First Half of 19th Century


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First Half of 19th Century

  2. 2. THE JEFFERSONIAN ERA    3rd President of the U.S. 1800-1808 Election of 1800 pitted Thomas Jefferson and his Democratic-Republican Party vs. John Adams and his Federalist Party While Jefferson defeated Adams by 8 electoral votes, he tied his running mate, Aaron Burr For six days the House of Reps took vote after vote until 36 votes later – Jefferson prevailed (Led to 12th Amendment)
  3. 3. 1800 Election Results
  4. 4. SIMPLIFYING THE GOVERNMENT   Jefferson’s theory of government, known as Jeffersonian Republicanism, held that simple, limited government was the best for the people Jefferson decentralized the government, cut costs, reduce bureaucracy, and eliminate taxes Jefferson Memorial
  5. 5. JOHN MARSHALL AND THE POWER OF THE SUPREME COURT     Before leaving office, John Adams (2nd President), attempts to “pack” the Federal courts with Federalists Judges Jefferson argued this was unconstitutional Supreme Court Chief Justice Marshall rules in Marbury v. Madison (1803) that part of the Judicial Act was unconstitutional Established principle of Judicial Review – the ability of the Supreme Court to declare a law unconstitutional
  6. 6. THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE     By 1803, French leader Napoleon had abandoned his dreams of an American Empire He needed money to fight European wars, so he accepted Jefferson’s offered of $15,000,000 More than doubled the size of our country Lewis and Clark ordered to go explore new territory
  7. 7. MADISON ELECTED PRESIDENT    4th President 1808-1816 After two terms, Jefferson is succeeded by James Madison Madison was two-term President 1808-1816 Known as the “Father of the Constitution, Madison also is known for his leadership during the War of 1812
  8. 8. WAR OF 1812 – U.S. vs. BRITAIN     Causes: British “impressment” (seizing Americans at sea and drafting them into their navy) upset Americans The War: 1814 – British sack D.C. Burn White house Andrew Jackson leads great victory in New Orleans Treaty of Ghent signed, Christmas Eve, 1814 British Impressment of U.S. seamen upset Americans
  9. 9. RESULTS OF WAR OF 1812 Results of the war included:  End of the Federalist Party (opposed war)  Encouraged industries in U.S.  Confirmed status of U.S. as a strong, free, and independent nation Despite the burning of the President’s mansion, the U.S. emerged strong
  10. 10. NATIONALISM SHAPES POLICY     James Monroe was elected president in 1816 Immediately, Nationalism clearly established as key concern of administration Treaty with Britain to jointly occupy the Oregon Territory Adams-Onis Treaty (1819) secured Florida & southernmost areas of SE America
  11. 11. THE MONROE DOCTRINE   In the early 19th Century, various European countries hinted at increased colonization In his 1823 address to Congress, Monroe made it clear to Europe: Don’t interfere with Western Hemisphere (Monroe Doctrine)
  12. 12. What idea does this political cartoon convey?
  13. 13. THE AGE OF JACKSON  During a time of growing Sectionalism, Andrew Jackson’s election in 1828, ushered in a new era of popular democracy
  14. 14. REGIONAL ECONOMIES CREATE DIFFERENCES     The Northeast continued to develop industry while the South and West continued to be more agricultural The Industrial Revolution reached America by the early-mid 19th century New England first to embrace factory system Especially in textile (fabric) mills
  15. 15. SOUTH REMAINS AGRICULTURAL     Meanwhile, the South continued to grow as an agricultural power Eli Whitney’s invention of the Cotton Gin (1793) made producing cotton even more profitable The South became a “Cotton Kingdom” More labor was needed – 1790 = 700,000 slaves 1820 = 1,500,000 slaves Cotton Gin quickly separated cotton fiber from seeds
  16. 16. BALANCING NATIONALISM AND SECTIONALISM    Economic differences created political tension between North & South As the regions moved apart, politicians attempted to keep nation together House Speaker Henry Clay’s American Plan called for a protective tariff, a National Bank, and an improved infrastructure to help travel
  17. 17. THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE     In 1818 settlers in Missouri applied for statehood Northerners and Southerners disagreed on whether Missouri should be admitted as a “free” state Henry Clay organized a compromise in which Missouri was “slave” but Maine would be “free” Also Louisiana Territory split at 36 30’ north latitude HENRY CLAY: THE GREAT COMPROMISER
  19. 19. ELECTION OF ANDREW JACKSON     ANDREW JACKSON IS ON THE $20 BILL Jackson, hero of the common man, won election in 1828 in part because the right to vote had been expanded to more citizens In the 1824 election, won by John Quincy Adams, 350,000 white males voted In 1828, over 1,000,000 white males voted Many of the new voters supported the rugged westerner Jackson who also won re-election in 1832
  20. 20. JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY    As part of his political philosophy, Jackson sought to grant political power to the common people Called The Spoils System or Jacksonian Democracy, Jackson hired his own supporters to replace the previous administration’s staff Jackson gave away many jobs to his friends and political allies
  21. 21. INDIAN REMOVAL ACT - 1830       Congress, with Jackson’s support, passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830 Under this law, the federal government funded treaties that forced tribes west The Cherokee Tribe in Georgia refused and were supported by the Supreme Court Jackson refused to abide by the Court decision Jackson said, “John Marshall (Supreme Court Chief Justice) has made his decision, now let him enforce it.” Trail of Tears followed the Court ruling as U.S. troops rounded up the Cherokee and drove them west, mostly on foot. . .thousands died
  22. 22. INDIAN REMOVAL - 1830
  23. 23. TARIFF OF “ABOMINATION”  THE NORTH  TARIFFS THE SOUTH In 1824 and again in 1828, Congress increased the Import Tariff of 1816 Southerners called the 1828 Tariff, “a Tariff of Abominations,” and blamed it for economic problems in the South
  24. 24. NULLIFICATION THREAT    In an attempt to free South Carolina from the tariff, John Calhoun (Jackson’s VP from S.C.), developed the Theory of Nullification He believed if a state found an act of Congress to be unconstitutional, it could declare the law void within its borders Tensions only relieved by a Clay Compromise Tariff in 1833
  25. 25. JACKSON’S BANK WAR    Jackson opposed National Bank so he created Pet Banks – so called because they were favored by Jackson’s Democrats Many felt Jackson was acting more like a King than a president In 1832, his opponents formed a new party – the Whigs
  26. 26. PANIC OF 1837     In 1836, Democrat Martin Van Buren won the Presidency He inherited problems from the “Bank Wars” Jackson’s Pet Banks printed money without Gold backing In 1837 a panic set in and many banks closed, accounts went bankrupted, and unemployment soared MARTIN VAN BUREN 1837-1841
  27. 27. HARRISON & TYLER   HARRISON 1841 TYLER 1841-1845  Whig William Henry Harrison defeated Democrat Van Buren in the election of 1840 Harrison, known as “Tippecanoe” for a battle he won against natives, died a month into his term His VP, John Tyler became president
  28. 28. MANIFEST DESTINY    In the 1840s Americans became preoccupied with expansion Many believed that their movement westward was predestined by God Manifest Destiny was the belief that the U.S. would expand “from sea to shining sea”
  30. 30. FAMOUS TRAILS WEST     No highways existed, thus wagon trails served as the roads to the West Santa Fe Trail ran from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe, New Mexico Oregon Trail stretched from Independence to Oregon City, Oregon Mormons especially utilized the Oregon Trail on their way to Salt Lake City
  31. 31. MEXICO CONTROLS TEXAS     After 300 years of Spanish rule, Mexican settlers felt at home in Texas territory Mexico won their independence from Spain in 1821 and Texas was theirs Mexican officials offered land to Americans to make the area more stable Americans soon outnumbered Mexicans in Texas – trouble started
  32. 32. TEXAS INDEPENDENCE     Stephen Austin established a colony of Americans in Texas Conflicts intensified between Mexicans and Americans in Texas One issue was the slaves many Americans had brought with them Mexico had outlawed slavery in 1829
  33. 33. REMEMBER THE ALAMO     THE ALAMO IN SAN ANTONIO Mexican President Santa Anna was determined to force Texans to obey Mexican law Santa Anna marched his troops toward San Antonio – at the same time Austin issued a call to arms for all American Texans American forces moved into a mission known as the Alamo in 1836 After 13 days the Mexican troops scaled the walls and slaughtered all 187 Americans
  34. 34. MEXICAN-AMERICAN WAR     1844 presidential election winner, James Polk, eagerly wanted to annex Texas as part of the U.S. Negotiations failed and U.S. troops moved into Mexican territory in 1845 America victories soon followed, and in 1848 Mexican leader Santa Anna conceded defeat Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed – U.S. gets (larger) Texas, New Mexico & California MEXICAN PRESIDENT SANTA ANNA
  35. 35. CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH    After gold was discovered at Sutter’s Mill, migration to California rose from 400 in 1848 to 44,000 in 1850 Folks who rushed to San Francisco in 1849 became known as Forty-niners By 1857, the total amount of gold mined in California topped $2,000,000,000