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Schema presentation

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  • Upsy Daisy 2 yrs 2 months Attends childminding 3 days a week since September Chose her because I was starting to notice some schematic interests In her play.
  • Piaget – Stage level theory Sensori – motor = exploring, experiences through the senses, interactions and movement. Symbolic development = One thing stands for another e.g a toy brick being used as an iron Language development = Language develops and begins to support thinking and actions. Function dependency = Cause and effect. Development of thought = Logic, reasoning and prior knowledge to develop thought processes.
  • Athey = Research lasted 5 yrs, carried out observations, defines different schema patterns e.g rotation, trajectory, enclosure, enveloping. Assimilated = buliding up knowledge. Bruce = Biological – what we are born with. Socio-cultural – experiences and opportunities available to develop the schematic interest.
  • We know: Schemas are repeatable patterns of behaviour They change and adjust Athey says children are often very engaged in their activities when developing their schema – deep levels of concentration.
  • Schemas that cluster will co-ordinate together As Athey says co-ordinations develop more complex concepts, ideas and possibilities. This lead to more powerful schema. I would suggest that clusters of schema follow Piaget’s Assimilate, accommodate and equilibration. Assimilate = build up a bank of knowledge. Anning and Edwards say children need lots of assimilation type play to build up their bank of knowledge. As the experiences co-ordinate they will Accommodate = adjust and adapt to the new information and knowledge becomes more complex. Equilibration = the adjustment between the two – the re-organisation of the schema.
  • Written observations, linked to schema. Next steps – main consideration something developmentally appropriate.
  • Assessment for learning = Building on the existing schema, conversations with parents, knowing Upsy Daisy developmental stage – what can she do. These ideas and concepts came under Nutbrown’s ‘respectful approaches to assessment’ P 134 ‘Thread of thinking’. Language development – interested in words such as ‘on’ ‘in’ ‘off’ ‘hide’.
  • What was my role during the activity = Offer support and help if needed. Introduce language – a running commentary of what I see. ‘putting in’, your hand is hiding’, ‘is your hat on’. Bruce talks about the importance of the role of the adult in her research. Adults play a crucial part in supporting and developing a a child’s schema.
  • Stage Level ? Level 1. – Sensori-motor, mainly in the dressing up activity – lots of action, movement and experiences. Level 2 – Language development – she named the items eg hats, gloves and repeated some of my comentary. In other play episodes seeing some symbolic development e.g a bowl for a hat, a book as a blanket to cover bunny. Some function dependency – when she mixes her food in to her drinks.
  • Can we conclude Upsy Daisy’s journey. Bruce and Athey would say ‘no’. Bruce says schemas are always ‘adjusting and changing in light of experience's. Athey says schema’s co-ordinate and co-ordinations lead to higher level and more complex schema. Starting to see the schema’s develop in to trajectory.
  • Transcript

    • 1. SchemaThe Action andthe Theory.
    • 2. Focus Points Introduction to Upsy Daisy The theory of schema What are Upsy Daisy’s prevailing schemas What is being observed at home Next Steps – planning through schema Conclusion…….
    • 3. The Context – Meet Upsy Daisy!
    • 4. The theory of schema. Piaget (1896-1980) was interested in cognitive development. He believed children go through 4 developmental stages - ‘stage level theory’. Piaget ‘defined schemas as cognitive structures or mental maps’ He believed these function at the four levels of the stage level theory. Stage 1. The sensori-motor stage. Level 2. Symbolic development and Language development. Level 3. Function dependency. Level 4. The development of thought.(Featherstone 2008:16)
    • 5. The theory of schema Athey carried out research in 1972 about schema based on Piaget’s stage level theory. ‘A schema, therefore, is a pattern of repeatable behaviour which experiences are assimilated and that are gradually co-coordinated. Co-ordinations lead to higher-level and more powerful schemas’ (Athey 2008:50) Bruce who also carried out research on schemas in the 1970s says schemas are ‘biological’ and ‘socio-cultural’. ‘They are always adjusting and changing in the light of experience’. (Bruce 2005:73) Bruce also based her work on Piaget’s stage level theory.
    • 6. Name that schema?
    • 7. How do we know its containing and enveloping? Athey (2008: 139-148) refers to, Putting objects inside and outside, wrapping up, covering up/over, containers/enclosures. Nutbrown (2006:44-50) refers to covering up, climbing inside, objects inside containers, filling containers. Bruce (2005:87 & 49) refers to ‘inside/outside’, ‘under’, ‘enclosing’, wrapping up.
    • 8. Are the Schema’s observed in other contexts.
    • 9. Schema Clusters. The observations have shown a cluster of containing and enveloping. The containing was the dominant schema, the more this was repeated in different contexts, so the enveloping evolved. Davies and Howe (2007:245) state schemas are often in clusters ‘part of whole networks of senses, actions and thinking’. Bruce (2002) supports Davies and Howe statement and says that the networking develops the child’s learning ‘into more complex forms’. This links to Athey’s ideas of more powerful schema’s. Schema clusters follow Piaget’s concepts of Assimilation Accommodation Equilibration (Anning & Edwards 2004:11-12).
    • 10. Are the schema’s evident athome? Time set aside to discuss the concepts of schema with photographs. The parent is the child’s first educator – the expert. ‘The parents were genuinely respected and recognised as experts on their own children…’ (Athey 2008:202)
    • 11. Observations from home.
    • 12. Next Steps – Planning through Schema.
    • 13. Planning Considerations Assessment for learning. Nutbrown (2006:127) says the process of assessment ‘illuminates children’s thinking and their capabilities’. Developing language through schema. Linking language to the schema. Nutbrown (2006:72 & 73) says ‘action, thinking and language’ are all linked together and support schematic play patterns.
    • 14. Evaluation and reflections of theactivity. ‘Upsy Daisy came back to the activity on 2 more occasions that day. Dressing up items now permanently available in a basket, she frequently visits the basket. Next steps – develop the dressing up to dressing dolls.
    • 15. Evaluation and reflections of theactivity – The theory ‘Child involvement scale’ (Bertram & Pascal 1997). Dressing up – Level 5 (Sustained intense activity). Engaged for approximately 25 minutes. ‘Used in conjunction with trying to identify schemas it allows adults to observe when a child may be most deeply involved in their play…’ (Whittaker 2007) What level is Upsy Daisy functioning at in her schematic play patterns? Piaget and Bruce’s stage level theory.
    • 16. To Conclude….. ‘Schema theory can be identified as the journey from perception to integrating experience and thinking’. (Martin 2008). Schemas provide insight to children’s learning, for the schematic interests to develop there needs to be a rich learning environment, experiential play and learning, responsive, observant adults to support, guide and gently challenge the schematic interests. Can we conclude Upsy Daisy’s journey? Bruce and Athey would argue no, the observations reflect this.
    • 17. References Anning,A & Edwards, A. (2004) ‘Young Children as Learners.’In Miller, L & Devereux, J. Eds. Supporting Children’s Learning in the Early Years.London: David Fulton Athey, C (2008) Extending Thought in Young Children: A Parent – Teacher Partnership. 2nd Edition. London: PCP Publishing. Bertram,T. & Pascal, C. (1997) Effective Early Learning Project: Child Involvement Scale [online] Available from: http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/ farnorthandaboriginallands/files/links/link_104984.pdf [accessed 23.12.2009] Bruce, T (2002). ‘Brain Power’. Nursery World Magazine. 6 June. [online] Available from: http://www.nurseryworld.co.uk/news/725619/Brain-Power/ [accessed 23.12.2009] Bruce, T (2005) Early Childhood Education. 3rd Edition. London: Hodder Education.
    • 18. References continued. Davies, D & Howe, A ( 2007) ‘What does it mean to be creative’. In: Moyles, J. Eds. Early Years Foundations:Meeting the Challenge. Maidenhead: Open University. pp 239-252. Featherstone, S. ed. (2008) Again Again!: Understanding schemas in young children. London: A&C Black. Martin, M. (2008) ‘Chris Athey; John Dewey.’ Early Years Educator. Volume 10 No 3 July 2008.pp24-26. Nutbrown, C (2006) Threads of Thinking: Young Children Learning and the Role of Early Education. 3rd Edition.London: SAGE. Whittaker,W.(2007) ‘Schemas are a tool through which practitioners and parents can interact more effectively with children and enhance their learning by using a child’s natural motivation to learn.’ Early Years Educator. Volume 9 No 4 August 2007.pp39-44.