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Pathogens and Toxins
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Pathogens and Toxins

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  • 1. Pathogens and Toxins
  • 2. What are pathogens and toxins?
    • Pathogens are micro-organisms, such as bacteria, that cause disease by entering directly to cell/tissues, or by producing toxins that can affect the body.
    • Toxins are harmful substances that affect our body negatively. Depending on what kind of toxin, it affects on different part of body system. For example, smoking inhales nicotine, that causes addiction, and lung cancer (see more on nicotine slide).
      • H1N1- is pathogen (virus)
      • Botulism – is pathogen (bacteria)
      • Nicotine- is toxin
      • E. Coli- is pathogen (bacteria)
  • 3. H1N1
    • H1N1 is a virus that came out of bird and human flu- and it infected pigs, and that is called ‘ swine flu ’. When this virus infects human, it’s really hard to recover because it has three influenzas. Under the microscope, H1N1 is circular, like a ball out of air.
    • Unlike normal cold, it can not be cured by normal cold medicine; needs Tamiflu medication. That is why people are very aware of H1N1.
    • Symptoms are very similar to cold symptoms: Fever +1 or more:
      • Cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, headache, tiredness, diarrhea, vomiting
      • However, by just having those symptoms aren’t accurate. You need H1N1 test to see if you have H1N1.
  • 4.  
  • 5. Effects & Preventing H1N1
    • Once H1N1 virus invades respiratory system, it causes respiratory disease, such as asthma . If it is not cured properly, it can have second bacterial infections, like bronchitis , and respiratory failure .
    • Also, infected person’s urine system (urine, bladder) and fluid balance won’t function properly
    • What happens to my defense system if I get infected by H1N1?
      • Your body’s defense system will try very hard to get rid of H1N1, but even tertiary system will fail; and then the body gets invaded by H1N1
    • To prevent from getting infected by H1N1 as much as possible:
      • Wear mask
      • Wash hand frequently
      • Use soap when washing hand
      • Avoid crowded/ public place as much as possible
      • Cough/ Sneeze onto arm/shoulder
  • 6. Botulism
    • Botulism is very rare but is a serious paralytic illness (it will make muscle(s) stop moving for a while, or sometimes longer). It paralyzes respiratory system , and affect other muscles as well.
    • When you have botulism, it’s hard to breathe, and can’t move because your muscles are paralyzed.
    • Slowly, the body will stop functioning because respiratory system won’t function properly (all for and one for all- you must need all systems to make the body!)
    • Botulism is caused by botulism toxin, which are produced by bacterium called ‘ bacterium clostridium botulinum ’.
    • Botulism toxin releases ‘ acetyl sholineso ’, a substance that prevents nerves from contacting with muscles.
    Clostridium botulinum
  • 7. Preventing Botulism
    • The body can’t cure botulism by itself, they need medication and vaccination.
    • Botulism (bacterium) often comes from foods, like:
      • Low acid content canned foods (corn, beefs, green beans)
      • Carrot juice
      • Tomatoes
      • Chili peppers
      • Cheese sauce
  • 8. Nicotine
    • Nicotine is a highly addictive toxin that is found in cigarettes and tobacco.
      • Cigarette: 2mg
      • Tobacco: 2-7%
    • Nicotine…
    • Decreases lung capacity, shortness of breath, nagging cough, lower life expectancy (that means you can’t live long!) and nicotine contains neurological toxin (affects brain and your ‘nerves’)
    • When you smoke nicotine for a long period of time, skin will turn pale, and it will take longer time to heal wounds. Heart beat and pressure will go up, and will have higher chance of having a cancer
  • 9. Nicotine affects nervous system and respiratory system
    • Nicotine contains 400 chemicals and 100 toxins that causes negative effects on our body.
    • Nicotine will….
    • Lower body’s immune system (can’t defend from pathogens/micro-organisms)
    • Stop organs from functioning properly.
    • Make eyesight worse.
    • Lower ability judge/ tolerate.
    • Make your teeth yellow
    • However, chemical that causes addition makes hard for smokers to stop smoking.
    • Help smokers to stop by asking them what they can do instead of smoking!
  • 10. E. Coli
    • E. Coli is abbreviation for ‘ Escherichia Coli ’ . It’s a bacteria, and looks like a sausage with strings attach to it.
    • Our body has some E. Coli, but having too much E.Coli causes chills, fever and diarrhea .
    • It can also cause urinary infection and infection in large/small intestines ( digestive system ).
    • When the body has too many E. Coli, immune system tells the body to produce more white blood cells.
    • Then white blood cells attack bad E. Coli, if we have bad E. Coli
    • E. Coli can live in unclean water , not well cooked food and your hand. Wash your hands before eating !
  • 11. Bibliography
    • Nicotine Diagram
      • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicotine
    • H1N1 Diagram1
      • http://media.nowpublic.net/images//b1/e/b1e60f5bcd37fdcade7e3fa61333814e.jpg
    • E. coli Diagram
      • http://www.ecoliblog.com/cell-ecoli.gif
    • H1N1 Diagram2
      • http://www.h1n1help.co.uk/communities/3/004/007/076/583/images/4527066000.jpg

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