><li>He began establishing peasant based soviets (Communist-run local governments) along the border between Hunan and Jiangxi provinces. In collaboration with military commander Zhu De. Mao turned the local peasants into a politicized guerrilla force. </li></ul><ul><li>By the winter of 1927-28, the combined &quot;peasants' and workers'&quot; army had some 10,000 troops. Also selected province Jiangxi where 22,000 labors and peasant joined in </li></ul><ul><li>Communists set up their headquarters at Yan‘ an, where the movement would grow rapidly for the next ten years. </li></ul>
  14. 19. RESPONSE OF NATIONALIST PARTY <ul><li>The existence of the Nationalist party came into danger seeing the rising power of the communist. </li></ul><ul><li>Meanwhile the Chian ki shek feared the rising power of Japanese in Manchuria. </li></ul><ul><li>He attacked the Japanese power and started losing the major cities. He asked the help of USA </li></ul><ul><li>Entrance of USA in World War was provoked by the attack of Japanese on Pearl Harbour. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan lost the war and had to give up its power from Manchurian, Korea and Taiwan. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist rose to power. </li></ul><ul><li>The communist were attacked in their home provinces where they were growing and totally devastated. </li></ul>
  15. 20. <ul><li>Mao started his long march of China of 8000 miles for a whole year motivating people and forming strong party against the Nationalists. </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea under PRK helped Mao with its rail cart and a huge army to establish command on Manchurian state </li></ul><ul><li>After a long Civil war between the Peasent soldiers and the Capitalist Nationalist government, PRA won its power over KPC. </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist government were send to Taiwan where they rule till today. </li></ul><ul><li>PRC established itself in China. </li></ul>
  16. 21. CHINA UNDER PRC AFTER LIBERATION <ul><li>After liberation the Soviet union occupied Manchuria and carted home over half the surviving capital stock. </li></ul><ul><li>Economically weak after a long wars. </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperinflation. </li></ul><ul><li>High gap between rich and poors. </li></ul><ul><li>It had to go Korean war in 1950 with N Korea China and USSR in parrell and USA & S. Korea on other. </li></ul><ul><li>It again weakened China’s economy. </li></ul>
  17. 22. THREE YEARS OF REFORM(1949-1952) <ul><li>The strategy which was aimed at fostering production and economic growth through protecting the private property of national capitalist and small producers , including farmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao was not favouring total wiping of capitalism and upper bourgeois or middle bourgeois in starting. </li></ul><ul><li>According to him it was necessary for China to overcome its economic backwardness due to wars, civil wars and indemnities which was only possible by supporting the state regulated capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>China first tried experimentally heavy industrialisation with the help of Soviet in Manchuria. </li></ul><ul><li>The first five year plan oriented basic three things, to build 694 specific large scale industrial construction projects, especially 156 soviet projects concerned economic construction, to foster the growth of farm and handicraft cooperatives and to bring the bulk of private industry and commerce into the orbit state capitalism </li></ul>
  18. 23. <ul><li>The USSR was willing to help in the form of plants, machienary and the systems of organisation </li></ul><ul><li>This also reduced the high employment in China. </li></ul><ul><li>The state quickly became the supplier of the goods that made up the average person’s budget. </li></ul><ul><li>Land reform was taken out from 1950 to 1953 under which not only land but animals farm implements surplus grain were also redistributed except for the other properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 300 million peasants received 700million of arable land and other means of production free of charge. </li></ul><ul><li>Gross output of agriculture increased by almost one half between 1949-1952. </li></ul>
  19. 24. FIRST FIVE YEAR PLAN 1952-1957 <ul><li>Social changes brought like women empowerment, stopping child marriage, checking opium addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>After three years of industrial stabilisation party started campaign sufan and wufan under which growing tie between the state and the private sector was checked. </li></ul><ul><li>Party checked the corruption under five evils bribery of government workers, tax evasion, theft of state property, cheating on government contracts and stealing economic information from the state. </li></ul><ul><li>After Korean war property of the foreign country like France US UK etc which led to trade embargo and the transaction were freezed in America. </li></ul>
  20. 25. <ul><li>Concept of Mutual aid team MAT and Lower stage agriculture producer cooperatives LAPCs came into existence. </li></ul><ul><li>In MAT the 3-5 household that banded together to help each other in heavy cropping season. By 1952, 40% of household were under MAT. </li></ul><ul><li>By autumn of 1954 LAPCs were raised to a no. of 114000 constituting 4% of the peasant population. LAPCs had no. of household ranging10-20 but some also ha 200 households with a average land of 84 acres. </li></ul><ul><li>Banishment of all religious and mystic institutions and ceremonies in the country side and replacement with political meetings and propaganda sessions. </li></ul>
  21. 26. REFORMS DURING 1955-1957 <ul><li>Centralisation of political power. </li></ul><ul><li>Situation lead to administrative decentralisation during these two years. </li></ul><ul><li>This political decentralisation required local organisation capable of exercising effective leadership to achieve political acceptable goals in municipalities, counties and communes with the broad directions mapped by the centre. </li></ul><ul><li>Full collectivization of rural areas. </li></ul>
  22. 27. <ul><li>In great leap forward this decentralisation effected much in three ways : </li></ul><ul><li>First the economic activity was formulated by local leaders inspite of the professional planner. </li></ul><ul><li>Second it gave authority to the local leader ideologically whipped up to make maximum effort to raise China’s economy and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Third the variance and lack of leadership led to inter communal disparity. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1955, 27% of artisans were organised in groups of co-operatives </li></ul><ul><li>Finally by 1957 China had a total no of 75000 collectives with average 164 household each. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderates within the Party, including Zhou Enlai, argued for a reversal of collectivization. </li></ul>
  23. 28. HUNDERED FLOWERS CAMPAIGN <ul><li>Refers to a brief interlude in the People's Republic of China from 1956 to 1957 during which the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) encouraged a variety of views and solutions to national policy issues. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a small campaign which gave intellects of China to express their thoughts for or against CCP. </li></ul><ul><li>Premier Zhou Enlai was the head of this first campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>In the chance to express students at Peking University created a &quot;Democratic Wall&quot; on which they criticized the CCP with posters. </li></ul><ul><li>In July 1957, Mao ordered a halt to the campaign. </li></ul>
  24. 29. SECOND FIVE YEAR PLAN (GREAT LEAP FORWARD) <ul><li>Central idea behind the Great Leap was “Rapid development of China's agricultural and industrial sectors in parallel” </li></ul><ul><li>Commune formation was done rest part of the country in </li></ul><ul><li>Mao targeted double the production of the UK’s steel production. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing community dinning rooms, nurseries, crèches and socialising household work, the commune also freed women from working outside the home. </li></ul><ul><li>Back yard furnace was started in every commune and urban neighborhood. </li></ul><ul><li>Workers were diverted from agriculture to furnaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Impractical agriculture technology were including close cropping, and deep sowing. </li></ul>
  25. 30. IMAPCT OF GREAT LEAP FORWARD <ul><li>The political motivated exggeration of harvest size and the destruction of objective reporting systems kept the leadership in the dark about real supply condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive procurement of grain was a primer contributor to the shortages in the countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Local leaders falsely reported ever higher grain production which led to withdraw of consumption grain and finally led to Famine. </li></ul><ul><li>Untested innovations generally led to decreases in grain production. </li></ul><ul><li>3 years of the disaster caused death of around 38-40 million people, Diversion of agricultural workers to steel production instead of growing crops, and exporting grain at the same time, lead it all. </li></ul><ul><li>During the Great Leap, the Chinese economy initially grew. Iron production increased 45% in 1958 and a combined 30% over the next two years, but plummeted in 1961, and did not reach the previous 1958 level until 1964. </li></ul>
  26. 31. PEOPLE'S COMMUNE (1958 TO 1978) <ul><li>First experimental commune was established at Chayashan in Henan in April 1958 </li></ul><ul><li>During 1958 around 26,000 communes were established which were raised to no. 78000 by 1960s. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 80 percent of the population or 800 million people live on communes, which now number 50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>The communes average about 16,000 persons or 3,800 households each; individual commune sizes vary widely from the average, with communes in mountainous region much smaller than the average while those in flat, densely-populated plains areas not uncom-monly reaching 60-70,000 members. </li></ul><ul><li>The communes are divided into four levels, each of which has its own sources of income and each of which has its own sphere of decision-making autonomy. The four levels are the commune, the brigade, the team and the household. </li></ul>
  27. 32. COMMUNE STRUCTURE: Communes Brigades (avg.15 per commune) Team Household (avg 253 Household per Brigade) People (avg. 1067 people per brigade)
  28. 33. ECONOMY RECOVERY 1962-1965 <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>DEVLOPMENT STRATEGY </li></ul><ul><li>MAJOR STEPS </li></ul>
  29. 34. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>In Yanan days Mao aware that economic development require new technological and organization skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery began in 1962.and Industry made substantial progress in establishing new lines of production ,improving quality and increasing varieties and it also turned out rapidly growing supplies of fertilizer, electric pumps and other types of farm equipment and inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>China also began in 1961 to import food grain from the west annual quantities of 5-6 million tons. </li></ul>
  30. 35. DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY <ul><li>Slogan of recovery “Readjustment, Consolidation ,Filling out, and standard. </li></ul><ul><li>This strategy emerged officially from Ninth plenum of Eight Central Committee in January 1961. </li></ul><ul><li>Taking Agriculture as foundation,industry as leading factor of the national economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Later policy was sharpened in 1962 by placing agriculture at the top of priority list :Agriculture , light industry, heavy industry </li></ul><ul><li>Mao Assumption “in 5 yrs there will be 1 year of good harvest ,2 year ordinary harvest and 2 year poor harvest. </li></ul>
  31. 36. <ul><li>Planning and Industrial Managment </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture organization and technical change </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture mechanization </li></ul>
  32. 37. MAO ZEDONG AND THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION Life for the workers
  33. 38. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution ( 无产阶级文化大革命 ), was started in 1966. </li></ul><ul><li>It was set up to secure Maoism and eliminate Political Opponents. </li></ul><ul><li>It officially ended in 1969, when Mao himself admitted that the revolution had ended. </li></ul><ul><li>Over this period of four years, many died and millions more imprisoned. The leaders of the Cultural Revolution remained in power, even after the end of the Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The period is widely considered to have been a period of economic stagnation. </li></ul>
  34. 39. <ul><li>It can be divided into more or less distinct phase. </li></ul><ul><li>First Phase was narrowly “culture phase”. </li></ul><ul><li>Later spring 1966, the Cultural Revolution moved into university campuses and into the streets and was dominited by the activities of the ‘red guard’. </li></ul><ul><li>Mao order destroy “four olds”-old ideas ,old culture, old customs, old habits. </li></ul>
  35. 40. INTRODUCTION TO THE RED GUARD <ul><li>The Red Guard is the name given to the hundreds of thousands of students who left their schools to spread Mao’s message; that the Moderates were bringing China down the ‘Capitalist Road’, and needed to return to pure Communism once again </li></ul><ul><li>They were responsible for a majority of the chaos created during the Cultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>They traveled the countryside and visited factories, etc. to spread the message. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the Cultural Revolution, they were sent to the countryside to ‘learn from the peasants’. </li></ul>
  36. 41. Influence – The Red Guard <ul><li>They had the workers arrange meetings so frequent that production came to a stand still. Anyone who complained was accused of being a bourgeois, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Vandalism was also common, as the Red Guard started to stamp out authorities, like the leader of the factory, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of violence ensued </li></ul><ul><li>This meant that national output fell dramatically during the course of the Cultural Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>This caused the Chinese economy to be crippled through the three-year duration of the Cultural Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The third phase which occurred in late 1966 and early 1967 ,saw workers seize power in number of cities and in numerous factories </li></ul>
  37. 42. INFLUENCE - POLITICAL <ul><li>Later, the Gang of Four, especially Jiang Qing considered everything as Capitalist; they condemned a basic theory that production power decided the relation of production to the character of the society as ‘Revisionism’; in a sense referring to looking back to the past. </li></ul><ul><li>They agitated workers openly by saying ‘[not to] fear to stop production and work’. </li></ul><ul><li>They disliked modernism; they referred the introduction of technological plants as ‘worshipping and toadying to foreign countries’. </li></ul><ul><li>Most workers complained about the Four’s policies, and made an effort to produce. However, a decline in production was impossible, with their constant exposure to slogans created by Jiang's groups </li></ul>
  38. 43. AFTER CULTURE REVOLUTION <ul><li>What did the campaign for students bring in the end? First there was a lack of good talent. There were about a million college students who had neglected their studies, senior high school students were more than two millions. In some regions all the high school graduates were transferred to the countryside, and senior high schools closed completely. .Some students recommenced with their studies after the revolution, but most students' remained at high school level or below. Difference between the educational levels of China and that of the world grew with the campaign, consequently there remained many problems, as now China was in an educational dive. </li></ul>
  39. 44. REASSEMENTS <ul><li>As Mao Zedong’s health began to decline in 1971 and 1972, Zhou Enlai and the Gang of Four struggled internally over leadership of China. Zhou's health was also failing however, and he died eight months before Mao on 8 January 1976. </li></ul><ul><li>Hua was credited for quickly ousting the Gang of Four from political power and thus became the leader whose emergence marked the end of the Cultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Ten Year Plan announced by Hua Guofeng at the First Session of the Fifth National Party Congress in February 1978. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of the reform program was not to abandon communism but to make it work better by substantially increasing the role of market mechanisms in the system and by reducing--not eliminating-- government planning and direct control. </li></ul>
  40. 45. <ul><li>Reiteration of the left goal of ‘gradual transition’ from team to commune ownership. </li></ul><ul><li>The plan resurrected Zhou Enlai’s call for ‘Four Modernizations’ (of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology) to enable China to reach the ‘front ranks’ of the world at the end of the century. </li></ul><ul><li>But accelerating inflation in the West raised the cost of China’s machinery, equipment, and food imports, while world-wide capitalist recession kept Chinese exports down. The result was unexpectedly large balance of payments deficit in 1974, which may have added fuel to the left attack against Deng Xiaoping the following year. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1978, according to one Chinese source, twenty-two large-scale projects were ‘introduced for abroad all at once’, which not only exceeded China’s ability to pay, but also saddled the country with an obligation to commit an even greater sum to the provision of ancillary equipment and parts </li></ul>
  41. 46. <ul><li>Farm quotas for individual households, and division of land among households done. </li></ul><ul><li>Steel output 60 million tons was targeted. </li></ul><ul><li>China’s new leaders intended to resurrect the earlier economic opening to the West which had been partially aborted in 1975. </li></ul><ul><li>It will be recalled that China’s trade tripled between 1971 and 1975, and that the share of non-communist countries in that trade rose to almost 85 percent. But accelerating inflation in the West raised the cost of China’s export. </li></ul><ul><li>As Deng Xiaoping gradually gained control over the CCP, Hua was denounced for promoting the Two Whatevers ( &quot;We will resolutely uphold whatever policy decisions Chairman Mao made, and unswervingly follow whatever instructions Chairman Mao gave ) policy and replaced by Zhao Ziyang as Premier in 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>Though new policies were adopted during the reassement period, the unemployment increased and the per capita consumption decreased to 1500 calories which was lower then 1950s. </li></ul>
  42. 47. RISE OF DENG XIAO PING <ul><li>In 1967 Deng was driven from power and sent to work in a tractor factory in Jiangxi Province. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhou Enlai apparently recommended that Deng be brought back to aid in dealing with increasingly complex domestic and international issues. Mao agreed , and Deng returned in April 1973 as a vice premier </li></ul><ul><li>Deng emphasized that &quot;socialism does not mean shared poverty&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Deng provided the theoretical background and the political support to allow economic reform to occur </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasised Four Modernizations, those of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military. </li></ul><ul><li>Deng explicitly called for transformation in the direction of “ socialist market economy”, which was , in the Chinese political context, a euphemism for capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout the 1990s, most of the state and collective owned enterprises were privatised. </li></ul><ul><li>The schedule of Hua Guofeng's ten-year plan was discarded , although many of its elements were retained </li></ul>
  43. 48. FIRST WAVE OF REFORM UNDER DEN XIAO PING 1978-79-1984 <ul><li>Free market reforms . The desire to purchase foreign equipment and technology needed for China's modernization led to a policy of opening up to the outside world that would earn foreign exchange through tourism, exports, and arms sales </li></ul><ul><li>Opening up to the outside world The opening up policy included sending large numbers of students abroad to acquire special training and needed skills. The Law on Nine-Year Compulsory Education, which took effect July 1, 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>Rural & Agri. Reform decollectivized agriculture through a contract responsibility system based on individual households. Commune structure was largely dismantled. </li></ul><ul><li>The people's communes established under Mao were largely replaced with a system of family-based farming. The rural reforms successfully increased productivity, the amount of available arable land, and peasant per capita income. </li></ul>Den iio Ping with Zbigniew Brzezinsski United States National Security Advisor In office 1977–1981
  44. 49. THE SECOND WAVE OF REFORM, 1984-86 <ul><li>Urban Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a mixed economy . </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of securities markets and stock exchanges urban factory managers, factory director responsibility system had autonomy in </li></ul><ul><li>“ Enterprise Law ” provided that the state-owned enterprise managers had the full authority to dictate everything within an enterprise, including the power to fire or lay off the workers. </li></ul><ul><li>There was a sharp increase in labours but they were not given any job security, and health sevices . </li></ul><ul><li>State run procurement and supplies agency of commodities has replaced by private market players </li></ul>
  45. 50. THE THIRD WAVE OF REFORM, BEGINNING IN1986 <ul><li>Political Reform </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthening the people's congresses </li></ul><ul><li>Separating party and government organizations, </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing an independent judiciary. </li></ul><ul><li>Deng's plan was to curtail excessive party interference in governmental and economic decision making </li></ul>
  47. 52. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>The first SEZ was started in China in 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>China has about 190 zones for business purposes which include FTZs, FEZs and SEZs </li></ul><ul><li>Duty-free imports of capital goods and inputs for production for Export </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal access to foreign exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement to FDI. </li></ul><ul><li>Special tax incentives for foreign investments in the SEZs. </li></ul><ul><li>Greater independence on international trade activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations on sales within the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Better Infrastructure (Power, Transport & Communications) </li></ul>
  48. 53. RATIONALE FOR SEZS <ul><li>Main benefits sought from SEZs are: </li></ul><ul><li>Faster economic growth </li></ul><ul><li>Employment generation on a large scale </li></ul><ul><li>Earning more foreign exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Infusion of modern technologies & their demonstration and spread effects </li></ul><ul><li>Economies in production due to clustering </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits can be there for the whole country if same policies are adopted everywhere. Economic, political, social reasons for restricting to certain places. SEZs as ‘second-best’ options to generalized liberalization. </li></ul><ul><li>Export-led growth and creation of fast-growing, employment-generating areas main objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of coastal regions in export zones – experience of Mongolia which turned the whole country into a free-travel investment zone. </li></ul>
  49. 54. DEVELOPMENT OVER THE YEARS <ul><li>Started soon after beginning of reforms in 1978. </li></ul><ul><li>Four SEZs started in 1979 – three in Guangdong adjacent to Hong Kong and one at Xiamen in Fujian </li></ul><ul><li>Established principally to test the effectiveness of alternative market-based export-led growth strategy, as in East Asian countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy government investment in infrastructure. Each zone could introduce its own Regulation to growth investment, approvals and tax concessions.a </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the success, in 1984, the SEZ benefits were extended to 14 coastal open cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic & Technology Development Zones (ETDZ) and High Tech and New Technology Industry Development Zones encouraged in coastal open cities. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1985, three development triangles – Pearl River Delta (PRD), the Yangtze River Delta (around Shanghai) and Minum Delta (around Xiamen) were designated as coastal open areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Hainan Island was declared as fifth SEZ in 1988 </li></ul><ul><li>Since then, 52 cities (including all provincial capitals) have become open cities </li></ul><ul><li>Uncontrolled proliferation and later consolidation </li></ul>
  50. 55. SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES (SEZS) IN CHINA <ul><li>Reasons for Success: </li></ul><ul><li>Unique locations of the five SEZs- Shenshen, Shantou and Zhuhai are in Guangdong Province adjoining Hong Kong. Fourth, Xiamen, is in Fujian Province and nearer Taiwan. </li></ul><ul><li>Large size with government and local authorities providing improved infrastructure with foreign collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Investment-friendly attitudes towards Non-Resident Chinese and Taiwanese! </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive incentive packages for foreign investment </li></ul><ul><li>Liberal customs procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Cheapest form of labour comparing to other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible Labor Laws providing for contract appointments for specified periods </li></ul><ul><li>Powers to Provinces and local authorities to frame additional guidelines and in administering the Zones. </li></ul>
  51. 56. DISADVANTAGE OF SEZS <ul><li>Land Grabbing at very low prices. </li></ul><ul><li>If SEZ built on agricultural land the farmers will loose their livelihood as they are not skilled laborers it would to tough to relocate them to other jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the companies that operate under SEZ enjoy a lot of tax holidays it would create a burden on the finance ministry as tax collected would be less. </li></ul><ul><li>Huge downward impact on Tax: GDP ratio & the common man have to pay the price of it. </li></ul>
  52. 57. RESISTANCE AND THE CAMPAIGN AGAINST BOURGEOIS LIBERALIZATION <ul><li>Hu Yaobang favored the introduction of more &quot;democratization&quot; or plurality into the political system. He called for more movement on political reform than the system could bear. </li></ul><ul><li>Same time that Hu Yaobang was removed from office, a campaign was initiated against &quot;bourgeois liberalization.&quot; </li></ul>
  53. 58. TIANANMEN SQUARE-1989 <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>CAUSE </li></ul><ul><li>PROTEST DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>HUNGER STRIKE </li></ul><ul><li>MILITARY ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>NUMBER OF DEATHS </li></ul><ul><li>INTERNATIONAL REACTION </li></ul><ul><li>ARREST AND PERSECUTION </li></ul><ul><li>IMPACT ON DOMESTIC POLITICS </li></ul><ul><li>ECONOMIC IMPACT </li></ul><ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul>
  54. 63. TIBET UNREST-2008
  55. 64. TIBET UNREST-2008 <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Cause </li></ul><ul><li>Protest and violence </li></ul><ul><li>Causalities and fatalities </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue between PRC and Dalai Lama </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>Tibet divide </li></ul><ul><li>Poem </li></ul>
  56. 67. URMQUI ROITS- 05 TH JULY 2009 <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Background immediate causes </li></ul><ul><li>Causalities and damage </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic reaction </li></ul><ul><li>International reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation and investment </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  57. 72. <ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated deaths in the 1931 China floods range between 2 million and 4 million, listed as the deadliest flood of all times, which is also the deadliest natural disasters of all times. </li></ul><ul><li>After a record grain harvest of 466 million metric tons in 1995, another record crop of 475 million metric tons was expected in 1996. This yield was anticipated despite torrential summer rains throughout China that flooded 32,500 square kilometres (8 million acres) of cropland, caused thousands of deaths, left millions homeless, and cost billions of yuan in damage. </li></ul>
  58. 73. <ul><li>EARTHQUAKE </li></ul><ul><li>1920 Haiyuan earthquake killed 200,000 to 240,000, ranked the fourth deadliest earthquake and 9th deadliest of all natural disasters. </li></ul><ul><li>The 1976 Tangshan earthquake, with death toll estimated to be between 242,419 to 779,000, is ranked the third deadliest earthquake of all times, and 8th deadliest natural disaster. </li></ul><ul><li>The 2008 Sichuan earthquake that took lives of close to 70,000 was the greatest since 1976. India and China are the two big countries which are facing earthquakes in major . </li></ul>
  59. 74. HEALTH STATUS <ul><li>In Mao’s era, China placed great emphasis on Egalitarian Principles </li></ul><ul><li>the government made enormous efforts to establish a healthcare system that could provide all citizens with access to basic health services at an affordable price. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Insurance Scheme (GIS ) for all governmental employees </li></ul><ul><li>Labour Insurance Scheme (LIS) for employees (including retirees) of all state-owned enterprises (SOEs) and some collective enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Rural Cooperative Medical System (CMS). </li></ul><ul><li>By the mid-1970s, about 90% of China’s rural villages were covered by the CMS schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>In the field of health, China was a model for the developing world. When the communists came to power in 1949, China’s health indicators ranked among the lowest in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>By the late 1970s, China’s life expectancy had increased from around 35 years to 68 years , and the infant mortality rate decreased from about 200% per thousand to 34 per thousand (Blumenthal and Hsiao 2005). </li></ul>
  60. 75. <ul><li>turning point came in the mid-1980s when market-oriented reforms accelerated. </li></ul><ul><li>Health reform was imbued with such buzzwords as “private initiative”, “market incentive”, “competition”,“choice”, and “individual responsibility”.   </li></ul><ul><li>In 1985, only two years after the abolishment of the people’s communes, the number of villagescovered by the CMS decreased from 90% in 1979 to 5%. </li></ul><ul><li>The coverage of the rural CMS remained below 10% until very recently because the government had no intention of funding the rural medical system. </li></ul><ul><li>Both the GIS and LIS began to crumble. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Employees’ Basic Medical Insurance System emerged in 1999 to replace the two old urban healthcare schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of 2003, only roughly half of urban residents were insured by some schemes, including 30% by the newly established Urban Employees’ Basic Medical Insurance System. </li></ul>
  61. 76. <ul><li>Healthcare system became one of the most commercialised in the world </li></ul><ul><li>China’s healthcare system effectively became a system funded mainly by private sources while public sources only filled up blanks here and there. </li></ul><ul><li>In October 2002, the Chinese government adopted a new approach towards rural cooperative medical system. </li></ul><ul><li>Setting up a New Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) and </li></ul><ul><li>ultimately expand the system to cover all rural residents by 2010. </li></ul>
  62. 77. HARMONIOUS SOCIALIST SOCIETY: (NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR 2006-2020) <ul><li>October 2006, at the 6th plenum of the Chinese Communist Party’s central committee, China formally unveiled its vision to build a harmonious society by the year 2020. </li></ul><ul><li>Idea of Hu Jintao(for a balanced development). According to China’s premier, Wen Jiabao, key features of such a society would be:- </li></ul><ul><li>democracy, </li></ul><ul><li>rule of law, </li></ul><ul><li>equity, </li></ul><ul><li>justice, </li></ul><ul><li>sincerity, </li></ul><ul><li>amity and </li></ul><ul><li>vitality </li></ul>
  63. 78. THE GOALS FOR 2020 ARE CERTAINLY AMBITIOUS – <ul><li>a comprehensive economic, political and social development agenda, </li></ul><ul><li>guaranteeing respect for people’s rights and interests… </li></ul><ul><li>the ecological environment visibly improved, </li></ul><ul><li>further progress in fostering a sound moral atmosphere and </li></ul><ul><li>harmonious interpersonal relationships, </li></ul><ul><li>enhanced creativity of society as a whole and </li></ul><ul><li>the development of an innovation-based nation </li></ul>
  64. 80. CONCLUSION <ul><li>The poor Chinese peasant under Mao had struggled for decades to set a example fro the whole world that a society can also be established where everybody has equal rights and economic equality in true sense. </li></ul><ul><li>The human right violation taking place in China, India, Africa, Southeast Asia and many more country is a question mark on human’s distinction from animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Is this type of development we are willing to have under the red carpet of Capitalism?? </li></ul><ul><li>Weather the Capitalism on its leap to engulf whole of the planet will be checked ?? </li></ul><ul><li>The imperialism played by USA will continue in its legacy ??? Choice is ours…. </li></ul>