Theories of International RelationsToday we examine the two dominant theoriesof world politics:✔ Realism✔ Neorealism✔ Liberalism/ idealism✔ NeoliberalismInternational Security
What is a theory?A theory of international relations is a set of ideas that explainshow the international system works. Unlike an ideology, a theory ofinternational relations is (at least in principle) backed up withconcrete evidence. The two major theories of international relationsare realism and liberalism.
The Fathers of Realism● Thucydides, (460 – 395 b.c.)in his History of the Peloponnesian War talks about the war between Athens and Sparta. He stated that“The strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept”.● Niccoló Machiavelli,(1469-1527):No difference betweem foreign policy and internal policy, a harsh and dangerous place and full ofopportunities for fox and lions. (The Prince, 1513).In “The Prince” he adviced rulers to use deceit and violence as tool against other states. Moral goals areso dangerous, he wrote, that to act morally will bring about disanster. He also gave advice how to dealwith conflicts among nieghboring states and how to defend ones homeland.● Thomas Hobbes, (1588-1679):In 1651 Thomas Hobbes, in Leviathan, speaks of the state of nature being prone to what Hobbescalls bellum omnium contra omnes or the war of all against all. (The Leviathan, 1651)
Lets start with a quote from Thomas Hobbes (1651), whom many characterizeas probably the major citidel of the modern theory we call classical realism:"Hereby it is manifest that during the time men live without a common power tokeep them all in awe, they are in that condition which is called war; and such awar as is of every man against every man...To this war of every man againstevery man, this also is consequent: that nothing can be unjust. The notion ofright and wrong, justice and injustice, have there no place. Where there is nocommon power, there is no law; where no law, no injustice. Force and fraud arein war the two cardinal virtues."
Definition of RealismAccording to professors Kegley & Wittkopf (31), classical realism is“a paradigm based on the premise that world politics is essentiallyand unchangeably a struggle among self-interested states forpower and position under anarchy, with each competing statepursuing its own national interests”
The Realist WorldviewState of nature: Realists argue that we live in a "state of nature", or in a world of perpetual conflict. Therefore, the violence,chaos, death and destruction that often accompany world politics reflect the "war of all against all" that intl. anarchy directlyimplies.Anarchy of international system: It is a central assumption in realist theory, holding that anarchy is a defined condition of theinternational system, and subsequently, foreign policy, is largely devoted to ensuring national survival and the pursuit of nationalinterests. It doesnt exist a world authority capable of regulating interactions among states.Statism: Realists believe that nation states are the main actors in international politics, rational actors. As such it is a state-centric theory of international relations. This contrasts with liberal international relations theories which accommodate roles fornon-state actors and international institutions. This difference is sometimes expressed by describing a realist world view as onewhich sees nation states as billiard balls.Survival: (self preservation/self interest):Realists believe that the international system is governed by anarchy, meaning thatthere is no central authority.Therefore, international politics is a struggle for power amongn self-interested states.Self -help: In the world of anarchy and state sovereignty, there is no higher authority to impose order. States must thereforeprovide for their own defense and protection. Realists refer to this effort by states to defend their own interests as SELF-HELP(usually though the acquisition of military capacity or joining alliances.)No moral behavior: Moral behavior is very risky because it can undermine a state’s ability to protect itself.Military power: It assumes an important role to defend State against aggression and to maintain security, to get power.
The core of classical realist theory is bestsummarized in 10 assumptions:1. People are by nature narrowly selfish and ethically flawed2.Of all peoples evil ways, none are more prevalent or dangerous than theirinstinctive lust for power and their desire to dominate others (principle ofdominance)3. The possibility of eradicating these instincts is a utopian “fantasy"4. International politics is a struggle for power, "a war of all against all"5. The primary objective of every state--the goal to which all other objectivesshould be subordinated to--is to promote its NATIONAL INTERESTS6.The anarchical nature of the intl system dictates that state acquire sufficientmilitary capabilities to deter attack by potential enemies and to exercise influenceover others.7. Economics is less relevant to international security.8. Allies might increase a states ability to defend itself, but their loyalty andreliability should never be assumed9. States should NEVER entrust the task of self-protection to internationalsecurity organizations or international law10. If all states seek to maximize power, stability will result by maintaining abalance of power.
The father of LiberalismAs in classical realist theory, I will start the discussion of liberalism with a quote from oneof the founders of this paradigm, Immanuel Kant.The perspicacious Kants towering "Toward Perpetual Peace"(1795):"But the homage which each state pays (at least in words) to the concept of lawproves that there is slumbering in man an even greater moral disposition to becomemaster of the evil principle in himself (which he cannot disclaim) and to hope for thesame from others...For these reasons there must be a league of a particular kind,which can be called a league of peace (foedus pacificum), and which would bedistinguished from a treaty of peace (pactum pacis) by the fact that the latterterminates only one war, while the former seeks to make an end of all wars forever."
Kant, in “The perpetual peace”, 1795, talksabout the possibility of cooperationHe gives three answers about peace and cooperation is possible● Reciprocity: Principle of reciprocity, he thinks cooperation is possible amongstates forming a world federation resembling todays UN. States could developthe organizations and rules to facilitate cooperation.● Peace: Principle of identity, peace depends on the international character ofgovernments, republics will be more peaceful than autocracies. Statespreferences are based on social interaction within the state.● Trade: Trade promotes peace, wealth, cooperation and global well-being.
The Liberalist WorldviewHuman gender is essencially good.Not only State actors: Where realists see states as the only important actors, liberals see a worldwhere there are a variety of non-state actors (such as multi-national corporations, intergovernmentalorganizations, and governmental organizations), that share the world stage with countries. Liberalistworldview see international system as a cobweb where there are multiple connections and every piece islinked to others.International cooperation is in the interest of every State. Peace and cooperation among states canproduce absolute gains for all.Moral behavior is an important factor in the international area.War and violence is possible but not rational and it can be avoided.International rules and organizations can help foster cooperation, trust, and prosperity.Military power is not the only form of power. Economic and social power matter a great deal too.
Assumptions of Liberalism1.Human nature is essentially "good"2.The fundamental human concern for others welfare makes progress possible3.Sinful or wicked human behavior such as violence is not the product of flawedpeople but of evil institutions4. War and international anarchy are NOT inevitable5. War is a global problem requiring collective rather than national efforts tocontrol it6. Reforms must be inspired by a compassionate ethical concern for the welfareand security of all people7. International society must reorganize itself in order to eliminate theinstitutions that make war.
Liberalism vs RealismLiberalism is also called by realists, idealism. This theory emphatizesinternational law, morality and international organizations, rather than poweralone.They see that international system is based on a community of states with thepotencial to work together to overcome mutual problems.Idealists were active between World War I and World War II following theexperience of Woodrow Wilson and other idealists who placed their hope inthe League of Nations in 1919.
Realism vs LiberalismREALISM LIBERALISMACTOR State- centre pluralismRESULT anarchy anarchyCONTEXT conflict cooperationISSUES MilitarysecuritywelfareMOTIVATION fear ambitionINTERNPOLICYminimun importantETICS minimum importantHUMANNATUREselfish altruisticINTERNATIONAL VIEWBilliard balls cobweb
Realism vs liberalismCHARACTERISTICS REALISM LIBERALISMHistorical contextUnity of analisisCold WarState as rational unity Plurity of Internationalactors (IOs; NGOs;sub-state actors...)Problem of study National security Problems derived fromhuman activity in highlydevelopedworld:commercial relations,enviroment and energycrisis.Image of world Billiard balls Cobweb(interdependence)
Neorealism or structural realismOne of the most important thinkers of neorealism is Kenneth Waltz.In Theory of International Politics (1979) he talks about the importanceof structure of international system and its role as the primarydeterminant of state behavior. Unlike traditional Realism who viewstate behavior directed by itself self- interested nature, Walts arguesthat structure directs state conduct. The structure of internationalpolitical system is defyning first its organizing principle which isanarchy (no central power o central organization exists within theinternational system).
Issues of neorealism● Structural, the importance of the structure is basic to understand state behavior, notstrategy, egoism, or motivation—will determine behaviour in international relations.● The nature of international structure is anarchy.● Power is more than the accumulation of military resources and the ability to use it tocoerce and control other states in the system.● International cooperation is difficult to get and to keep and it gives only relative gains.Other important neorealists are John Mearheimer and Robert Gilpin.
Distribution of capabilities across unitsNeorealists contend that there are essentially three possible systems accordingto changes in the distribution of capabilities, defined by the number of greatpowers within the international system.1. A unipolar system contains only one great power (Rome, USA today)2. A bipolar system contains two great powers (Athens vs Sparta/USA-USSR)3. Multipolar system contains more than two great powers (WWI)Neorealists conclude that a bipolar system is more stable (less prone to greatpower war and systemic change) than a multipolar system because balancingcan only occur through internal balancing as there are no extra great powers withwhich to form alliances. Because there is only internal balancing in a bipolarsystem, rather than external balancing, there is less opportunity formiscalculations and therefore less chance of great power war. That is asimplification and a theoretical ideal
Issues of NeoliberalismInternational cooperation is used for self- interests to takeadvantage of another states.There is a no central authority, thats the reason why cooperationis possible. They talk about anarchy in international system.States can get absolute gains with cooperation.Distribution of economic, military, financial, diplomatic andcultural capabilities (measured by the number of great powerswithin the international system).
Complex interdependenceKeohane and Nye in Power and Interdependence explain thecomplex interdependence:Complex interdependence is based on three basic principles:a. there are multiple channels among a variety of actors in intl.politics.b. Global agenda is based on multiple issues that dont have ahierarqhy like energy, evironmental and population problemsc. Military security is not the only nor the most important issue for aState.
International SecurityWhat is it?International security consists of the measures taken by nations and internationalorganizations, such as the United Nations, to ensure mutual survival andsafety. These measures include military action and diplomatic agreements suchas treaties and conventions. International and national security are invariablylinked. International security is national security or state security in the globalarena.
Multi sum security principleOne such comprehensive definition has been proposed by NayefAl-Rodhan. What he calls the "Multi-sum security principle" isbased on the assumption that "in a globalized world, security canno longer be thought of as a zero-sum involving states alone”.Global security has 5 dimensions that includes human,environmental, health/virus (cyber-security and human viruses),national, ethnic/tribal conflict, transnational, transcultural security,global security and the security of any state or culture cannot beachieved without good governance at all levels that guaranteessecurity through justice for all individuals, states, and cultures.
Five dimensions of current International SecurityEach of these five dimensions refers to a different set of substrates.1. The first dimension refers to human security, a concept that makes the principlereferent object of security the individual, not the state.2. The second dimension is environmental security and includes issues like climatechange, global warming, human viruses, and access to resources.3. The third substrate refers to national security, defined as being linked to the state’smonopoly over use of force in a given territory and as a substrate of security thatemphasizes the military and policing components of security.4. The fourth component deals with transnational threats such as organizedcrime, terrorism, cyber attacks, and human trafficking.5. Finally, the integrity of diverse cultures and civilisational forms tackles the issue oftranscultural security. According to this multi-faceted security framework all fivedimensions of security need to be addressed in order toprovide just and sustainable global security.
International security and cybersecurity● What about social networking security?● http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQAGdBecBuk● Lets read an article about the 5 hidden danger of facebook anddiscuss about it.
5 Hidden Dangers of FacebookOver the last few years, Facebooks growth has been phenomenal. The worlds no. 1 social networking site alsosometime back beat Google to become the most visited Web site in the US for an entire week at a stretch.However, the site has also lately being receiving lot of flak for its privacy policies. An expert in online privacydrew attention to the five dangers of sharing information on social networking site Facebook. Joan Goodchild,senior editor of CSO (Chief Security Officer) Online, said that marketing efforts by the company often results in acompromise on account holders privacy.Goodchild noted five risks of using Facebook. They are:Risk 1: Your information is being shared with third partiesAccording to Facebook policy last updated on April 2010, "When you connect with an application or website it willhave access to General Information about you. The term General Information includes your and your friendsnames, profile pictures, gender, user IDs, connections, and any content shared using the Everyone privacysetting. . The default privacy setting for certain types of information you post on Facebook is set to "everyone." .Because it takes two to connect, your privacy settings only control who can see the connection on your profilepage. If you are uncomfortable with the connection being publicly available, you should consider removing (or notmaking) the connection.Risk 2: Privacy settings revert to a less safe default mode after each redesignIn March, private e-mail according to a Gawker report, private email addresses that many Facebook userswanted to keep hidden were revealed publicly on a multitude of Facebook profiles. The glitch was later resolvedby Facebook.Risk 3: Facebook ads may contain malwareRecently, a Facebook event invitation was reportedly sentto some over 2,300 friends of Jim Breyer, Accel Partnersventure capitalist who sits on Facebooks board ofdirectors, asking "Would you like a Facebook phonenumber?" However, the message was actually a scam andthe users who entered their passwords in response to themessage in turn sent the whole thing to their friends liststoo."This was a phishing scam and Jims account appears tohave been compromised," read a statement from Facebookas provided to venture industry news site PEHub.Risk 4: Your friends unknowingly make you vulnerableOn May 6th, the popular social network patched a majorsecurity bug that allowed users to snoop on their friendsprivate chats, and view their pending friend requests. Theexploit forced Facebook to temporarily disable chat.Risk 5: Scammers are create fake profilesEarlier this week, 15 privacy and consumer protectionorganizations filed a complaint with the Federal TradeCommission, alleging that the site manipulates privacysettings to make users personal information available forcommercial use.What do you think about these risks?
Summary and keyquestions● Realism/Liberalism (Cite 5 characteristics of both IR Theores)● Neorealism/Neoliberalism (Cite 3 characteristics of both IRTheories)● Three answer that Kant gives to demonstrate cooperation andpeace are possible● Example of Unipolar system; Bipolar system and Multipolar System● Complex interdependence ( three principles)● Two measure that can be adopted to ensure International Security● The five dimensions of International Security