How to combat modern slavery….Ted talks Kevin Bales:Key words: slavery, economic, destitute, vulnerable, commodity, liberation, economicautonomy,Sustainable freedom, heredity slaveryListen to the talk and answer the following questions:1. What made this man sit up and listen about modern day slavery?He saw a leaflet in London.2. What are ‘slave based businesses’? What are the benefits?Non-voluntary labors greatest advantage as an asset is the endless supply. Were notabout to run out of people. No other commodity has that.3. What are modern day slaves?People that cannot quit their job and are paid less than average (mostly not at all). Notonly that, they are not allowed to exercise their rights and has to work around theclock.4. Where is modern day slavery happening?Everywhere besides Iceland and Greenland5. How many people were there in slavery during 2010?27 million.6. What are some of the reasons behind modern day slavery?Corruption. The increase in the number of vulnerable people, the increase in thenumber of the human population.7. What is the average price of a slave today?90 dollars.8. Where are slaves: More expensive? Less expensive? Why do you think this?Slaves are more expensive in North America. It’s Less Expensive in Nepal and India. Thisis because there’s more corruption in less developed country, thus, the cost to have isone as they don’t have to avoid the cops and etc.9. How can we combat modern day slavery?We can combat modern day slavery by enforcing the law. The absence law is the keyreason on why there is still slavery in this modern world.10. What is liberation?Liberation is freedom. It’s the right to live your life and exercise your human rights. Butfor the slaves to be able to experience this, we need to train them to be better to livelike others and find their skill so that they won’t fall back into slavery.11. How much does it cost to free slavery?10.8 billionAre you willing to live in a world with slavery? Why/Why not?Summarise the key points…-Theirs is 27 million people currently in slavery-There’s approximately 7 billion people in the world-Vulnerability, destitution and the absence of law.-The average cost to free a slave is 400, the total cost to free all slave is 10.8 billion.
How reliable is this information? (Source reliability) Who wrote this article? Professor Kevin Bales Who is their audience? Educated People that are able to make a change. Is this a reliable source? Why or why not?Yes. His credentials have been proven. Not only that, he’s one of the first people toresearch modern slavery. He has had first hand experience. He had evidence foreverything he said and he had researched them thoroughly. Ted talks Kevin Bales: How to combat modern slaveryhttp://www.ted.com/talks/kevin_bales_how_to_combat_mo dern_slavery.html TranscriptYou know for me, the interest in contemporary forms of slavery started with a leaflet that I picked up in London. It was the early90s, and I was at a public event. I saw this leaflet and it said, "There are millions of slaves in the world today." And I thought, "Noway, no way." And Im going to admit to hubris.Because I also, Im going to admit to you, I also thought, "How can I be like a hot-shotyoung full professor who teaches human rights and not know this? So it cant be true."Well, if you teach, if you worship in the temple of learning, do not mock the gods, because they will take you, fill you with curiosity anddesire, and drive you. Drive you with a passion to change things. I went out and did a lit review, 3,000 articles on the key word"slavery." Two turned out to be about contemporary -- only two. All the rest were historical. They were press pieces and they were fullof outrage, they were full of speculation, they were anecdotal -- no solid information.So, I began to do a research project of my own. I went to five countries around the world. I looked at slaves. I met slaveholders, and Ilooked very deeplyinto slave-based businesses because this is an economic crime. People do not enslave people to be mean tothem. They do it to make a profit. And Ive got to tell you, what I found out in the world in four different continents, was depressinglyfamiliar.Like this: Agricultural workers in Africa, whipped and beaten, showing us how they were beaten in the fields before theyescaped from slavery and met up with our film crew. It was mind-blowing.And I want to be very clear. Im talking about real slavery. This is not about lousy marriages, this is not about jobs that suck. This isabout people who can not walk away, people who are forced to work without pay, people who are operating 24/7 under a threat ofviolence and have no pay. Its real slavery in exactly the same way that slavery would be recognized throughout all of human history.Now, where is it? Well, this map in the sort of redder, yellower colors are the places with the highest densities of slavery. But in factthat kind of bluey color are the countries where we cant find any cases of slavery. And you might notice that its only Iceland andGreenland where we cant find any cases of enslavement around the world.Were also particularly interested and looking very carefully at places where slaves are being used to perpetrate extremeenvironmental destruction.Around the world, slaves are used to destroy the environment, cutting down trees in the Amazon;destroying forest areas in West Africa; mining and spreading mercury around in places like Ghana and the Congo; destroying thecoastal ecosystems in South Asia. Its a pretty harrowing linkagebetween whats happening to our environment and whats happeningto our human rights.Now, how on Earth did we get to a situation like this,where we have 27 million people in slavery in the year 2010? Thats double thenumber that came out of Africa in the entire transatlantic slave trade. Well, it builds up with these factors. They are not causal, theyare actually supporting factors. One we all know about, the population explosion: the world goes from two billion people toalmost seven billion people in the last 50 years. Being numerous does not make you a slave. Add in the increased vulnerability ofvery large numbers of people in the developing world, caused by civil wars, ethnic conflicts, kleptocratic governments, disease ... youname it, you know it.We understand how that works. In some countriesall of those things happen at once, like Sierra Leone a few years ago, and pushenormous parts ... about a billion people in the world, in fact, as we know, live on the edge, live in situations where they dont haveany opportunity and are usually even destitute. But that doesnt make you a slave either.What it takes to turn a person who isdestitute and vulnerable into a slave, is the absence of the rule of law. If the rule of law is sound, it protects the poor and it protectsthe vulnerable. But if corruption creeps in and people dont have the opportunity to have that protection of the rule of law, then if youcan use violence, if you can use violence with impunity, you can reach out and harvest the vulnerable into slavery.Well, that is precisely what has happened around the world. Though, for a lot of people, the people who step into slavery today dontusually get kidnapped or knocked over the head. They come into slavery because someone has asked them this question.All around the world Ive been told an almost identical story. People say, "I was home, someone came into our village, they stood upin the back of a truck, they said, Ive got jobs, who needs a job?"And they did exactly what you or I would do in the samesituation. They said, "That guy looked sketchy. I was suspicious, but my children were hungry. We needed medicine. I knew I had todo anything I could to earn some money to support the people I care about." They climb into the back of the truck. They go off withthe person who recruits them.Ten miles, 100 miles, 1,000 miles later, they find themselves in dirty, dangerous, demeaning work.Theytake it for a little while, but when they try to leave, bang!, the hammer comes down, and they discover theyre enslaved.
Now, that kind of slavery is, again, pretty much what slavery has been all through human history. But there is one thing that isparticularly remarkable and novel about slavery today, and that is a complete collapse in the price of human beings -- expensive inthe past, dirt cheap now. Even the business programs have started picking up on this. I just want to share a little clip for you.Daphne: OK. Llively discussion guaranteed here, as always, as we get macro and talk commodities.Continuing here in the studio withour guest Michael ODonohue, head of commodities at Four Continents Capital Management. And were also joined by BrentLawson from Lawson Frisk Securities.Brent Lawson: Happy to be here.D: Good to have you with us, Brent. Now, gentlemen ... Brent, where is your money going this year?BL: Well Daphne, weve been going short on gas and oil recently and casting our net just a little bit wider. We really like the humanbeing story a lot. If you look at a long-term chart, prices are at historical lows and yet global demand for forced labor is still realstrong. So, thats a scenario that we think we should be capitalizing on.D: Michael, whats your take on the people story? Are you interested?Michael ODonoghue: Oh definitely. Non-voluntary labors greatest advantage as an asset is the endless supply. Were not about torun out of people. No other commodity has that.BL: Daphne, if I may draw your attention to one thing. That is that private equity has been sniffing around, and that tells me that thismarket is about to explode. Africans and Indians, as usual, South Americans, and Eastern Europeans in particular are on our buy list.D: Interesting. Micheal, bottom line, what do you recommend?MO: Were recommending to our clients a buy and hold strategy. Theres no need to play the market.Theres a lot of vulnerablepeople out there. Its very exciting.D: Exciting stuff indeed. Gentlemen, thank you very much.Kevin Bales: Okay, you figured it out. Thats a spoof.Though I enjoyed watching your jaws drop, drop, drop, until you got it. MTVEurope worked with us and made that spoof, and theyve been slipping it in between music videos without any introduction, which Ithink is kind of fun. Heres the reality. The price of human beings across the last 4,000 yearsin todays money has averaged about40,000 dollars. Capital purchase items. You can see that the lines cross when the population explodes.The average price of a human being today, around the world, is about 90 dollars. They are more expensive in places like NorthAmerica. Slaves cost between 3,000 to 8,000 dollars in North America,but I could take you places in India or Nepal where humanbeings can be acquired for five or 10 dollars. They key here is that people have ceased to be that capital purchase item and becomelike Styrofoam cups. You buy them cheaply, you use them, you crumple them up, and then when youre done with them you justthrow them away.These young boys are in Nepal. They are basically the transport system on a quarry run by a slaveholder. There are no roads there,so they carry loads of stone on their backs, often of their own weight, up and down the Himalaya Mountains. One of their motherssaid to us, "You know, we cant survive here, but we cant even seem to die either."Its a horrible situation. And if there is anything thatmakes me feel very positive about this, its that there are also -- in addition to young men like this who are still enslaved -- there areex-slaves who are now working to free others. Or, we say, Frederick Douglass is in the house.I dont know if youve ever had a daydream about, "Wow. What would it be like to meet Harriet Tubman? What would it be like to meetFrederick Douglass?" Ive got to say, one of the most exciting parts about my job is that I get to, and I want to introduce you to one ofthose. His name is James Kofi Annan. He was a slave child in Ghanaenslaved in the fishing industry, and he now, after escape andbuilding a new life, has formed an organization that we work closely with to go back and get people out of slavery. This is not James,this is one of the kids that he works with.James Kofi Annan (Video): He was hit with a paddlein the head. And this reminds me of my childhood when I used to work here.KB: James and our country director in Ghana,EmmanuelOtoo are now receiving regular death threats because the two of themmanaged to getconvictions and imprisonment for three human traffickers for the very first time in Ghana for enslaving people, fromthe fishing industry, for enslaving children.Now, everything Ive been telling you, I admit, is pretty disheartening. But there is actually a very positive side to this, and that is this:The 27 million people who are in slavery today, thats a lot of people, but its also the smallest fraction of the global population to everbe in slavery. And likewise, the 40 billion dollars that they generateinto the global economy each year is the tiniest proportion of theglobal economy to ever be represented by slave labor.Slavery, illegal in every country has been pushed to the edges of our global society. And in a way, without us even noticing, hasended up standing on the precipice of its own extinction, waiting for us to give it a big boot and knock it over. And get rid of it.And itcan be done.Now, if we do that, if we put the resources and the focus to it, what does it actually cost to get people out of slavery? Well, first, beforeI even tell you the cost Ive got to be absolutely clear. We do not buy people out of slavery. Buying people out of slavery is like payinga burglar to get your television back;its abetting a crime. Liberation, however, costs some money.Liberation, and more importantly all the work that comes after liberation. Its not an event, its a process. Its about helping people tobuild lives of dignity, stability, economic autonomy, citizenship.Well, amazingly, in places like India where costs are very low, thatfamily, that three-generation family that you see there who were in hereditary slavery -- so, that granddad there, was born a baby intoslavery -- but the total cost, amortized across the rest of the work, was about 150 dollars to bring that family out of slavery and thentake them through a two year process to build a stable life of citizenship and education.A boy in Ghana rescued from fishing slavery, about 400 dollars. In the United States, North America,much more expensive. Legalcosts, medical costs ...we understand that its expensive here: about 30,000 dollars. But most of the people in the world in slavery livein those places where the costs are lowest. And in fact, the global average is about what it is for Ghana.And that means, when you multiply it up, the estimated cost of not just freedom but sustainable freedom for the entire 27 millionpeople on the planet in slavery is something like 10.8 billion dollars -- what Americans spend on potato chips and pretzels, whatSeattle is going to spend on its light rail system: usually the annual expenditure in this country on blue jeans, or in the last holidayperiod when we bought GameBoys and iPods and other tech gifts for people, we spent 10.8 billion dollars. Intels fourth quarterearnings: 10.8 billion.Its not a lot of money at the global level. In fact, its peanuts. And the great thing about it is that its not money down a hole, there is afreedom dividend. When you let people out of slavery to work for themselves, are they motivated? They take their kids out of the
workplace, they build a school, they say, "Were going to have stuff weve never had before like three squares, medicine when weresick, clothing when were cold." They become consumers and producers and local economies begin to spiral up very rapidly.Thats important, all of that about how we rebuild sustainable freedom, because wed never want to repeat what happened in thiscountry in 1865. Four million people were lifted up out of slavery and then dumped. Dumped without political participation,decenteducation, any kind of real opportunity in terms of economic lives, and then sentenced to generations of violence and prejudice anddiscrimination. And America is still paying the pricefor the botched emancipation of 1865.We have made a commitment that we will never let people come out of slavery on our watch, and end up as second classcitizens. Its just not going to happen. This is what liberation really looks like.Children rescued from slavery in the fishing industry inGhana, reunited with their parents, and then taken with their parents back to their villages to rebuild their economic well-being so thatthey become slave-proof -- absolutely unenslaveable.Now, this woman lived in a village in Nepal. Wed been working there about a month. They had just begun to come out of a hereditarykind of slavery.Theyd just begun to light up a little bit, open up a little bit. But when we went to speak with her, when we took thisphotograph, the slaveholders were still menacing us from the sidelines. They hadnt been really pushed back. I was frightened. Wewere frightened. We said to her, "Are you worried? Are you upset?"She said, "No, because weve got hope now. How could we not succeed," she said, "when people like you from the other side of theworld are coming here to stand beside us?"Okay, we have to ask ourselves, are we willing to live in a world with slavery? If we dont take action, we just leave ourselves open tohave someone else jerk the strings that tie us to slavery in the products we buy, and in our government policies. And yet, if theresone thing that every human being can agree on, I think its that slavery should end.And if there is a fundamental violation of our human dignity that we would all say is horrific, its slavery.And weve got to say, whatgood is all of our intellectual and political and economic power -- and Im really thinking intellectual power in this room -- if we cantuse it to bring slavery to an end? I think there is enough intellectual power in this room to bring slavery to an end. And you knowwhat? If we cant do that, if we cant use our intellectual power to end slavery, there is one last question: Are we truly free? Okay,thank you so much. (Applause)