Web Usability: Session 4
Methods for Identifying and Modeling Users Needs and
             Goals of Interactive Systems

 ...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



  Acerca del instructor
  Dr. Víctor Manuel González y González
  Profesor Inves...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Agenda

  Methods for identifying users needs and goals of interactive
  system...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals




   Methods for identifying users needs and goals
              of interactive s...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 The challenges

  How do we create elegant solutions to complex interaction
  p...
Functionality vs. Beauty
Dyson: Making everyday products work better
Google’s simplicity




                      1-8
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 The answer…


  UCD - User Centered Design
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Traditional Software Development Cycle


 Requirement Analysis

               ...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



  Contextual Design & the Software Development Cycle

                          ...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Contextual Design
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Defining a work model
 e.g. creating labels
                   Any system impos...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Contextual Design Techniques

  • Contextual Inquiry

  • Interpretation Sessio...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Observation Techniques

  Learning from travelers at Manchester Piccadilly Trai...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Observation Techniques

  Background

  • Cultural anthropology and social anth...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Observation Techniques

  The time famine: toward a sociology of work
  time
  ...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Observation Techniques

  Goals

  - Experience the real context
  - Observe th...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Observation Techniques

  Different levels of participation
  Complete particip...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Observation Techniques

  General process of an observational-based study

  - ...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Observation Techniques

  Field Notes

  •Write down notes, however brief, as q...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Observation Techniques

  Field Notes
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Contextual Interviews

  Contextual Inquiry is based on four principles:
    co...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Contextual Interviews

  In a Nutshell

  •The designer introduces herself, pre...
2008/09   BMAN20890 – Systems Investigation Methods      25
2007/08      INFO21010 – Systems Investigation Methods   25
2008/09   BMAN20890 – Systems Investigation Methods      26
2007/08      INFO21010 – Systems Investigation Methods   26
2008/09   BMAN20890 – Systems Investigation Methods      27
2007/08      INFO21010 – Systems Investigation Methods   27
2008/09   BMAN20890 – Systems Investigation Methods      28
2007/08      INFO21010 – Systems Investigation Methods   28
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Case: Interview based Study

  Fridge’s Doors and Information
  Management at H...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Case: Interview based Study

  Research Questions
  1. How do people manage and...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Case: Interview based Study

  Interview Topics

  •Money and finance managemen...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Case: Interview based Study

  Interview Questions
  For how long have you been...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Interview Technique

  Types of Questions
  1.    Introducing questions: `Pleas...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Interview Technique

  Types of Questions
  6.   Indirect questions: `What do m...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Interview Technique

  A good interviewer is

  1.   Knowledgeable: thoroughly ...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Interview Technique

  A good interviewer is

  7.    Remembering: relates what...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Focus Groups
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Focus Group

  A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Focus Group vs. Group Interview

  Focus groups typically emphasize a specific ...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Focus Group Technique

  The focus group method is a form of group interview wh...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Issues in Conducting Focus Groups

  • Need for tape recording and transcriptio...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals




     Methods for modeling users needs and goals
               of interactive s...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Personas

  Personas are archetypes of actual users,
  defined by the user’s go...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Personas

  A persona is created by identifying the primary
  stakeholder and c...
1-45




Source: Molly Stevens http://www.mollystevens.com/
1-46




Source: Patrizia Nanni http://www.vhml.org/theses/nannip/HCI_final.htm
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Personas

  Advantages of personas:
         They are quick and easy to create....
Cisco Personas
             by
  The Cisco User Experience
    Design (UXD) Group




1-48
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Scenarios

         A description of a typical task
         It describes
     ...
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Scenarios

  Example of Scenario
    A four member family lives in a 3 bedroom ...
1-51
1-52
1-53
1-54
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Open Discussion
Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals



 Contact Information

  Digital Addresses

  E-mail: vmgonz (at) acm (dot) org
 ...
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Methods for Identifying and Modeling Users Needs

  1. 1. Web Usability: Session 4 Methods for Identifying and Modeling Users Needs and Goals of Interactive Systems Dr. Victor Manuel González y González Centro de Innovación, Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT) Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León victor.gonzalezgz@uanl.edu.mx http://it.ciidit.uanl.mx/~victor/
  2. 2. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Acerca del instructor Dr. Víctor Manuel González y González Profesor Investigador (Titular A) – FIME - UANL Doctorado - PhD. - University of California at Irvine, EEUU. Maestría - M.C. - University of California at Irvine, EEUU. Maestría – M.C. - University of Essex, Reino Unido. Perfil • Investigador en Computación en el área de Interacción Humano-Computadora y Tecnologías de Información. Afiliado a CIIDIT (UANL), CRITO (UC Irvine), CDI (U Manchester). Su área de especialización es el diseño, desarrollo y evaluación de sistemas interactivos. Es miembro del SNI (Nivel 1) y miembro de la red de investigación en Tecnologías de Información de CONACYT. Áreas de Investigación • Interacción Humano-Computadora • Ingeniería de Usabilidad • Cómputo Ubicuo y Colaborativo
  3. 3. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Agenda Methods for identifying users needs and goals of interactive systems Contextual Design as departing approach Observation Techniques Contextual Interviews Focus Groups Methods for modeling users needs and goals of interactive systems Scenarios Personas
  4. 4. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Methods for identifying users needs and goals of interactive systems Contextual Design as departing approach Observation Techniques Contextual Interviews Focus Groups
  5. 5. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals The challenges How do we create elegant solutions to complex interaction problems? How do interaction designers succeed at creating great designs that are powerful and aesthetically appealing?
  6. 6. Functionality vs. Beauty
  7. 7. Dyson: Making everyday products work better
  8. 8. Google’s simplicity 1-8
  9. 9. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals The answer… UCD - User Centered Design
  10. 10. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Traditional Software Development Cycle Requirement Analysis Software Design Coding Testing Implementation
  11. 11. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design & the Software Development Cycle Software Engineering Hardware Engineering Gathering Work model Redesigned work user Visioning model knowledge consolidation Work redesign Discovering user needs Process Engineering Parallel Development Goal: Define a new work model supported by technology
  12. 12. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design
  13. 13. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Defining a work model e.g. creating labels Any system imposes a work model System Model vs User Model
  14. 14. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Design Techniques • Contextual Inquiry • Interpretation Sessions • Work modelling • Affinity diagram • Redesign of the Model of Work • Vision • Storyboards • User environment design – prototype evaluation
  15. 15. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Observation Techniques Learning from travelers at Manchester Piccadilly Train Station
  16. 16. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Observation Techniques Background • Cultural anthropology and social anthropology • Bronislaw Malinowski (Trobriand Islands 1914) • Previous anthropologists based their work on interviews and did not mix with their research subjects in day-to-day life. • Importance of detailed participant observation and observation everyday life.
  17. 17. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Observation Techniques The time famine: toward a sociology of work time An ethnographer’s experience A study of software engineers and time management “I spent much of each day wandering around, talking to people and observing their daily activities. I had my office in the same corridor, where I would type my field notes on a laptop computer… I shadowed engineers to get a sense of how they accomplished their work… I sat HBS Associate Professor Leslie Perlow for hours observing and talking, listening to the natural interactions”.
  18. 18. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Observation Techniques Goals - Experience the real context - Observe the action in situ - Understand the phenomenon from an insider’s point of view. - Reveal culture (ethno – cultures – graphy – writing) - Capture multiple perspectives
  19. 19. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Observation Techniques Different levels of participation Complete participant A fully functioning member of the social setting and his or her true identity is not known to members Participant-as-observer Members of the social setting are aware of the researcher’s status as a researcher: unpaid or paid employment Observer-as-participant Researcher is mainly an interviewer. There is some observation but very little of it involves some participation Complete observer Researcher does not interact with people. Unobtrusive observation
  20. 20. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Observation Techniques General process of an observational-based study - Meeting and observing the key informant , main contact - Participation in meetings and preliminary observations - Document analysis - Informal interviews (each participant) - Periods of observation - Debriefing session - Note transcription and Data Analysis - (Post- analysis interview) - Report writing
  21. 21. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Observation Techniques Field Notes •Write down notes, however brief, as quickly as possible after seeing or hearing something interesting. •Write up full field notes at the very latest at the end of the day and include such details as location, who is involved, what prompted the exchange or whatever, date and time of the day, etc. •Whenever possible, use a tape recorder to record initial notes, but this may create a problem of needing to transcribe a lot of speech. •Notes must be vivid and clear •You need to take copious notes, so, if in doubt, write it down.
  22. 22. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Observation Techniques Field Notes
  23. 23. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Interviews Contextual Inquiry is based on four principles: context: go to the customers’ workplace and watch them do their own work. partnership: talk to them about their work and engage them in uncovering unarticulated aspects of work. interpretation: develop a shared understanding with the customer about the aspects of work that matter. focus: direct the inquiry from a clear understanding of your own purpose.
  24. 24. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contextual Interviews In a Nutshell •The designer introduces herself, presents the project focus, and asks authorization from the user to record the interview. (15 minutes) • The designer explains the methods of Contextual Inquiry. (3 minutes) • The user works, the designer observes, and as apprenticeship, makes annotations, diagrams, launches questions and analyzes effects. (one or two hours) • The designer confirms her notes with the user, giving him the chance to expand points or conclusions. (10 minutes)
  25. 25. 2008/09 BMAN20890 – Systems Investigation Methods 25 2007/08 INFO21010 – Systems Investigation Methods 25
  26. 26. 2008/09 BMAN20890 – Systems Investigation Methods 26 2007/08 INFO21010 – Systems Investigation Methods 26
  27. 27. 2008/09 BMAN20890 – Systems Investigation Methods 27 2007/08 INFO21010 – Systems Investigation Methods 27
  28. 28. 2008/09 BMAN20890 – Systems Investigation Methods 28 2007/08 INFO21010 – Systems Investigation Methods 28
  29. 29. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Case: Interview based Study Fridge’s Doors and Information Management at Home •We aimed at understanding how people use their fridges to manage paper-based information at home. •Focus on a situation where minimal technological support was likely to exist. •Inform the design of new technologies
  30. 30. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Case: Interview based Study Research Questions 1. How do people manage and organize paper-based information in their homes? 2. What are the main roles of the fridge to support information management at home? 3. What are the main limitations and challenges to manage paper-based information at home?
  31. 31. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Case: Interview based Study Interview Topics •Money and finance management •Personal graphic artifact management (pictures, postcards) •Places and holders – information management (focus on fridges) •Routines •Calendaring practices •Life of paper documents
  32. 32. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Case: Interview based Study Interview Questions For how long have you been living in this house? Please describe a typical week to us, starting on Monday… How do you process your bills, how often, how do you remember to pay them? Grand tour of the fridge: Can you describe what you have on your refrigerator and why is there? When was the last time you left a note on the fridge for your husband? Can you describe that to us?
  33. 33. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Interview Technique Types of Questions 1. Introducing questions: `Please tell me about when your interest in X first began?'; `Have you ever . . .?'; `Why did you go to . . .?' . 2. Follow-up questions: getting the interviewee to elaborate his/her answer, such as `Could you say some more about that?'; `What do you mean by that . . .?'; ‘Can you give me an example…?’ 3. Probing questions: following up what has been said through direct questioning. 4. Specifying questions: `What did you do then?'; `How did X react to what you said?‘ 5. Direct questions: `Do you find it easy to keep smiling when serving customers?'; `Are you happy with the amount of on-the-job training you have received?’
  34. 34. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Interview Technique Types of Questions 6. Indirect questions: `What do most people round here think of the ways that management treats its staff?', perhaps followed up by `Is that the way you feel too?', in order to get at the individual's own view. 7. Structuring questions: `I would now like to move on to a different topic'. 8. Silence: allow pauses to signal that you want to give the interviewee the opportunity to reflect and amplify an answer. 9. Interpreting questions: `Do you mean that your leadership role has had to change from one of encouraging others to a more directive one?'; `Is it fair to say that what you are suggesting is that you don't mind being friendly towards customers most of the time, but when they are unpleasant or demanding you find it more difficult?’
  35. 35. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Interview Technique A good interviewer is 1. Knowledgeable: thoroughly familiar with the focus of the interview (use pilot interviews) 2. Structuring: gives purpose for interview; rounds it off; asks whether interviewee has questions. 3. Clear: asks simple, easy, short questions; no jargon. 4. Gentle: lets people finish; gives them time to think; tolerates pauses. 5. Sensitive: listens attentively to what is said and how it is said; is empathetic in dealing with the interviewee. 6. Open: responds to what is important to interviewee and is flexible.
  36. 36. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Interview Technique A good interviewer is 7. Remembering: relates what is said to what has previously been said. 8. Interpreting: clarifies and extends meanings of interviewees' statements, but without imposing meaning on them. 9. Balanced: does not talk too much, which may make the interviewee passive, and does not talk too little, which may result in the interviewee feeling he or she is not talking along the right lines. 10. Ethically sensitive: is sensitive to the ethical dimension of interviewing, ensuring the interviewee appreciates what the research is about, its purposes, and that his or her answers will be treated confidentially.
  37. 37. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Focus Groups
  38. 38. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Focus Group A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their attitude towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging. Questions are asked in an interactive group setting where participants are free to talk with other group members. Focus groups allow companies wishing to develop, package, name, or test market a new product, to discuss, view, and/or test the new product before it is made available to the public.
  39. 39. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Focus Group vs. Group Interview Focus groups typically emphasize a specific theme or topic that is explored in depth, whereas group interviews often span very widely Group interviews, unlike focus groups, are often carried out to save time and money by carrying out interviews with a number of individuals simultaneously Focus group practitioners are interested in the ways individuals discuss issues as members of a group, rather than as individuals. Focus group researchers are interested in how people respond to each other's views and build up a view out of interactions taking place within the group
  40. 40. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Focus Group Technique The focus group method is a form of group interview where: • there are several participants (in addition to the moderator/ facilitator) • there is an emphasis on questioning on a particular, fairly tightly defined topic • the accent is upon interaction within the group and the joint construction of meaning
  41. 41. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Issues in Conducting Focus Groups • Need for tape recording and transcription • How many groups? • Size of groups • Level of moderator involvement • Selecting participants • Asking specific questions
  42. 42. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Methods for modeling users needs and goals of interactive systems Personas Scenarios
  43. 43. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Personas Personas are archetypes of actual users, defined by the user’s goals and attributes. – Alan Cooper “Personas are derived from patterns observed during interviews with and observations of users and potential user (and sometimes customers) of a product” (Cooper & Reimann, 2003, 67)
  44. 44. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Personas A persona is created by identifying the primary stakeholder and creating an identity based on the stakeholder profiles and other collection activities such as interviews and surveys. A persona is a detailed description complete with as many personally identifying attributes as necessary to make it come to life.
  45. 45. 1-45 Source: Molly Stevens http://www.mollystevens.com/
  46. 46. 1-46 Source: Patrizia Nanni http://www.vhml.org/theses/nannip/HCI_final.htm
  47. 47. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Personas Advantages of personas: They are quick and easy to create. They provide a consistent model for all team members. They are easy to use with other design methods. They make the user real in the mind of the designer. Disadvantages of personas: They can be difficult to create if the target audience is international. Having too many personas will make the work difficult. There is a risk of incorporating unsupported designer assumptions.
  48. 48. Cisco Personas by The Cisco User Experience Design (UXD) Group 1-48
  49. 49. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Scenarios A description of a typical task It describes The basic goal The conditions that exist at the beginning of the task The activities in which the persona will engage The outcomes of those activities Scenarios afford a rich picture of the user’s tasks
  50. 50. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Scenarios Example of Scenario A four member family lives in a 3 bedroom semi detached house in North Manchester, UK. They enjoy doing activities as a family and like to be organised within the household. The children enjoy watching TV after they have finished their homework, which is a rule set by their parents Sharon and Alan. They are allowed to watch a set amount of TV each evening, with a maximum of two hours. After the 2 hours is over the children, Ben and Lucy go to their bedrooms to get ready for bed. They leave the lounge where they were watching TV without switching the TV off and leaving the lights on in this room also. Sharon goes to the lounge the next morning and realises that both the TV and lights have been left on in the lounge all night, she is a annoyed with this and tells both Lucy and Ben that they should switch all appliances off once they have finished with them.
  51. 51. 1-51
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  53. 53. 1-53
  54. 54. 1-54
  55. 55. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Open Discussion
  56. 56. Web Usability / / User Needs and Goals Contact Information Digital Addresses E-mail: vmgonz (at) acm (dot) org Skype ID: vmgonz IM: vmgyg (at) hotmail (dot) com Web sites: http://personalpages.manchester.ac.uk/staff/vmgonz http://it.ciidit.uanl.mx/~victor/

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