Content, Process, And Product


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Tell background story of Terrell and relate to the task that teachers have to meet the needs of diverse learners because of the diverse backgrounds of our students. Not only that….but they are MIDDLE SCHOOLERS with their own set of needs. They have one foot in the world of childhood and one foot in the world of adulthood. Think about the craziness of their development at this time…intellectual, physical, emotional. Many of today’s students come from homes where support and encouragement are in short supply. On the other hand, many other learners come to school with skills that are months or years ahead of where they learned is “expected” to be according to the standard curriculum. Schools must belong to ALL of these students and give an opportunity for them to grow from whatever point of entry they come to us from.
  • It’s because of the increasingly different needs our students are coming to us with that makes it really easy for us to slip into a teaching mode where all students are doing or learning the same thing at the same time. Think about the practice of medicine 100 years ago—and today. Imagine transportation 100 years ago—and today. Consider the 20 th century’s changes in engineering, clothing, and communication. While most of us often think about the nostalgia of “the good ole days,” few of us would opt for yesterday’s physicians, communication systems, or fashion. The field of education has grown and changed too WE ARE NOT IN KANSAS ANYMORE!
  • Enables teachers to plan strategically in order to reach the needs of diverse learners in today’s classrooms. Gives a variety of options to successfully reach targeted standards. Meets learners where they are and offers options for learning in order to achieve success!
  • Differentiation of content refers to a change in the material being learned by a student. For example, if the objective is for all students to solve expressions using order of operations, some of the students may learn to solve using only 3 or 4 operations with whole numbers, while others may learn to solve using exponents, brackets and fractions or in the context of situation problems. THE STUFF WE WANT THEM TO LEARN! Differentiation of process refers to the way in which a student accesses material. One student may explore a learning center, while another student collects information from the web. THOUGHT OF AS THE ACTIVITIES TO LEARN THE CONTENT. MOVES BEYOND “GIVING BACK INFORMATION” TO SEEING HOW THINGS WORK AND WHY THEY WORK AS THEY DO. WHERE THE STUDENT MAKES SENSE OF THE CONCEPT! Differentiation of product refers to the way in which a student shows what he or she has learned. For example, to demonstrate understanding of a geometric concept, one student may solve a problem set, while another builds a model. HOW A STUDENT SHOWS WHAT HE OR SHE HAS COME TO KNOW, UNDERSTAND, AND BE ABLE TO DO.
  • Readiness reflects what a student knows, understands, and can do today in light of what the teacher is planning to teach today. The goal of readiness differentiation is to take the students where they are and provide the support they need to succeed at a new level of challenge. Using results from diagnostic assessment helps teachers become aware of learning gaps or those having already mastered the concept. Implementation looks different for each student and each assignment based on the assessed needs of your students. Interest refers to topics that the student may want to explore or that will motivate the student. This can include interests relevant to the content area as well as outside interests of the student. Link required content to student interests in order to Hook the learner. The goal of interest differentiation is to help students connect with new information, understanding and skills by revealing connections with things they already find appealing, relevant, and worthwhile. Discuss interest inventory. A student’s learning profile includes learning style (i.e., a visual, auditory, tactile, or kinesthetic learner), grouping preferences (i.e., individual, small group, or large group), and environmental preferences (i.e., lots of space or a quiet area to work). The goal of learning profile differentiation is to help students learn in the ways that are most natural to them. ELA teachers administer a “learning style test” to identify learning styles To sum up: Find out: where they are, what they like, and how they like to do it.
  • Focus on classroom management that supports DI. Although there is no fail-safe way to master the alternative approaches to teaching and learning that common sense and research tells us would be more effective. I don’t have all the answers but hope to offer guidelines for what has worked in my own classroom for those who seek more promising ways of thinking about, planning for, and being leaders in DI classrooms.
  • Like students, teachers are ready for differing degrees of challenge. You can successfully start differentiating instruction with small, well-organized changes. 1. Anchor activities—INDEPENDENT. When you ask all students to learn to work quietly on one or more anchor activities, you pave the way for breaking them off in small groups to do other tasks while the remaining students continue with the comfortable, predictable anchor activity. 2. Add an activity where some students work with an anchor activity and others work on a different task—WHICH ALSO REQUIRES NO CONVERSATION OR COLLABORATION. This introduces the idea that students won’t always do the same work! 3. Begin with a whole class discussion, then for 20 minutes, break students off into learning groups where they will practice the content in different settings (which is what our model lesson will be). 4. If you have a class with an inclusion teacher, this is the best scenario! This class can also be used as a “control group” to see if what you are doing is working.
  • It’s better just to do a few things well. Set goals for yourself, but make sure they are reasonable. Like students, teachers grow best when they are moderately challenged. Waiting until conditions are ideal or until you are sure of yourself yields lethargy, not growth. On the other hand, trying to do too many things before you have a chance to think them through leads to frustration and failure. These are just a few possibilities. The idea is to commit yourself to grow. Then try something new, reflect on what you learned from the experience, and apply those insights to the next new step.
  • Description of strategy: Students are part of many different skill-based groups and also work alone based on the match of the task to student readiness. Rationale for use: Allows both for quick mastery of information/ideas and need for additional exploration by students needing more time for mastery. Allows both collaborative and independent work. Allows students to work with a wide variety of peers. Keeps students from being “labeled” as advanced or struggling Keeps students from being cast as those in need of help and those who are helpers. Guidelines for use: Ensure that all students have opportunities to work both with students most like themselves in readiness, and with students dissimilar from themselves in readiness. Ensure that all students learn to work cooperatively, collaboratively, and independently. Be sure there are guidelines for group functioning that are taught in advance of group work and consistently reinforced.
  • Clear and predictable classroom routines are probably the difference between productivity and chaos in a differentiated classroom. Students have to develop a high degree of successful autonomy. After all, the teacher will not be available to all students all the time to restate directions, guide efficient movement around the room, give time reminders, and so on. It is difficult to teach the skills of autonomy when there are 25+ bodies in the classroom. As a result, many of us become more skilled at doing things for our students than at teaching them to do those things for themselves. Routines ensure that students understand how the class will begin and end, how to get and put away materials, how to keep records of their work, and how to get help when the teacher is working directly with others, and so on. Use visual cues—Signs posted around the room can help students remember where to put work, steps to follow at a given work station, how to record completed work. Each group has a folder with assignment directions and to place completed work in. Pre-establish groups—On a flexible grouping day, students look on the board to see which group they are in and signs placed on the desks for students to know where they will sit. Track work completion-- Students are required to complete a learning log to turn in with their work. Keys are provided and students record on the learning log which problem was missed, describe their mistake, and rework the problem correctly. When students complete the activity and check their work, I administer a quick quiz. At this point, the quiz is not for a grade but to see how to assign students to a key activity I am planning for the next day.
  • Unit pre-test tied to and organized by GLE’s for easy analyzing if no access to software programs that do it for you (i.e. Achievement series).
  • Computation stations The Teaching Station—direct instruction with the teacher of a topic of number coomputation; student solve problems or practice skills on individual dry erase boards. Independent assignment—teacher checks for accuracy. Students use learning logs to correct inaccurate answers and describe mistake. Proof Place—Students use manipulatives or drawn representations to work with number computation and to explain and defend their work; helps students understand why numbers and computations work as they do. I don’t usually plan the first two stations on the same day since they require so much teacher direction. Practice Plaza—use teacher generated practice sheets, computer programs or a textbook to gain comfort, and accuracy with a particular computation. Can work with a partner, but usually independent. Students check work with answer key and use a learning log to record problems wrong, corrections and mistake made. Project Place—students work alone or in pairs to complete a project that requires application of skill to real world. Chance for students to “show what they know”—differentiated products through menus!
  • Unit pre-test tied to and organized by GLE’s for easy analyzing if no access to software programs that do it for you (i.e. Achievement series).
  • Tiered lesson example…process different to get to same summative assessment.
  • Doesn’t have to be used as a culmination of a unit…but can be! This is the chance for a student to “show what they know” through choices. Do a quick survey with your students and ask THEM how they can show what they know about a particular concept. Organizers that contain a variety of activities, which students can choose from to complete as they learn a skill or develop a product. Choice boards can be organized so that students are required to choose options that focus on several different skills, interests, and learning styles. The choice boards should provide clear instruction in their use and guide students towards challenging and not frustrating activities.
  • RESIST THE URGE TO “CLICK YOUR HEELS THREE TIMES” AND END UP BACK IN KANSAS! Try differentiating instruction for one short unit or just try it with one class. Make notes and keep them on file to refer to for your next unit. Students may need to adjust to this method of learning If you truly want to succeed, take it in small steps and constantly revise what does not work.
  • Content, Process, And Product

    1. 1. Content, Process AND Product?! Oh My! Calcasieu Parish Schools How to differentiate your instruction without a wizard
    2. 2. <ul><li>To describe differentiated components and classroom implementation. </li></ul><ul><li>To demonstrate steps of differentiating a unit (content, process, product) and provide classroom examples. </li></ul><ul><li>To model a math lesson where process is differentiated. </li></ul>Today's Objectives:
    3. 3. Gregory, G.H. (2002). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Size Doesn’t Fit All <ul><li>They don’t all learn the same thing in the same way on the same day. </li></ul><ul><li>As in clothing, “one size doesn’t fit all,” so in classrooms, </li></ul>One Way is Not the Way.
    4. 4. We're not in Kansas anymore!
    5. 5. <ul><li>Reaches the needs of diverse learners in today’s classrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives a variety of options for teachers and students. </li></ul><ul><li>Meets learners where they are. </li></ul>What is Differentiated Instruction?
    6. 6. Teachers can differentiate… <ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>What we teach and how we give access to the ideas that matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>How students come to understand and “own” the knowledge, understanding, and skills essential to a topic. </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>How a student demonstrates what he or she has come to know, understand, and be able to do as a result of a unit of study. </li></ul>
    7. 7. When teachers differentiate, they do so in response to a students’. . . <ul><li>Readiness </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Learning profile </li></ul>A teacher may differentiate based on any one of these factors or any combination of factors.
    8. 9. How do teachers make it all work? <ul><li>Model respect </li></ul><ul><li>Help students to appreciate differences. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide structures that support success. </li></ul><ul><li>Coach students to work for their personal best. </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate growth. </li></ul>Build a positive learning environment! 1.
    9. 10. How do teachers make it all work? <ul><li>Anchor activity </li></ul><ul><li>Add one activity to the anchor </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate a small block of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Start with ONE class! </li></ul>Start small! 2.
    10. 11. How do teachers make it all work? <ul><li>Take notes on what works and what doesn’t for which learners. </li></ul><ul><li>Try creating one differentiated lesson per unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiate one product per semester. </li></ul><ul><li>Find multiple resources that support your curriculum. </li></ul>Grow slowly—but grow! 3.
    11. 12. Flexible Grouping
    12. 13. Classroom management that supports flexible teaching: <ul><li>Use visual cues </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-establish groups </li></ul><ul><li>Track work completion </li></ul>Direct instruction with the teacher Self-guided activity Direct instruction at beginning of lesson, then practice independently
    13. 14. Process
    14. 15. Activity Learning Log Name of Activity (circle one): Tiles activity Equation activity Garden problem Questions or “Stuck” Points Answers or “AHA’s”
    15. 16. Differentiating Content
    16. 17. Computation Stations The Teaching Place Proof Place Practice Plaza Project Place
    17. 19. <ul><li>Administer unit pre-test and use results to drive instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Students write a learning contract. </li></ul><ul><li>Use flexible learning groups and track interventions in student folders. </li></ul><ul><li>Track student progress through formative assessments. </li></ul><ul><li>Administer unit post-test. </li></ul><ul><li>Track student mastery of GLE’s. </li></ul>Differentiating Process STEPS
    18. 20. 45% GLE #33: Graphing on Coordinate Grid GLE #31: Pythagorean Theorem GLE #26: Dilations <ul><li>After-school tutoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Do all my homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions when I don’t understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t miss school. </li></ul>Textbook Resources Other resources that support curriculum
    19. 21. EXAMPLE
    20. 22. EXAMPLE
    21. 24. Students track how they are progressing towards mastery of weak GLE’s identified by the unit pre-test.
    22. 25. Use results from unit post-test to track GLE mastery. 10/14 10/14 10/14 10/14
    23. 26. <ul><li>Contain a variety of activities that demonstrates mastery of a concept. </li></ul><ul><li>Options based on Bloom’s taxonomy and/or learning style. </li></ul>Differentiating Product Choice Boards
    24. 27. Directions: You will choose activities from this menu worth 2, 5 or 8 points for a total of 20 points to earn a 100%. The 20 points will be comprised of one mandatory 5 point assignment and your choice of THREE other assignments which TOTAL 15 points. Grading Scale: A = 19-20 points B = 18 points C = 16-17 points D = 14-15 points U = Below 13 points Thanks for deriving with us! the cafe
    25. 28. <ul><li>Mandatory Model (Choose from parallelogram, triangle, trapezoid or circle) </li></ul><ul><li>Show how the figure you chose is related to the area of a rectangle using a model and a mathematical explanation which supports your model. (5 points) </li></ul><ul><li>Choose THREE activities from the rest of the menu. The activities must total a minimum of 15 points. Place a checkmark next to each box to show which activities you will complete. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge & Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Explain and draw a picture to illustrate how to find the area and perimeter of your figure using real-world examples in your explanation. </li></ul><ul><li>For a square, a non-square rectangle, and a circle: a) suppose each encloses a region with area 100 cm 2 . Order these figures from least to greatest perimeter showing all work ; b) suppose each has perimeter of 100 cm. Order these figures from least to greatest area showing all work </li></ul><ul><li>Application & Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Write a situation problem involving the area and perimeter of your figure. Then solve your problem by showing the mathematical processes used to solve it and by sketching a diagram which includes the dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a landscape design using three figures (features). Label the dimensions of each figure in the design, and calculate the area and perimeter for each feature. </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the dimensions of one room of your house and sketch on grid paper using a scale where 1 unit represents 1 foot. Calculate the amount and cost needed to carpet or tile the floor, and to trim the floor and ceiling with molding . Be sure to include the sale ads used to determine cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis & Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Create a composite figure using your figure, another one and part of a circle. Draw the figure and label all dimensions. Shade and identify the components that make up the figure and calculate the area and perimeter of the composite figure. </li></ul><ul><li>Design an area & perimeter “Tic-tac-toe” or “Bingo” game from all figures using situation problems or drawings as questions. </li></ul>2 points 8 points 5 points the cafe
    26. 29. MODEL LESSON Let's try it GLE’s Addressed: #11 Translate real-life situations that can be modeled by linear or exponential relationships to algebraic expressions and equations (A-1-M) (A-4-M) (A-5-M) #13 Switch between functions represented as tables, equations, graphs, and verbal representations. (A-3-M) (P-2-M) (A-4-M) #14 Construct a table of x- and y-values satisfying a linear equation and construct a graph of the line on the coordinate plane (A-3-M) (A-2-M)
    27. 30. Ending Thoughts… <ul><li>Start small. </li></ul><ul><li>Take time to reflect upon what was successful and unsuccessful. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't expect miracles overnight. </li></ul>Learning to differentiate instruction is a process.
    28. 31. RESOURCES “ The Differentiated Classroom,” Carol Tomlinson
    29. 32. Karen Andrews Hinson Vinton Middle School [email_address] Contact: CALCASIEU PARISH SCHOOLS