Continuous Analytical Reflection


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Continuous Analytical Reflection

  1. 1. Continuous Analytical Reflection Laarnie-Roze Lozada
  2. 2. Overview •Topic 1 - Clash of Civilisation • Perspective of Muslim Women • Perspective of Western Women • A Clash in Perspectives •Topic 2 - Democracy and its Discontents • David Held’s Model of Democracy • Main Obstacles Today • Improvements •Topic 3 - Citizenship and Inequality III: Gender and Sexuality • Type of Feminism - Cultural Feminists • Gender and Sexuality & Citizenship • Gender and Sexuality & Inequality • Intersectionality • Common misconceptions.Why do we need Feminism? In this presentation, I will be talking about 3 different topics. I will start of with the Clash of Civilisations, then go into Democracy and its Discontents, and finally Citizenship and Inequality, in relation to Gender and Sexuality.
  3. 3. A Clash Of Civilisations • Samuel Huntington’s - ‘Clash of Civilisation’ • Division of the World • Western World vs. Islamic World To put into perspective of how world division and the clash of civilisation, I will be talking about the the clash of the western world and the Islam world in relation to the perspectives of Western and Muslim women and the way these women dress. To start of with, I will explain what the ‘Clash of Civilisation’ is. Samuel Huntington was the author of this book. In his book, Huntington discusses how he believes that this world will soon divide themselves into allies. He believed that the world will be split not only in a political way, but also through cultural ties. Huntington believes that when countries do start to align themselves, post Cold War, it will be through cultural ties. Countries with similar cultures are coming together. In his interview with Charlie Rose, Huntington explained how the world was already once divided during the Cold War. The world was split into 3 parts. The Free World led by the United States, The Communist led by the Soviet Union and the non- aliment Third World where the conflict between the other two worlds took place. In this interview he also lists his predicted the civilisations that will come together through their cultural identities. These are The West, which consists mostly of North America and Western Europe, Islam as a civilisation, Orthodox as a civilisation in which Russia is the leading state, Chinese or Cynic civilisation, Hindu civilisation with India as the major state, and some people would argue that Japan is now a separate civilisation all by itself. He would then add Latin America and Africa into this. In this contemporary society, we can see a clash between civilisations. It is due to major global events that act as a catalyst to the clashing of civilisations. The most recent example is one between the Western World and the Islamic World. This began when the airplanes crashed into the World Trade Centre in New York, United States of American on September, 2011 (9/11). During the years, there has been a change in perspective how each part of each side has on each other. We can particularly see it through the perspectives of the Western Women towards Muslim Women and vice versa.
  4. 4. A Clash Of Civilisations • How muslim women are being perceived by the western world? • How wrong these perceptions are. Muslim women are generally seen in a certain way by the Western world. The Western world constantly questions the purpose of the burqa. They ask, “If the Taliban is no more, why are women still wearing burqas?” Western women are also constantly pitying them because of how they dress, having to wear burqas, only ever showing their eyes when dressed in a burqa, and not having a voice. Also because they do not have a choice in wearing the burqa. However, there are some people in the Western world that believe that Muslim women still wear burqas to distinguish themselves from the rest of “us”. A way to keep them secularised from the rest of the world. These are however, all wrong. Some Muslim women wear their burqa out of respect for their religion, they wear it out of tradition. It is not expected that Muslim women will suddenly throw off their burqas and start dressing like the rest of the world because the Taliban is gone (Abu-Lughod, 2006). There is also no need to pity these women, they are doing these things out of their own free will, in this contemporary society, and they enjoy wearing a burqas.
  5. 5. A Clash Of Civilisations • Burqa? • Mis-judgements • The difference in culture between the Western world and the Muslim world. The most common “issue” that people around the world discuss about is Muslim women and the wearing of burqas. It is often believed by many that the burqa is a symbol for oppression, because they believed the Taliban used the burqa to belittle Muslim women. What most people don’t know is that the burqa was not invented by the Taliban. The burqa was one of the many forms of covering in the subcontinent and Southeast Asia, and was invented to symbolise a women’s modesty or respectability (Abu-Lughod, 2006). In this cartoon, we see the differences in the cultures between the Muslim world and the Western World. This cartoon shows how the burqa is constantly mis-judged as a symbol of oppression, but when we look at nuns from the Christianity religion we see it as tradition. People from the Western world are taught about the Christianity and the morals, beliefs, and values that come with this religion. These people are taught about nuns and how they dress ‘appropriately’ to be respectful towards their All Mighty Being. The burqa has been around for a long time, just like the how the nuns dress. The symbol that the burqa is envisions is very similar to nuns. Although, due to some world events, people have mis-judged that Muslim women do not wear burqas because they “have” to, it is no sign of oppression in their culture, it is simply a free choice and to be respectful to their religion.
  6. 6. A Clash Of Civilisations • How western women are being perceived by the muslim women? • How wrong these perceptions are. If we look at the Western World through the eyes of the Muslim people, we evoke similar misconceptions of each other. The world is lacking in communication, and are continually stereotyping each other. Creating un-necessary differences and dividing civilisations. The world is starting to divide into different cultural identities. Lila Abu-Lughod discusses the notion of Western feminism attempting to 'free' Muslim women. Why is this undertaking problematic? Forcing them only makes things more oppressive, it could be their choice if they want to wear the veil. The west believe that we are superior, therefore we believe we have the power to change other parts of the world cause the west believe we are what is right in a society. Feminism is a western idea. We think we are more civilised, we believe that because we have reached 'modernity' we can help them. The idea of doing things in one way, a universal way, that comes from western thought.
  7. 7. A Clash Of Civilisations • “Sex and the City: 2” as another example of the clash of civilisations These stills are from a scene in the movie “Sex and the City: 2” where we see a clash between the Muslim and Western world. This shows how wrong our perceptions are of these “veiled” women. Modernity has provided these women to change in the way they want to dress, and are free to dress as they desire under their hijaabs. This may not be a reputable source that shows any validity or reality as it is a product of a western world blockbuster movie, but it shows some kind of meaning, of the misconceptions of Islamic women, from people from the Western World.
  8. 8. Democracy and Its Discontents • Free and fair elections in which every citizen’s votes has an equal weight. • Main obstacles today. • Improvements? In this topic of Democracy and its Discontents, I will be explaining this through David Held’s 5 part Model of Democracy. I will look through part of this model and explain some main obstacles that spring into today. Then I will look at any improvements, and if there hasn’t been any improvements, there will be suggestions. Firstly, Free and fair elections in which every citizen’s votes has an equal weight. One main obstacle that comes with this, is citizens with a mental disability. What is to say that these people with mental disabilities know who they are voting for, whether or not they’re vote is of equal weight with the rest of the citizens of the country. A way to improve this today, would be to have more transparency with preferences.
  9. 9. Democracy and Its Discontents • A suffrage which embraces all citizens irrespective of distinctions of race, religion, class, sex and so on. • Main obstacles today. • Improvements? Secondly, Held discusses about a suffrage which embraces all citizens irrespective of distinctions of race, religion, class, sex and so on. A main obstacle from this today, are people of lesbian, gay, bi-sexual or trans-gender (LGBT). This is more of an issue where it is silent. They’re rights in voting is sometimes looked over and isn’t given any full attention to. They are not given any rights to reference themselves as what they when voting. There is a limit of how you can reference yourself in. An improvement for this would be to finally acknowledge LGBT people in voting papers.
  10. 10. Democracy and Its Discontents • Freedom of conscience, information on all public matters broadly defined. • Main obstacles today. • Improvements? Next, Held discusses freedom of conscience, information on all public matters broadly defined. One main obstacle is gay marriage. There hasn’t been much done in Australia for this matter. Not all information about gay marriage is broadly defined to the public. Therefore, leading to many misinterpretations and errors in judgements. Improvements on this, is definitely more talk about gay marriage and being able to educate people on this.
  11. 11. Democracy and Its Discontents • The right of all adults to oppose their government and stand for office. • Main obstacles today. • Improvements? In the next part of the model, Held discusses the right of all adults to oppose their government and stand for office. An obstacle is that comes with this, is freedom of speech. While in Australia this is legal, politicians seem to have problem about it when it comes to talking “bad” about them in the media or through word of mouth. This does not show an democracy at all. An improvement would be to allow more public voices be heard.
  12. 12. Democracy and Its Discontents • Associational autonomy - the right to form an independent social movements, interest groups and political parties. • Main obstacles today. • Improvements? Finally, the last part of Held’s model is associational autonomy - the right to form an independent social movements, interest groups and political parties. A main obstacle for this part of the model is access to funds. People who participate in this movements, and belong in these social groups, don’t have many funds that assist them. A way of an improvement would be to be educated in a business way of leading these organisations. Make their own rules and be more organised.
  13. 13. Citizenship and Inequality III: Gender and Sexuality • Gender and Inequality • Gender and Citizenship • Sexuality and Inequality • Sexuality and Citizenship When looking at citizenship and inequality, it is best to explain it with gender and sexuality. There are still many inequalities towards women and LBGT people. This battle of equality has been going on for so long, people have wondered why is it still not been resolved. People still believe that women and LGBT people are disadvantaged from the get go, due to deeply held social and cultural beliefs about what they’re place should be in society. There has been many stereotypes thrust upon both males and females. Some of these inequalities include femicide where girl babies are killed, sometimes even in the womb; child marriage; female genital mutilation (FGM); no education; violence and rape; gender pay gap; marriage inequality, mainly LGBT couples; and domestic/care work. Further explanation on gender pay gap and domestic or care work will be explained. First the gender pay gap. In Australia, girls are the ones that out perform the boys in school exams. But women are generally the ones who are paid less and are less able to acquire jobs, than a man. Domestic or care workers are a most common career globally. There are millions of people around the world that work in peoples homes. But these people are working in un- regulated environments, and can be paid below the minimum wage. Sexuality and inequality can be seen through LGBT people and their rights. The most prominent issue is Gay Marriage. There have been many protests in Australia for legality in gay marriage just like in other countries for example New Zealand, who have already legalised gay marriage. Although, gay marriage is actually not a universal concern for LGBT people. There has been some discussion that this big focus on gay marriage hides other discrimination towards LGBT people such as violence and bullying.
  14. 14. Citizenship and Inequality III: Gender and Sexuality • In terms of feminism... • Common misconceptions of feminists • Why we may need feminism Feminism in citizenship and inequality. There are many common misconceptions of feminists and feminism. Firstly, feminist hate men. Feminism is not about attacking men, but fighting the inequality that an overemphasis on the supposed universality of masculinity and femininity brings. Secondly, some people believe that feminism is about extinguishing masculinity and femininity. This is not the case. We should be able to still like things that are stereotypically masculine or feminine but not be judged by what gender you are. Next, is that people believe that feminism is not necessary. They believe that equality has been reached and it is not longer needed. This is again, wrong. There are still many inequalities happening around the world and many gaps that hasn’t been filled. Finally, although there are many more, is that only women can be feminist. You can be of any gender and still call yourself a feminist, just as long as you believe in equality for women. For the misconceptions listed above, is the reasons why we still need feminism.
  15. 15. Citizenship and Inequality III: Gender and Sexuality - Types of Feminism • Radical Feminism • Liberal Feminism • Socialist Feminism • Cultural Feminism • Ecofeminism Upon some research these are the five types of feminism that is mostly popular. Firstly, radical feminism. This type of feminism is mostly concerned with the holistic view of feminism. This type of feminist highlights the importance of individual feelings, experiences and relationships. This is the type of feminism that attracts bad media because of their whole belief on men. Next, is liberal feminism. This was the type of feminism that was most popular during the 1950s and 1960s. These people focused solely on civil rights and that all human beings are created by God, and should all have equal rights. Another type of feminism is socialist feminism. Socialist feminists believe that there is a direct link between class structure and the oppression of women. Cultural feminism looks at the fundamental, biological differences between men and women, and that women should celebrate these differences. Finally, ecofeminists believe that patriarchy and male domination is harmful to women, as well as the environment.
  16. 16. Citizenship and Inequality III: Gender and Sexuality • Type of Feminism - Radical Feminists • How does it relate to citizenship and inequality? Radical Feminists believe in many of the ideas of feminism. They believe in eradicating the stereotypical roles for both men and women. Although they are at fault when they are constantly believing in being at war with men and patriarchy, and the gender roles of societies. These type of feminism doesn’t help with inequality and citizenship in societies, as it blames men, patriarchy and gender roles, when men are also suffering from these stereotypical roles.
  17. 17. Citizenship and Inequality III: Gender and Sexuality - Intersectionality Intersectionality looks at women of colour standing together for feminism. They believe in looking at things in more than just in an one dimensional way. That you do not have to look at all women in the same way because all women are different.
  18. 18. References• Abu-Lughod, L 2006,‘The Muslim woman:The power of images and the danger of pity’ Eurozine ( 2006-09-01-abulughod-en.html). • Held, D 1996,‘Introduction’, in Models of Democracy. London: Polity. • Mahmood, S 2009,‘Religious Reason and Secular Affect: An Incommensurable Divide?’ Critical Inquiry vol. 35, pp. 836-862. • Power, N 2009, One Dimensional Woman. London: Zero Books. • Vidal,A 2014,‘Intersectional feminism’.What the hell is it? (And why you should care)’, TheTelegraph, 15 January 2014. viewed 7th May 2014 care.html • Krifko 2011, Samuel Huntington on the ‘Clash of Civilisation’, 11 September, online video, viewed 9 May 2014, < watch?v=3SNicJRcUqs> • Oppression?Tradition?, 2011, image, Cartoon Movement viewed 18 May 2014, <> • Sex and the City: 2, image, viewed 18 May 2014 < AAAAAAAAAj4/3kMpxd4aGXc/flash+burqa.jpg> • Beyond English- Feminism, image, viewed 20 May 2014 < feminism.gif?> • The Debate - Intersectionality, image, viewwed 23 May 2014 <>