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Lacey LipanEPS 513Profs.Knauth& SalmonDecember 13, 2012Planning and Assessment CommentaryIn this paper I will demonstrate my ability to organize curriculum, instruction, andassessment to help my diverse students meet content standards and develop relatedacademic language. I will provide evidence of my ability to select, adapt, and designlearning tasks and materials that offer my students equitable access to literacycurriculum content and associated academic language. I will describe how I usedinformation about my students and the content I was teaching to plan for a learningsegment, and how I was able to use what I already know about my students as learnersand what they can do in relation to the content I will teach to plan accordingly. In this, Iconsidered my students’ prior learning and experiences, including their academiccontent knowledge, language development, social/emotional development,family/cultural assets, interests and lived experiences, and identified learning needs.1.Content Focus and StandardsLiteracy is the content of this learning segment, with a central focus on the skill ofsequence. For this, I will teach the definition of sequence, the clue words that tell theorder of events in a story, how to put events in order, and how to find the next event in astory sequence. This comes directly from the Reading Street curriculum as well as theDescartes standards [Literature and Informational 176 finds the next event in a storysequence (stated; event given; six to ten sentences)].2. Knowledge of Students to Inform TeachingKnowing about my students’ prior learning and experiences with respect to thecentral focus of this learning segment is crucial in teaching in a way that is effective. Imust take into account what they already know and can do and what they are learningto do. Various assessments, data, and experiences have helped me gain thisknowledge about my students to inform my teaching.a)Academic developmentIn relation to academic development, I know that my class possesses a hugerange of ability. The majority of the students are not on grade level, specifically when itcomes to this content of reading. There are a few students who do not know the letternames or sounds, but there are also a few students who can easily read andcomprehend small chapter books. I know that even my non-readers understandsequence on some level though, because it is a real-life skill that they have experiencedsince birth.Knowing there is such a wide range of prior knowledge in the class, it is myjob to scaffold the knowledge and skill of sequence so that all students can attainsuccess in this content.To introduce the concept, I would like to have the students watch me while I doquick things around the classroom (i.e. take a drink of water, write on the board, look ata book). I will then ask them what they saw me do first, next, and last. This would be a
good anticipatory set to gain their attention, and it introduces the idea of sequence in atangible way. This is already drawing on some prior knowledge and shows the studentsthat they already know this skill and can therefore transfer this knowledge to the moreabstract linguistic context of reading.This will allow all students, no matter theiracademic development, to be successful right off the bat in determining what was donefirst, next, and last just by watching. Because the skill of sequence is something thatrelates directly to real life activities, I will also pull from every day examples to make theidea of sequence more concrete for all students. Examples to use can include themorning routine, making a sandwich, washing your hands, and getting ready for schoolor bed. Drawing upon this knowledge of sequencing they use all the time to learn theacademic language of school and enter more confidently into the abstract world ofreading can be a more empowering way of thinking about this concept with mystudents. To challenge the students who are of higher ability, I can have them thinkabout what would happen next in the order of events of the examples I give. From theseconcrete examples, I can build on the concept and carry it over into books and stories.b) Academic LanguagedevelopmentThe term sequence must be directly taught, because most of my students havenot necessarily heard the word before, and it is not in their vocabulary. They know theconcept already on an experiential level, but need to tie it to school talk. When teachinga definition of a word, I like to have them “be my echo” and repeat the word anddefinition multiple times. I will teach that the sequence of a story is the order in whichthings happen. All students are familiar with the terms first, next, and last and shouldeasily be able to grasp that those are the clue words that tell about the order of eventsand what that means in relation to sequence. They will get practice in looking for thoseclue words in stories. I will also create an anchor chart as a visual of the writtenlanguage with the definition of sequence and the clue words of the order of events sothat the students can refer to it throughout the lessons and see what it looks like in print.This will increase their vocabulary and academic language development, and I knowthat all of my students have the ability to understand this term of sequence and canproduce the associated oral language.c) Family/community/cultural assetsI know that my community and background growing up is very different than mystudents’. In the book, How to Teach Students Who Don’t Look Like You, Davisdiscusses how we view the world differently based on our own cultural lens. Thatcultural lens as well as the school culture determines, in part, the academicachievement of our students. I want to raise this achievement so I must address thesethings and make sure I am keeping high expectations for all of my students and helpstudents to recognize their competence and how it applies to the demands of school.Because the concept of sequence relates directly to real-life, it is easy to apply itto my students’ relevant lived experiences and help them see that they already knowthe meaning of this term on an experiential level – which is the most robust kind ofknowing. Like previously mentioned, I will use examples from daily activities to teachthis concept of order of events. When content can relate directly to the students’ lives, itis not so abstract and therefore easier to comprehend. I also know that these students
are 100% African American and come from a background of low socio-economic status.They do not possess a lot of material things, but they have a great love of family andcommunity. I have to make sure that I am culturally sensitive in my presentation ofcontent and not assume that they have intrinsically learned middle class norms.Because of the emphasis on community within their cultural expectations, I would like toincorporate group work in these lessons on sequence. After modeling the task, I’ll havestudents work in their table groups to complete a sequence graphic organizer or to usepictures or sentences to put in correct order of events. I could alter that and instead putthem in groups based on their academic ability, giving the higher groups the graphicorganizer, the middle groups the sentences, and the lower groups the pictures. Alsoincorporating student interests in the lessons can increase engagement and attention. Ican choose texts that include topics I know the students like, such as animals andsports, and provide a time for hands-on activities and learning games to reinforce thecontent and skill in a fun way the students will enjoy.d) Social and emotional developmentMy students sometimes have a hard time getting along. They have notnecessarily learned coping skills or how to use their words to solve conflictconstructively. In order to increase their social and emotional development, I need toprovide them with opportunities to engage in collaborative learning and work together tosolve problems as a team. This can be done, specifically with this content, by givingeach table group an event and having the class work together as a whole to put thegroups in order of sequence of their events. This could also be done in smaller groups,where each student in the table group has an event (a picture for the lower ability, asentence for the higher ability) and they work with their group to put themselves inorder. Each group can then present their sequence by showing/reading their events incorrect order. I also like to give a lot of opportunities to turn and talk with their neighborto come up with a quick answer or to do a think pair share for higher level questions.These things get the students conversing and working together positively toward acommon goal.e) Learning strategiesI have learned that when teaching, my “I Do” must be quick because my studentscannot just sit and listen for much amount of time. I have also learned that givingstudents hands-on work and things for them to write on or fill out or do during the “WeDo” is important to keep them on task and following along. Just having students raisetheir hands to provide answers or just having students turn and talk during this time isnot enough to keep all students involved and accountable for their learning. It also doesnot give me an accurate check for understanding for each student. A learning strategythat has been effective for my students is a strategy where they can be following alongtangibly. Providing students with graphic organizers or templates of the skill I amteaching has proven to keep them more focused and on track and therefore aids in theirlearning. Specifically for this content of sequence, I will provide graphic organizers torecord what happens first, next, and last as we listen to our story of the week, as weread our read-aloud, and as we read our non-fiction text. I will also give each student asequence graphic organizer to use during independent reading on the book of their
choice. This keeps the students focused and gives them ample practice on this skill ofsequence.3. Supporting Student LearningAn effective educator designs lessons that are developmentally appropriate andthat support students’ learning based on their prior knowledge and connections. Ifteachers know where each of their students’ level of academic, academic language, andsocial and emotional development is, as well as their cultural background and preferredlearning strategies, she will be able to support their learning in a more robust way.a) I made choices in my planning of teaching this literacy content based on myunderstandings of my students’ prior learning, experiences, and development. Thisknowledge guided my plans in developing my students’ abilities to successfully meetlesson segment outcomes. As has been mentioned previously, I will first teach theconcept of sequence by having the students watch me do three quick tasks around theroom. I will then ask what I did first, next, and last. This will gain attention, and I willspecifically call on the students that I know are of lower development so they can startoff being successful just by watching me. I will directly teach the definition of sequenceusing an anchor chart and a large visual of a sequence of events (an egg, an eggcracking, a chick coming out of the egg). These will give the students a straightforwarddefinition and provide pictures so they can visualize the skill. Also as mentioned before,I will use examples of sequence that they can relate to. These can include our morningroutine, washing hands, brushing teeth, or other scenarios that the students have priorexperience with. Using examples based off of my students’ prior learning andexperiences to teach this content and skill will be beneficial in helping them developtheir abilities and make it easier to transfer their knowledge to finding sequence instories and books.b)My plans for instruction are sequenced in the learning segment to build connectionsbetween my students’ prior learning and experience and new content skills andstrategies. Again as has been previously discussed, I will start off by just having themwatch me and say what I did first, next, and last. This will gain attention and introducethe concept of sequence with something concrete. I will use the anchor chart andvisuals to explain how they just told me the sequence of what I did, and will definesequence and the clue words that show order of events. I will then use examples fromtheir daily lives to discuss sequence by discussing the order in which they do things inreal-life. We will draw pictures or write sentences of these examples in our journals sowe can always refer back. After building the connection between the concept ofsequence and real-life activities, we will start moving the skill to pictures and sentences.We will work in groups to put pictures and sentences in the correct order of events. Aftermastering this, we will move to picking out the sequence in books and stories. We willdo this by reading together and filling out a graphic organizer of what happened first,next, and last in the story. They will also gain more practice in determining sequence ofevents during independent reading time with their own book. We will also begin figuringout what happens next in a sequence of events. This extends the skill to noticing the
order of events and determining an event that would come next. These plans start withconnections to real-life events then builds the strategy and skill into books and stories.c)Throughout the learning segment, I will help students make connections betweenskills and strategies in ways that support their abilities to deepen their content learning. Iwill do this by making sure they understand the importance of determining the sequenceof events in reference to real-life situations. We will see that it does not make sense todo things out of order. We will make connections between stories and our own lives tosee how doing things in order is necessary. These connections between the skill andreal-life will be beneficial in deepening our understanding of the content.d)Generally in all new content there can be some common misconceptions ordevelopmental approximations and misunderstandings thatneed to be addressed.Specifically with the skill of sequence, the students might get the events out of order.Especially when deciding on order of events from a story, they might try to do it frommemory without looking back in the text and therefore confuse the sequence. In thesecases, I will reteach the clue words of first, next, and last so the students will rememberthat these words give the correct order of events. I can also reinforce the skill of lookingback in the text to get information and sequence the events accurately. I could alsoprompt them to consider what makes sense to them in terms of order and have themuse their world knowledge about a typical order of events, so even if they don’tunderstand all the vocabulary or syntax in reading a story, they can still use their worldknowledge to figure out the sequence that makes sense.e)Because there is a wide range of ability in my class, I need to plan instructionalstrategies that support students with specific learning needs. The content and skill ofsequence is the same, but the way in which the students work individually can bealtered. Those students that I know are gifted can write their own stories incorporatingsequence of events and the clue words. Some might need a topic to get started, butsome will be able to begin writing on their own and be successful. The students who Iknow are lower developmentally will be provided with pictures to put in order of eventsto practice the skill of sequence independently. These students also need to know howto transfer this skill to stories, so I will work with them in a small group to provide morescaffolding and support in reading the story. Because these students also cannot reallywrite, I will allow it to be more of a discussion of what came first, next, and last. I willalso challenge these students by asking them what they think might happen next beforereading it.4.Supporting Student Understanding and Use of Academic LanguageAn effective teacher also knows how to design plans that support students’academic language development. It is necessary for the students to expand theirvocabulary to grow as readers and writers.a)With this concept of sequence, the key academic language demandthat is integral tothe central focus for the segment is understanding the definition and the clue words.This is appropriate for students’ academic language development. While planning, I
considered language functionsand language forms, essential vocabulary, and phrasesfor the concepts and skills being taught. The instructional language necessary forstudents to understand and produce oral and/or written language within the learningtasks and activities must be clear and concise. Using an anchor chart to post thedefinition of sequence as “the order of events in a story” and by including the clue wordsgood readers notice while reading such as “first, next, last” will aid in the accumulationof the vocabulary for this skill. Providing pictures that demonstrate this concept will alsohelp students gain a visual for the vocabulary and will especially aid the students oflower ability who may not be able to read the anchor chart. Having the students “be myecho” will reinforce the word “sequence” and its definition as well as the clue words. Thestudents will repeat it during each lesson so it will eventually be memorized.b)Providing instructional supports will assist students in understandingthe academiclanguage related to the key language demand and will express and develop theircontent learning. These planned supports may vary for students at different levels ofacademic language development. As previously mentioned, the anchor chart withvisuals will be a big instructional support for all students. Also I will give the studentswho I know may need extra support some one-on-one time to reinforce the concept andskill of sequence individually.5. Monitoring Student LearningAs always, it is vital to monitor student learning by using both informal and formalassessments to determine progress and/or gaps in learning.a)The informal and formal assessments used will provide evidence that I will use tomonitor student progress toward the standards and objectives of this lesson segment.These assessments need to provide evidence of students’ use of content specific skillsand strategies to promote rigorous learning. I will use a lot of formative assessment tomonitor learning while the lessons are developing. I will check for understanding byhaving students answer questions about the order of events by raising their hands,turning to talk, and choral responding. I will also have assessments including graphicorganizers and group activities of putting events in order to check for students’understanding of sequence. There will be summative assessments as well including exittickets and worksheets that have the students working independently so I can gaugeeach student’s progress.b)There will not be a lot of modifications or accommodations to the planned assessmenttools or procedures for students with specific needs. I would like for all students to trytheir best on the worksheets and exit tickets, and having all students do the same cangive me insight as well. When asking questions whole class, I will scaffold the questionsso that the lower students can be successful. I may also pull the lower students into asmall group to assess them separately with more guidance.
Pre-K – 12 Student Observation Learning ToolObserving Student LearningRecord data on at least two 30 minute observation sessionsDistribute observation time between whole group; small group; and individualsObservation Focus:Pace of student learningQuestion: What variation in pace of learning do you see during a lesson?Who stands out? What is the evidence?1sta quick description of what sequence meansThen a read aloud, looking for sequence of events in storyThen on own to do a worksheet on sequence-Variation in pace of learning: some students already knew all the answers; some students needed morescaffolding (1stcame this, then this, then what?), some students were not grasping the concept andcould not relate it to stories; some students were bored because they already could do it on their own,some students are so behind that they weren’t even trying, some students were not listening then whengiven the worksheet they didn’t know what to do-needed more checking for understanding for all students, most students could have used more practiceand scaffoldingPlanning Commentary: Knowledge of students to inform teaching – academic development; learningstrategiesObservation Focus:Student expectations forsuccessQuestion: What evidence do you see of your students’ expectations fortheir own success? Who stands out?-Focus on 4 students at purple table-During “I Do” part of lesson they were not engaged – looking around room, messing in deskDuring “We Do” and “You Do” parts of lesson they were done first and given extra work to completeIt became clear that these students are bright and not necessarily being challenged. During the lessonthey did not pay attention yet they could easily complete the worksheet on their own, which makes methink that they have high expectations for their own success because they already know they cancomplete the tasks.-Focus on whole group-I noticed the effects of positive reinforcement that encouraged students to have high expectations forthemselves and their behaviorPlanning Commentary: Knowledge of your students – Social-emotional learningName: Lacey Shared Reading/Skill 10/31/12
What is the Teacher Doing? What are theStudentsDoing?Unpacked Benchmark, CDAS,CRS, or IL State Standards.176 finds the next event in a storysequence (stated; event given; sixto ten sentences)Do Now (3-5 minutes):What does sequence mean?S at 0 thinkingin head whatsequencemeansObjective(s) SWBAT:define sequence and point outclue wordsState Lesson Objective & Lesson AgendaToday we are reviewing what the sequence of a storymeans and reading our story looking for the sequence cluewordsVocabulary words/Key Concepts:sequencefirstnextthenlast“I Do” Input (1-2 Key teaching points):Remember that sequence of a story is the order in whichthings happen. As you read, ask yourself what happensfirst, next, and last. Notice those clue words such as first,next, then, last that tell about the order of events.Reference the anchor chart and the egg visual.Check for Understanding:Turn and tell your neighbor what is the sequence of astory? Pull sticks.Turn and tell your neighbor what are some clue words thattell about the order of events? Pull sticks.S at 0 with eyeson anchor chartand egg visualthinking aboutsequenceModifications/ AccommodationsN/A“We Do” Guided Practice:Today we are reading our new story and we are going tolisten for those clue words that tell us the order of eventsin the story.Check for Understanding:Raise a silent hand if you know one of the clue words thathelps us know the sequence of a story. List in huge printon whiteboard. Have the students make some silent sign(thumbs up or one finger up) when they hear one of thewordsPoint to words on page 220. Read them and have studentsrepeat. Point to the word with the /wh/ digraph.Point to genre on page 221. The genre is folk tale. Read thesmall paragraph. This is a new genre we haven’t talkedabout before. Add it to the anchor chart.Check for Understanding:What is a folk tale?Read story while students track print. Let them chant thecapital words. Ask comprehension questions (fromselection test) throughout.Turn and talk: How can you tell whether the story isrealistic or fantasy? (animals don’t talk) Why didn’t Beaverwant to share the pond with Turtle after the race? (he wasembarrassed)S at 0 raisinghand to answerquestionsS repeatingwordsS at 0 trackingprintS turning to talkMaterials & Technology: “You Do” Independent Practice:PB pages 75 and 76S at 0 workingin PBExit Ticket (aligned to lesson objective) or assessment:Put the events from the story in order.Beaver challenges Turtle to a raceTurtle won the raceS at 0 workingon exit ticket byputting eventsin order
Beaver shared a pond with another turtleClosing/Preview for next lesson:Today we read our story and listened to the things thathappened first, next, and last.Name: LaceySharedReading/Skill 11/1/12What is the Teacher Doing? What aretheStudentsDoing?UnpackedBenchmark, CDAS,CRS, or IL StateStandards.176 finds the nextevent in a storysequence (stated;event given; six to tensentences)Do Now (3-5 minutes):What are the clue words that tell the order of events in a story? S are thinkingin their head ofthe clue wordsthat showsequenceObjective(s) SWBAT:determine sequenceof events in storyState Lesson Objective & Lesson AgendaToday we are reviewing sequence by filling out a graphic organizerafter listening to our storyVocabularywords/Key Concepts:sequencefirstnextlast“I Do” Input (1-2 Key teaching points):Review the definition of sequence and the clue words that show theorder of events. Refer to anchor chart.Check for Understanding:Be my echo. Sequence: order in which things happen. Clue words:first, next, lastS at 0 witheyes onanchor chartS echoingModifications/AccommodationsN/A“We Do” Guided Practice:Listen to story on CD. Fill out a sequence graphic organizer sayingwhat happened first, next, and last in the story. Do on elmo whilestudents do at desks. Use the retelling strip at the bottom of the Thinkand Share page to guide students. Decide which middle parts are mostimportant.S trackingprint whilelistening tostoryS filling outgraphicorganizerMaterials &Technology:CD“You Do” Independent Practice:If time, PB pages before 79S at 0 workingin PBExit Ticket (aligned to lesson objective) or assessment:What is the order of events called?setting sequence character genreIn graphic organizer have: First, I get out bread, peanut butter, andjelly. Next, I spread the peanut butter and jelly on the bread and closeit. Last, I ________________________________________________S at 0 workingprivately onexit ticket
Closing/Preview for next lesson:Today we reviewed sequence and used a graphic organizer afterlistening to our story.In the second part of this paper, I will demonstrate my ability to assess studentlearning, analyze student strengths and needs, and use my analysis of studentperformance to inform instruction. I will provide evidence of mycapability to developevaluation criteria that is aligned with my central focus, standards, and learningobjectives; analyze student performance on assessments in relation to the identifiedlearning objectives; provide feedback to students; and use the analysis of studentperformance to identify next steps in instruction. I was able to think about the ways inwhich I was monitoring, examining, and evaluating evidence of student learningthroughout the learning segment. In using assessment evidence to plan next steps formy teaching, I considered common learning across most of the class as well ascommon strengths or needs among several students.A. Analyzing Student Learning1.After analyzing the assessments from my lessons on sequencing, I saw that the classwas split neatly into two groups: mastery and non-mastery. The majority of the classmastered this skill of sequencing as seen from the workbook pages, do now, graphicorganizer, and exit tickets. Eight students, though, got most if not all of the questionsincorrect from the work I looked at. This chart shows the 6 pieces of work I used asassessments to determine students’ mastery of the skill taught. The blue bar shows howmany students got all questions correct on each assessment. The red bar shows howmany students did not get a passing grade on each piece of work. As you can see, outof 28 students, generally about 20 students got all answers correct on eachassessment. The same eight students consistently had trouble.2. It seems that since students had prior knowledge and experience with the skill ofsequence in their daily lives, most were able to apply it to literacy. They understood thatgood readers look for clue words that tell the order of events in a story. My eightstudents that had difficulties in this are students that have difficulties across the board.They are very behind academically, with one being in special education and three0510152025Series 1Series 2Column1
others currently in the RTI process. These developmental delays and gaps in theirknowledge contributed negatively to their ability to successfully apply the skill ofsequence to literacy. More one-on-one attention and targeted work for their level wouldbe beneficial in getting them closer to success. It seems that the other students, though,are ready for a greater challenge and push into a more higher order thinking related tothis skill.3.I did not see any common patterns or misconceptions across the class, because theyeither got it or they did not. After analyzing the assessments and classwork, the majorityof the class understood and applied the skill while our lowest students were not able tosuccessfully. This is a common pattern for these students, though, because they are sofar behind that almost all of the work we do is too difficult. I specifically chose threestudents to analyze their work samples. I chose a student I knew was high, one I knewwas average, and one that was low performing. Based on these work samples, the skillof sequence was mastered by all students except for those with academic delays.4.Learning progression and individual strengths and weaknesses were hard to analyzesince the majority of students got all things correct while the other eight students gotalmost all things incorrect. Starting with practice workbook pages, to the first exit ticket,to the next day’s do now, to the graphic organizer, to the last exit ticket, the majority ofstudents were able to progress in their application of the skill of sequence. They startedwith pictures as aids, they learned to look for clue words like first, next, then, and last,and were then able to read a story and determine the order of events. Lastly, they wereable to take it a step farther by figuring out what would come next in a sequence ofevents, as shown on the last exit ticket.5.The following pictures are of student work samples. Since the class was split intomastery and non-mastery, I chose to include an example of each group for eachassessment.
B. Feedback to Guide Further Learning1.I know that to be a more effective teacher, I need to work on giving more specific andtimely feedback to each of my students. For these lessons and assessmentsspecifically, I provided feedback solely by writing some small notes on the exits. I didnot give feedback on their workbook pages, and I also did not give very targeted andspecific feedback. With the students that got all of the questions correct, I either just puta star or pushed them further with other things, i.e. “Remember if these words are at thebeginning of a sentence they need to be capitalized” or “Don’t forget punctuation!” Forthe students that did not get the answers correct, I could either not read their writing andput a small question mark or said “Use the clue words!” on the exit where they wereputting events in order.2.Unfortunately we have not gone back to sequence yet and there have not really beenopportunities provided for students to apply the feedback to improve their work. Fromthe first lesson to the second lesson that I taught this skill, though, students were able tobuild on what they learned the first day and what they received on their first exit ticket tothen improve and fill in gaps the second day. It would obviously be ideal to pull the eightstudents that did not master this skill into a small group for a week to reteach more attheir level so they get the concept then to push them more each day. Providingfeedback at the end of each small group would be so beneficial so these students knowwhere they are at and where they are going. As the teacher, providing feedback makesme analyze the assessments more closely and with specificity. This can thereforeimprove my practice as well.C. Using Assessment to Inform Instruction1. Based on my analysis of student performance on the assessments, it seems asthough the majority of the class is ready to be challenged in this area of sequence. Theyunderstand the basics of looking for clue words to determine order of events, can putgiven pictures and events in order, and can determine what comes next in a sequence. I
think having them work more with sequencing independently would be beneficial.Providing a graphic organizer for them to use during independent reading so they canpractice finding the sequence of events in their own books would give them morepractice on their own. I can also push it to the next level by relating it to readingcomprehension and how good readers can monitor and fix up their reading byunderstanding sequence of events. I could even tie this skill in to social studies by usinga timeline to put real historical events in order. This would increase my students’ abilityto transfer knowledge to different subject areas.As previously stated, for my eight students that did not show mastery, I could pull themout for small group sessions. I would start at the basics and reteach what the rest of theclass was able to be successful with. By having more targeted attention and scaffolding,I think these students could be a little more successful.2.Since my two focus students represented the two groups of the class (mastery andnon-mastery), I would not do anything specific with them alone. I would include thestudent of mastery with the next steps stated above, and I would include the studentshowing non-mastery with the small group.3.These next steps follow from my analysis of the student performances. Because I wasable to see that the class fell into two groups, I can plan for how to push the one groupto the next level and also plan how I can reteach and get the lower students to besuccessful.