Problems are questions raised from one’scuriosity about a phenomenon or anobservation in his/her surroundings.For example, “ What makes a bulb light upbrighter”
Variables are factors involved in a scientificinvestigation. The variable that you change iscalled manipulated variable. The respondingvariable is what you observe or measure toobtains results. Factors that are not changedare called constant variables.
A hypothesis is a statement that can be tested. Itshows the relationship between the manipulatedvariable and the responding variable. For example, ifmore batteries are used then the bulb becomesbrighter.
Planning the investigation is very important sothat the hypothesis could be tested. Thisinvolves the following1. Identifying the materials and apparatus used.2. Determining the procedure which includes what to observe or what to measure in the investigation.
Carry out investigation according to theprocedures as planned earlier.
Collect and record data based on theobservations or measurements. The datashould be collected and organisedsystematically.
Analyze the data to look for any patterns ortrends. Pattern can become obvious if youorganize your data in the form of graph, tableor chart. It helps to interpret the data collected.
Based on the analysis and interpretation ofdata, a conclusion is drawn to accept or rejectthe hypothesis.
A report of a scientific investigation should contain the followingitems:1. Purpose – a statement about the problem.2. Hypothesis – a suggested answer to the problem.3. Variables – manipulated variable, responding variable and constant variable.4. Materials and apparatus used.5. Procedure – steps used in the investigation.6. Data collection – observation or measurements of the experiment.7. Analysis and interpretation of data.8. Conclusion – a statement that accepts or rejects the hypothesis.
To investigate the relationship between thenumber of batteries used and the brightness ofa bulb.If more batteries are used then the bulbbecomes brighter.
1. Manipulated variable : The number of batteries used.2. Responding variable : The brightness of the bulb.3. Constant variable : a. The number and type of bulbs used. b. The type of batteries used
Batteries, bulbs and wires1. The apparatus was set up as shown in the diagram.2. The brightness of the bulb was observed and recorded.3. The experiment was repeated using two or more batteries and the brightness of the bulb was recorded.
Numbers of Brightness of bulb batteries Bright Brighter Very bright 1 √ 2 √ 3 √
Brightness of bulb 1 2 3 Number of batteriesThe graph above shows that the brightness of the bulbincreases with the number of batteries used
When more batteries are used, the bulb lights upbrighter.Therefore, the hypothesis is accepted.
The scientific investigation are important because theyencourage us to:1. Think scientifically.2. Do work systematically.3. Evaluate the information that we receive without any biasness.4. Think critically and analytically
1. Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment2. Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data3. Being diligent and perservering4. Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others, and the environment.5. Realising that science is a means to understand nature.6. Appreaciating and practising clean and healthy living.7. Appreaciating the balance of nature8. Being respectful and well-mannered9. Appreciating the contributions of science and technology.
10. Being thankful to God.11. Having critical and analytical thinking12. Being flexible and open-minded.13. Being kind-hearted and caring.14. Being objective.15. Being systematic.16. Being cooperative.17. Being fair and just.18. Daring to try.19. Thinking rationally.20. Being confident and independent.
Which of the following is TRUE about hypothesis?A Hypothesis is a true statementB Hypothesis is a result of an experimentC Hypothesis is an early conclusion that may be true or falseD Hypothesis is a general statement of relationship between manipulated variable and responding variable.
Which of the following is TRUE about inference?A Inference is a true statementB Inference is the result of an experiment studyC Inference is an early conclusion that may be true or falseD Inference is a general statement of relationship between manipulated variable and responding variable.
Which of the following is NOT done by a scientistwhen conducting a scientific investigation?A To analyze dataB To make hypothesisC To ascertain and control the variablesD To make a conclusive result before conducting an experiment
The scientific approach in fully understandingscientific concepts is toI think like a scientistII have a deep desire to explore the unknownIII appreciate inventions by other scientists A I and II only B II and III only C I, II and III. D I only
Which of the following is NOT TRUE about ascientific investigation?A Analyze dataB Interpret dataC Identify suitable variablesD Not having a plan for the investigation
Results of an experiment must be carefullyrecorded becauseI we do not have to refer to the results againII we can analyze the resultsIII other scientist can be informed of the findings A III only B I and II only C II and III only D I, II and III
A report on an experiment should contain thefollowing,I ObservationII Materials and apparatusIII Aim of the experiment A I and II only B I and III only C II and III only D I, II and III
A report can be presented in the form ofI DrawingsII GraphsIII Histograms A III only B I and II only C II and III only D I, II and III
Which of the following is NOT a scientificattitude to adapt when conducting a scientificinvestigations?A be biasedB be positiveC be objectiveD be critical
In studying science, students need to masterthe scientific skills. Scientific skills includeI science presentation skillsII science manipulated skillsIII science process skills A I only B I and II only C II and III only D I, II and III
Which of the following is NOT a scientificattitude and noble value?A to appreciate contributions by scientific and technologyB interest and the urge to know more about the environmentC honest and reliable when recording and conforming dataD to conduct an experiment in a hasty manner
The flow chart shows steps involved in a scientific investigation.Complete the table below with the correct answers. Making a hypothesis Interpreting data Reporting
Study the following statement. You are given - 2 empty tins - Sand (a) Suggest a hypothesis to investigate the above statement (b) Describe an experiment to test your hypothesis based on the following criteria (i) Aim of the experiment (ii) Identification of varibles (iii) List of apparatus (iv) Method (v) Tabulation of data