The final edition of our mutual book


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Our final edited edition of our mutual book. It's trilingual : English ( communication language ) ,Greek and Turkish
( partners languages ).It has to do with the origins and mythology of both Greek and Turkish people .A mythology full of heroes and supernatural creatures.After all , the point of our mutual project was to show the similarities between the Turkish and the Greek nation , working in English and using New Technologies . Our past presented through future to the future .

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The final edition of our mutual book

  1. 1. Crossroads over the Aegean. Human soul remains the same , through centuries and borders.
  2. 2. Bilateral Comenius project. Armenio Larissa Greece high school Suat Terimer Anatolian high school 2011 – 2013
  3. 3. Greek and Turkish partners
  4. 4. Greek mythology Greek mythology is a garden of shiny myths . Full of brave men and beautiful , yet , fatal women . Let’s have a look on some of these myths. Η Ειιεληθή κπζνινγία είλαη έλαο θήπνο ιακπεξώλ κύζσλ , γεκάηνο από γελλαίνπο άληξεο θαη όκνξθεο , κνηξαίεο γπλαίθεο . Αο δνύκε κεξηθνύο από ηνπο κύζνπο.
  5. 5. The twelve gods at mount Olympus In general, the Olympians are the gods who live on Mount Olympus, all of them somehow related to the supreme god Zeus. More specifically, the Twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek Pantheon : Zeus Hera ( Zeus sister and wife , goddess of marriage) Poseidon ( Zeus brother and God of the sea ) Demeter ( Zeus sister and goddess of agriculture ) Athena ( Zeus daughter , goddess of wisdom ) Οη δώδεθα ζενί, δνπλ ζηνλ Όιπκπν, θαη όινη ζπγγελεύνπλ κε ηνλ παηέξα ησλ Θεώλ , ηνλ Δία. Τν Οιύκπην Δσδεθάζεν , απνηειείηαη από ηνπο : Δίαο Ήξα ( αδειθή θαη ζύδπγνο ηνπ Δία ζεά ηνπ γάκνπ ) Πνζεηδώλ ( αδειθόο ηνπ Δία , ζεόο ηεο ζάιαζζαο ) Δήκεηξα ( αδειθή ηνπ Δία , ζεά ηεο γεσξγίαο ) Αζελά ( θόξε ηνπ Δία , ζεά ηεο ζνθίαο )
  6. 6. Zeus - Poseidon
  7. 7. The twelve Gods of Olympus Hestia ( Zeus sister , virgin goddess of home and family ) Apollo ( Zeus son , god of music ) Artemis ( Zeus daughter , virgin goddess of hunting , Apollo’s twin sister ), Ares ( Zeus son, god of war ) Aphrodite /Venus ( Zeus daughter goddess of beauty ) , Hephaestus ( Zeus and Hera’s only child , god of fire , Aphrodite’s husband ) Hermes ( Zeus son and god of commerce ) . Εζηία ( αδειθή ηνπ Δία , παξζέλνο ζεά ηεο νηθνγέλεηαο ) Απόιισλ ( γηνο ηνπ Δία , ζεόο ηεο κνπζηθήο ) Άξηεκηο ( θόξε ηνπ Δία , δίδπκε αδειθή ηνπ Απόιισλα , παξζέλνο ζεά ηνπ ηνπ θπλεγηνύ) Αθξνδίηε ( θόξε ηνπ Δία , ζεά ηεο νκνξθηάο ) Ήθαηζηνο ( ν κνλαρνγηόο ηνπ Δία θαη ηεο Ήξαο , ζύδπγνο ηεο Αθξνδίηεο , ζεόο ηεο θσηηάο ) Εξκήο ( γηνο ηνπ Δία , ζεόο ηνπ εκπνξίνπ )
  8. 8. Hermes – Aphrodite
  9. 9. The twelve gods at mount Olympus Hestia was often replaced by Dionysus ( Zeus son and god of wine ) . Heracles, Asclepius, Pluto / Hades and Persephone were sometimes also included as part of the twelve Olympians (primarily due to the influence of the Eleusinian Mysteries), although in general Pluto was excluded, because he resided permanently in the underworld and never visited Mount Olympus. Τε ζέζε ηεο Εζηίαο ζην Οιύκπην Δσδεθάζεν , πνιιέο θνξέο έπαηξλε ν Δηόλπζνο , ν ζεόο ηνπ θξαζηνύ . Ο Πινύησλαο ή Άδεο , ν ηξίηνο αδειθόο ηνπ Δία , δελ έκελε ζηνλ Όιπκπν ,αιιά ζην βαζίιεηό ηνπ , ζηνλ Ιάησ Ιόζκν .
  10. 10. Apollo – Athina
  11. 11. Jason and the Argonauts It’s the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Argonauts from Iolkos ( Greece ) to retrieve the Golden Fleece from remote Colchis ( Black Sea ). Their heroic adventures and Jason's relationship with the Colchian princess/sorceress Medea. Medea had to kill and cut into pieces her own brother to succeed saving Jason and his partners from Colchis . They, finally, achieve to arrive at Iolkos , where Medea kills Jason uncle , so they have have to leave again for Korinthos . Jason leaves Medea for the Korinthos young princess , so Medea kills their two children and the young princess and her father , as well. Medea escapes to the skies helped by the Sun. Τν κπζηθό ηαμίδη ηνπ Θάζσλα θαη ησλ Αξγνλαπηώλ από ηελ Θσιθό γηα λα θέξνπλ πίζσ ην Χξπζόκαιιν δέξαο από ηελ Ινιρίδα , ζηελ Λαύξε Θάιαζζα. Οη εξσηθέο ηνπ πεξηπέηεηεο θαη ν δεζκόο ηνπ Θάζνλα κε ηελ κάγηζζα θαη πξηγθίπηζζα ησλ Ιόιρσλ , Λήδεηα. Η Λήδεηα ζε έλα ινπηξό αίκαηνο , ζθνηώλεη πξώηα ηνλ αδειθό ηεο γηα λα θύγνπλ από ηελ Ινιρίδα θαη κεηά ηνλ Αίζνλα , ζείν ηνπ Θάζνλα ζηελ Θσιθό , γηα λα ζώζεη ηνλ Θάζνλα θαη γηα λα ηνπ εμαζθαιίζεη ηνλ ζξόλν. Τειηθά , δησγκέλνη θαηαθεύγνπλ ζηελ Ιόξηλζν , όπνπ ν Θάζνλαο εγθαηαιείπεη ηελ Λήδεηα γηα λα λπκθεπζεί ηελ πξηγθίπηζζα θαη ηόηε ε Λήδεηα ζθνηώλεη ηα παηδηά ηεο ( θαη ηνπ Θάζνλα ) θαζώο θαη ηελ πξηγθίπηζζα θαη ηνλ παηέξα ηεο πξηγθίπηζζαο θαη δηαθεύγεη κε ην άξκα ηνπ Ήιηνπ.
  12. 12. Jason , Medea and the golden fleece
  13. 13. Theseus Theseus was Aethra’s and Aegeus ( king of Athens) son. When Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided to return to Athens. Before leaving, however, he buried his sandals and sword under a huge rock and told Aethra that when their son grew up, he should move the rock, if he were heroic enough, and take the tokens for himself as evidence of his royal parentage. In Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had left Corinth after slaughtering the children she had borne Jason, and had taken Aegeus as her new consort. Priestess and consort together represented the old order in Athens. Thus Theseus was raised in his mother's land. When Theseus grew up and became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's tokens. His mother then told him the truth about his father's identity and that he must take the sword and sandals back to king Aegeus to claim his birthright. Ο Θεζέαο ήηαλ γηνο ηνπ βαζηιηά ηεο Αζήλαο Αηγέα θαη ηεο πξηγθίπηζζαο ηεο Τξνηδήλαο Αίζξαο . Όηαλ ε Αίζξα ήηαλ έγθπνο , ν Αηγέαο ηελ άθεζε ζηελ Τξνηδήλα θαη επέζηξεςε ζηελ Αζήλα , ιέγνληαο ζηελ Αίζξα , όηη έθξπςε θάησ από έλα γηγάληην βξάρν ην ζπαζί θαη ηα ζαλδάιηα ηνπ θαη όηαλ ν γηνο ηνπο θαηαθέξεη λα ηα πάξεη , αο έιζεη λα ηνλ βξεη ζηελ Αζήλα. Σηελ Αζήλα ν Αηγέαο ζπλδέζεθε κε ηελ Λήδεηα , ε νπνία είρε θαηαθύγεη εθεί κεηά ηελ δνινθνλία ησλ παηδηώλ ηεο. Όηαλ ν Θεζέαο κεγάισζε ,θνληά ζηελ κεηέξα ηνπ , ζήθσζε ηνλ βξάρν θαη μεθίλεζε γηα ηελ Αζήλα γηα λα δηεθδηθήζεη ηα δηθαηώκαηά ηνπ από ηνλ παηέξα ηνπ.
  14. 14. To journey to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by sea (which was the safe way) or by land, following a dangerous path around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy. Young, brave, and ambitious, Theseus decided to go alone by the land route and defeated a great many bandits along the way , Sinis Pityocamptes ( Sinis the pine –bender , who tied his victims on a bent pine ,tearing them apart to take their money ), Periphetes , Sciron ( with his giant human eater sea turtle) , Procroustes ( the stretcher , placing on a bed his victims , cutting their feet , if longer than the bed , or stretching them to death if they were shorter ). Theseus going to Crete killed Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in the Labyrinth created by Daedalus. Γηα λα πάεη ζηελ Αζήλα ν Θεζέαο δηάιεμε ηνλ δύζθνιν δξόκν ηεο ζηεξηάο , παξά ηνλ αζθαιή ηεο ζάιαζζαο ., μέξνληαο όηη ζα ζπλαληνύζε έμη ρζόληεο εηζόδνπο ζηνλ Ιάησ Ιόζκν , θαζώο θαη θνβεξνύο ιεζηέο . Οη ιεζηέο απηνί ,πνπ ζθόησλαλ θαη ιήζηεπαλ ηνπο εκπόξνπο θαη πεξαζηηθνύο ,ήηαλ : Ο Σίλεο ν Πηηπνθάκπηεο , πνπ ιύγηδε δύν πεύθα θαη έδελε επάλσ ηνπο ηνπο πεξαζηηθνύο ,κεηά ηα άθελε θαη ην ζύκα ζθηδόηαλ ζηα δύν. Ο Πεξηθήηεο , ν Σθίξσλαο , πνπ έβαδε λα ηνπ πιύλνπλ ηα πόδηα θαη κεηά θισηζνύζε ην ζύκα ζην γθξεκό , όπνπ ην έηξσγε κία πειώξηα ζαιάζζηα ρειώλα. Ο Πξνθξνύζηεο , πνπ είρε έλα θξεβάηη πάλσ ζην νπνίν ηνπνζεηνύζε ηα ζύκαηα ηνπ θαη είηε ηα ηέλησλε είηε ηα άθξσηεξίαδε γηα λα είλαη ίζα κε ην θξεβάηη. Ο Θεζέαο θαηάθεξε λα θαζαξίζεη ηνλ ηόπν από ηνπο ιεζηέο θαη λα ζθνηώζεη θαη ηνλ Ληλώηαπξν κέζα ζηνλ Καβύξηλζν,ζην παιάηη ηνπ Λίλσα ζηελ Ιξήηε. Theseus and the Minotaure
  15. 15. Theseus and the Minotaur
  16. 16. Hercules Hercules was the son of Zeus and the mortal Alcmene. Hercules is famous for his strength and for his numerous far-ranging adventures. Hercules is known for his many adventures, which took him to the far reaches of the world. The :"Twelve Labours," : Slay the Nemean Lion. Slay the nineheaded Lernaean Hydra. Capture the Golden Hind of Artemis. Capture the Erymanthian Boar. Clean the Augean stables in a single day. Slay the Stymphalian Birds. Capture the Cretan Bull. Steal the Mares of Diomedes. Obtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons. Obtain the cattle of the monster Geryon. Steal the apples of the Hesperides. Capture and bring back Cerberus. Ο Ηξαθιήο ήηαλ γηνο ηνπ Δία θαη ηεο Αιθκήλεο. Φεκηζκέλνο γηα ηελ δύλακε ηνπ θαη γηα ηηο πνιπάξηζκεο πεξηπέηεηέο ηνπ. Πην γλσζηέο , νη Δώδεθα άζινη ηνπ . Τν ιηνληάξη ηεο Μεκέαο Η Κεξλαία Ύδξα Τν ειάθη ηεο Άξηεκεο Ο θάπξνο ηνπ Εξύκαλζνπ Οη ζηάβινη ηνπ Απγεία Οη Σηπκθαιίδεο Όξληζεο Ο ηαύξνο ηνπ Πνζεηδώλα Τα άινγα ηνπ Δηνκήδε Η δώλε ηεο Θππνιύηεο , βαζίιηζζαο ησλ Ακαδόλσλ Τα βόδηα ηνπ Γεξπόλε Τα κήια ησλ Εζπεξίδσλ Ο Ιέξβεξνο .
  17. 17. Hercules
  18. 18. Trojan war – Iliad Handsome Paris, prince of Troy, eloped the prettiest of all women Elena of Sparta , king Menelaus wife. Menelaus along with his brother Agamemnon campaigned against Troy, with all Greek (Achaean) leaders. It has been a ten year siege and finally Achaean army achieved their goal: Trojans surrender and total destruction., through Odysseus Trojan horse . Many brave men had died, both Trojans ( Hector ) and Achaeans ( Ajax , Achilles etc) Achaean leaders return home but their way back isn’t easy at all. It takes Ulysses ( Odysseus ) ten years of adventurous voyages to get back home . Agamemnon faces death from his own wife and cousin. Ο όκνξθνο Πάξηο , πνπ ήηαλ πξίγθηπαο ηεο Τξνίαο , απήγαγε ηελ σξαία Ειέλε , ζύδπγν ηνπ Λελέιανπ ηνπ βαζηιηά ηεο Σπάξηεο. Ο Λελέιανο καδί κε ηνλ αδειθό ηνπ Αγακέκλνλα , βαζηιηά ησλ Λπθελώλ ζπγθεληξώλνπλ όινπο ηνπο βαζηιηάδεο ησλ Ειιήλσλ / Αραηώλ θαη εθζηξαηεύνπλ ελαληίνλ ηεο Τξνίαο . Η Τξνία πνιηνξθείηαη δέθα νιόθιεξα ρξόληα θαη πνιινί γελλαίνη άληξεο , Αραηνί θαη Τξώεο , θνλεύνληαη ζε κνλνκαρίεο ,όπσο ν Έθηνξαο , ν Αίαο , ν Αρηιιέαο θαη άιινη . Η Τξνία θπξηεύεηαη κε ηνλ Δνύξεην ίππν ηνπ Οδπζζέα , αιιά νη πεξηπέηεηεο ησλ Αραηώλ δελ ηειεηώλνπλ εθεί. Ο Οδπζζέαο πεξηπιαληέηαη δέθα ρξόληα κέρξη λα θζάζεη ζηελ Θζάθε θαη ν Αγακέκλνλαο βξίζθεη ην ζάλαην από ην ρέξη ηεο ίδηαο ηνπ ηεο γπλαίθαο ηεο Ιιπηαηκήζηξαο .
  19. 19. Achilles – Laokoon
  20. 20. Odusseus ( Ulisses) Odysseus , king of Ithaca , during his ten year adventurous trip back home , he had to face the : full of rage Cikones , the savage Cyclops ( one eyed human eater monster ) , the cannibals Lestrygons , the Lotophagus (Lotus eaters, lotus was a fruit causing to forget their homecoming ), the Sirenes ( human eating monsters , singing like angels ) , the six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis , the witch-goddess Circe and finally arrived ship wrecked and alone at the pretty nymph Calypso island . He managed to arrive to Ithaca , only when Zeus and Poseido allowed that. Ο Οδπζζέαο , ν βαζηιηάο ηεο Θζάθεο , ζηα δέθα ρξόληα ηνπ πεξηπεηεηώδνπο ηαμηδηνύ ηεο επηζηξνθήο ηνπ αληηκεηώπηζε : Τνπο άγξηνπο Ιίθνλεο Τνλ αλζξσπνθάγν Ιύθισπα Τνπο θαλλίβαινπο Καηζηξπγόλεο Τνπο Κσηνθάγνπο Τηο Σεηξήλεο , πνπ ηξαγνπδώληαο αγγειηθά , μεγεινύζαλ ηνπο λαπηηθνύο γηα λα ηνπο θάλε Τελ Σθύιια κε ηα έμη θεθάιηα θαη ηελ θξηθηή Χάξπβδε. Τελ Λάγηζζα – ζεά Ιίξθε θαη ηειηθά ηελ παλέκνξθε λύκθε Ιαιπςώ , πνπ ηνλ θξάηεζε θπιαθηζκέλν επηά ρξόληα . Ιαηάθεξε λα θηάζεη ζηελ Θζάθε κόλν όηαλ ν Πνζεηδώλαο θαη ν Δίαο ηνπ ην επέηξεςαλ.
  21. 21. Ulisses
  22. 22. Greek ancient tragedy Tragedy is an imitation of a mentionable action , that has a beginning , a middle and an end . All these pieces are not by chance but follow a certain continuity . Action is the basic point . Through passion and fear comes ‘’ catharsis ‘’ (relief) , which is a very complex idea. Catharsis is the situation , in which audience feels the same feelings as the persons of the drama.This is the magnitude of the tragic heroes . ‘’ Catharsis ‘’ is the bridge from ignorance to knowing .Through conflict to the superiors and total disaster , human being gains moral freedom and morality rules. ΄’἖ζηιν οὖν ηπαγωδία μίμηζιρ ππάξεωρ ζποςδαίαρ καί ηελείαρ, μέγεθορ ἐσούζηρ, ἡδςζμένῳ λόγῳ, σωπὶρ ἑκάζηῳ η῵ν εἰδὼν ἐν ηοῖρ μοπίοιρ, δπώνηων καὶ οὐ δι’ ἀπαγγελίαρ, δι’ ἐλέος καὶ θόβος πεπαίνοςζα ηὴν η῵ν ηοιούηων παθημάηων κάθαπζιν
  23. 23. Epidavrus ancient theater
  24. 24. Characteristics Knowledge makes human being realize : 1) the tragic human ignorance and how small is human perception ( it’s such an illusion , when somebody believes that he can understand totally his situation ) 2) human luck instability through total change 3) human mind incompetence to realize ‘’ Zeus wish ‘’ Things can change rapidly , because of : tragic human ignorance , time issue and passion ,as well ,sleeping deeply in the heart of the human beast , shaking things like an earthquake and posing a new balance afterwards Τν ζέκα ηεο κεηαβιεηόηεηαο ησλ πξαγκάησλ ζπλδέεη θαη ηα ηξία ζέκαηα κεηαμύ ηνπο: ην ζέκα ηεο ηξαγηθήο αλζξώπηλεο άγλνηαο, ην ζέκα ηνπ ρξόλνπ, αιιά θαη ηελ ακθηζεκία ηνπ βίαηνπ πάζνπο, ην νπνίν ππνθώζθεη κέζα ζην αλζξώπηλν «ζεξίν» θαη ην νπνίν ελίνηε δηαηαξάζζεη ηελ ηζνξξνπία ησλ πξαγκάησλ, ελίνηε όκσο παξάγεη θαηλνύξηα ηζνξξνπία πξνθαιώληαο απίζαλεο θαηά ηα άιια ζπγθιίζεηο
  25. 25. Tragic human ignorance
  26. 26. Tragic heroines  Antigone : she decides to bury her brother even though this is forbidden by her uncle , king Kreon. She will ask her sister’s help , but Ismene is incapable of helping Antigone. Antigone will play the game by herself .She will bury her brother and choose death instead of a shameful imprisonment .  Electra : she will take revenge for her father’s death , using her brother . She will persuade her brother to kill their own mother and her lover .  Klytaimistra : she murdered her own husband alongside with her lover and met death by her own son’s hand .  Iphigene : a young princess sacrifices herself because of her love for her people .  Andromache : Trojan queen , beloved Hector’s wife , will become an Achaeans trophy and sex slave .  Hecuba : tragic Trojan queen , mourns for all her beloved loss and her country arson and pillage .  Medea : she kills her own children to punish her husband Jason , who left her to marry a younger princess ( she kills the young princess and her father , also ).  Phaedra : she commits suicide accusing her stepson Hippolyte , though he is innocent , punishing him for rejecting her love .
  27. 27. Tragic heroines
  28. 28. Tragic heroes  Agamemnon : he sacrifices his own daughter , Iphigene , is a constant conflict to Achilles , because of his arrogant character , but death meets him through his wife hand .  Achilles : arrogant but loyal friend at the same time , spoiled and selfish but great hero sacrificing his own life for his fellows .  Ajax : hero at the Trojan war , when humiliated gets mad and commits suicide .  Orestes : kills his own mother , taking revenge for the murder of his father , Agamemnon.  Jason : seaman king , takes as a bride witch princess Medea , she gives birth to two children and a few years afterwards she kills them , because Jason cheated on Medea .
  29. 29. Tragic heroes
  30. 30. Antigone Sophocles  ANTIGONE Yes. Zeus did not announce those laws to me. [450] And Justice living with the gods below sent no such laws for men. I did not think 510 anything which you proclaimed strong enough to let a mortal override the gods and their unwritten and unchanging laws. They’re not just for today or yesterday, but exist forever, and no one knows where they first appeared. So I did not mean to let a fear of any human will lead to my punishment among the gods. I know all too well I’m going to die— [460  how could I not?—it makes no difference 520 what you decree. And if I have to die before my time, well, I count that a gain. When someone has to live the way I do, surrounded by so many evil things, how can she fail to find a benefit in death? And so for me meeting this fate won’t bring any pain. But if I’d allowed my own mother’s dead son to just lie there, an unburied corpse, then I’d feel distress.W What’s going on here does not hurt me at all 530 If you think what I’m doing now is stupid perhaps I’m being charged with foolishness [470] by someone who’s a fool.  (450) ΑΜ. Οὐ γάξ ηί κνη Ζεὺο ἦλ ὁ θεξύμαο ηάδε, νὐδ’ ἡ μύλνηθνο η῵λ θάησ ζε῵λ Δίθε ηνηνύζδ’ ἐλ ἀλζξώπνηζηλ ὥξηζαλ λόκνπο·, νὐδὲ ζζέλεηλ ηνζνῦηνλ ᾠόκελ ηὰ ζὰ θεξύγκαζ’ ὥζη’ ἄγξαπηα θἀζθαι῅ ζε῵λ (455) λόκηκα δύλαζζαη ζλεηὸλ ὄλζ’ ὑπεξδξακεῖλ. Οὐ γάξ ηη λῦλ γε θἀρζέο, ἀιι’ ἀεί πνηε δῆ ηαῦηα, θνὐδεὶο νἶδελ ἐμ ὅηνπ ’θάλε. Τνύησλ ἐγὼ νὐθ ἔκειινλ, ἀλδξὸο νὐδελὸο θξόλεκα δείζαζ’, ἐλ ζενῖζη ηὴλ δίθελ (460) δώζεηλ· ζαλνπκέλε γὰξ ἐμῄδε, ηί δ’ νὔ; θεἰ κὴ ζὺ πξνὐθήξπμαο. Εἰ δὲ ηνῦ ρξόλνπ πξόζζελ ζαλνῦκαη, θέξδνο αὔη’ ἐγὼ ιέγσ· ὅζηηο γὰξ ἐλ πνιινῖζηλ ὡο ἐγὼ θαθνῖο δῆ, π῵ο ὅδ’ νὐρὶ θαηζαλὼλ θέξδνο θέξεη; (465) Οὕησο ἔκνηγε ηνῦδε ηνῦ κόξνπ ηπρεῖλ παξ’ νὐδὲλ ἄιγνο· ἀιι’ ἄλ, εἰ ηὸλ ἐμ ἐκ῅ο κεηξὸο ζαλόλη’ ἄζαπηνλ ἠλζρόκελ λέθπλ, θείλνηο ἂλ ἤιγνπλ· ηνῖζδε δ’ νὐθ ἀιγύλνκαη. Σνὶ δ’ εἰ δνθ῵ λῦλ κ῵ξα δξ῵ζα ηπγράλεηλ, (470) ζρεδόλ ηη κώξῳ κσξίαλ ὀθιηζθάλσ.
  31. 31. Antigone
  32. 32. Hippolyte Euripides O Zeus, why hast thou brought into the world to plague us such a tricksy thing as woman?If thou didst wish to propagate mankind,Couldst thou not find some better way than this?  We to the temples might have brought our price In gold or weight of iron or of brass,And purchased offspring, each to the amount of that which he has paid; and so have dweltIn quiet homes unvexed of womankind.Now, to import a plague into our homes,First of our substance we make sacrifice,And here at once we see what woman is.  The father that begot her gladly paysA dowry that he might be rid of her,While he may bring this slip of evil home.Fond man adorns with costly ornamentA worthless idol, and his living wastes to trick her out in costly finery.  He has no choice. Are his connections good,to keep them he must keep a hated wife; Are his connections bad, he can but weigh against that evil a good bedfellow.His is the easiest lot who has to wife a cipher, a good-natured simpleton; Quick wits are hateful. • Θπ. ὦ Ζεῦ, ηί δὴ θίβδεινλ ἀλζξώπνηο θαθὸλ γπλαῖθαο ἐο θ῵ο ἡιίνπ θαηώηθηζαο; εἰ γὰξ βξόηεηνλ ἤζειεο ζπεῖξαη γέλνο, νὐθ ἐθ γπλαηθ῵λ ρξ῅λ παξαζρέζζαη ηόδε, 620 ἀιι' ἀληηζέληαο ζνῖζηλ ἐλ λανῖο βξνηνὺο ἢ ραιθὸλ ἢ ζίδεξνλ ἢ ρξπζνῦ βάξνο παίδσλ πξίαζζαη ζπέξµα ηνπ ηηµήµαηνο, η῅ο ἀμίαο ἕθαζηνλ, ἐλ δὲ δώµαζηλ λαίεηλ ἐιεπζέξνηζη ζειεη῵λ ἄηεξ. [λῦλ δ' ἐο δόµνπο µὲλ πξ῵ηνλ ἄμεζζαη θαθὸλ µέιινληεο ὄιβνλ δσµάησλ ἐθηίλνµελ.] ηνύηση δὲ δ῅ινλ ὡο γπλὴ θαθὸλ µέγα· πξνζζεὶο γὰξ ὁ ζπείξαο ηε θαὶ ζξέςαο παηὴξ θεξλὰο ἀπώηθηζ', ὡο ἀπαιιαρζ῅η θαθνῦ. 630 ὁ δ' αὖ ιαβὼλ ἀηεξὸλ ἐο δόµνπο θπηὸλ γέγεζε θόζµνλ πξνζηηζεὶο ἀγάιµαηη θαιὸλ θαθίζηση θαὶ πέπινηζηλ ἐθπνλεῖ δύζηελνο, ὄιβνλ δσµάησλ ὑπεμειώλ. [ἔρεη δ' ἀλάγθελ· ὥζηε θεδεύζαο θαι῵ο γαµβξνῖζη ραίξσλ ζώηδεηαη πηθξὸλ ιέρνο, ἢ ρξεζηὰ ιέθηξα πελζεξνὺο δ' ἀλσθειεῖοιαβὼλ πηέδεη ηἀγαζ῵η ηὸ δπζηπρέο.] ῥᾶηζηνλ δ' ὅηση ηὸ µεδέλ· ἀιι' ἀλσθειὴο εὐεζίαη θαη' νἶθνλ ἵδξπηαη γπλή.
  33. 33. Hippolyte
  34. 34. Medea Euripides In vain, my children, have I brought you up,Borne all the cares and pangs of motherhood,And the sharp pains of childbirth undergone.In you, alas, was treasured many a hopeOf loving sustentation in my age,Of tender laying out when I was dead,Such as all men might envy.Those sweet thoughts are mine no more, for now bereft of youI must wear out a drear and joyless life,And you will nevermore your mother see,Nor live as ye have done beneath her eye.Alas, my sons, why do you gaze on me,Why smile upon your mother that last smile?Ah me! What shall I do? My purpose meltsBeneath the bright looks of my little ones.I cannot do it. Farewell, my resolve,I will bear off my children from this land.Why should I seek to wring their father's heart,When that same act will doubly wring my own?I will not do it. Farewell, my resolve.What has come o'er me? Shall I let my foesTriumph, that I may let my friends go free?I'll brace me to the deed. Base that I wasTo let a thought of wickedness cross my soul.Children, go home. Whoso accounts it wrongTo be attendant at my sacrifice,Let him stand off; my purpose is unchanged.Forego my resolutions, ἄιισο ἄξ΄ ὑκᾶο͵ ὦ ηέθλ΄͵ ἐμεζξεςάκελ͵ ἄιισο δ΄ ἐκόρζνπλ θαὶ θαηεμάλζελ πόλνηο͵ 1030 ζηεξξὰο ἐλεγθνῦζ΄ ἐλ ηόθνηο ἀιγεδόλαο. ἦ κήλ πνζ΄ ἡ δύζηελνο εἶρνλ ἐιπίδαο πνιιὰο ἐλ ὑκῖλ͵ γεξνβνζθήζεηλ η΄ ἐκὲ θαὶ θαηζαλνῦζαλ ρεξζὶλ εὖ πεξηζηειεῖλ͵ δεισηὸλ ἀλζξώπνηζη· λῦλ δ΄ ὄισιε δὴ γιπθεῖα θξνληίο. ζθῶλ γὰξ ἐζηεξεκέλε ιππξὸλ δηάμσ βίνηνλ ἀιγεηλόλ η΄ ἐκνί. ὑκεῖο δὲ κεηέξ΄ νὐθέη΄ ὄκκαζηλ θίινηο ὄςεζζ΄͵ ἐο ἄιιν ζρ῅κ΄ ἀπνζηάληεο βίνπ. θεῦ θεῦ· ηί πξνζδέξθεζζέ κ΄ ὄκκαζηλ͵ ηέθλα; 1040 ηί πξνζγειᾶηε ηὸλ παλύζηαηνλ γέισλ; αἰαῖ· ηί δξάζσ; θαξδία γὰξ νἴρεηαη͵ γπλαῖθεο͵ ὄκκα θαηδξὸλ ὡο εἶδνλ ηέθλσλ. νὐθ ἂλ δπλαίκελ· ραηξέησ βνπιεύκαηα ηὰ πξόζζελ· ἄμσ παῖδαο ἐθ γαίαο ἐκνύο. ηί δεῖ κε παηέξα η῵λδε ηνῖο ηνύησλ θαθνῖο ιππνῦζαλ αὐηὴλ δὶο ηόζα θηᾶζζαη θαθά; νὐ δ῅η΄ ἔγσγε. ραηξέησ βνπιεύκαηα. θαίηνη ηί πάζρσ; βνύινκαη γέιση΄ ὀθιεῖλ ἐρζξνὺο κεζεῖζα ηνὺο ἐκνὺο ἀδεκίνπο;
  35. 35. Medea
  36. 36. Electra Sophocles • But I at least will ne'er refrain my eyes from weeping, while I live,Nor yet my voice from wail;Not while I see this day and yon bright twinkling stars;But like a nightingale of its young brood bereaved,before the gates I speak them forth to all.O house of Hades and Persephone,O Hermes of the abyss, and thou, dread Curse,And ye Erinyes, daughters of the gods,Ye dreaded ones, who lookOn all who perish, slain unrighteously,On all whose bed is stealthily defiled,Come ye, and help avenge my father's death;Send me my brother here." ἀιι᾽ νὐ κὲλ δὴ ιήμσ ζξήλσλ ζηπγεξ῵λ ηε γόσλ, ἔζη᾽ ἂλ πακθεγγεῖο ἄζηξσλ105 ῥηπάο, ιεύζζσ δὲ ηόδ᾽ ἦκαξ, κὴ νὐ ηεθλνιέηεηξ᾽ ὥο ηηο ἀεδὼλ ἐπὶ θσθπηῶ η῵λδε παηξῴσλ πξὸ ζπξ῵λ ἠρὼ πᾶζη πξνθσλεῖλ. ὦ δ῵κ᾽ Ἀΐδνπ θαὶ Πεξζεθόλεο,110 ὦ ρζόλη᾽ ἗ξκ῅ θαὶ πόηλη᾽ Ἀξὰ ζεκλαί ηε ζε῵λ παῖδεο ἖ξηλύεο, αἳ ηνὺο ἀδίθσο ζλῄζθνληαο ὁξᾶζ᾽, αἳ ηνὺο εὐλὰο ὑπνθιεπηνκέλνπο, ἔιζεη᾽, ἀξήμαηε, ηίζαζζε παηξὸο115 θόλνλ ἡκεηέξνπ, θαί κνη ηὸλ ἐκὸλ πέκςαη᾽ ἀδειθόλ· • 120
  37. 37. Electra
  38. 38. Ajax Sophocles • Woe to the mother, in her close of day,Woe to her desolate heart, and temples gray,When she shall hearHer loved one's story whispered in her ear!"Woe, woe!" will be the cry--No quiet murmur like the tremulous wail of the lone bird, the querulous nightingale--But shrieks that fly piercing, and wild, and loud, shall mourn the tale;And she will beat her breast, and rend her hair,Scattering the silver locks that Time hath left her there.Oh! when the pride of Græcia's noblest race wanders, as now, in darkness and disgrace,When Reason's day Sets rayless--joyless--quenched in cold decay,Better to die, and sleepThe never-waking sleep, than linger on and dare to live, when the soul's life is gone;But thou shalt weep,Thou wretched father, for thy dearest son,The best beloved, by inward Furies torn,The deepest, bitterest curse, thine ancient house hath borne! • ὦ κᾶηεξ αἰζρύλαο ἐκᾶο-- • ὥξκαζε παλδάκνπο ἐπὶ βνῦο ἀγειαίαο, 175 • ἦ πνύ ηηλνο λίθαο ἀθάξπσηνλ ράξηλ, • ἤ ῥα θιπη῵λ ἐλάξσλ • ςεπζζεῖζ᾽, ἀδώξνηο, εἴη᾽ ἐιαθαβνιίαο; • ἢ ραιθνζώξαμ κή ηηλ᾽ ἖λπάιηνο • κνκθὰλ ἔρσλ μπλνῦ δνξὸο ἐλλπρίνηο 180 • καραλαῖο ἐηίζαην ιώβαλ; • νὔ πνηε γὰξ θξελόζελ γ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀξηζηεξά, • παῖ Τειακ῵λνο, ἔβαο • ηόζζνλ, ἐλ πνίκλαηο πίηλσλ· 185 • ἥθνη γὰξ ἂλ ζεία λόζνο· ἀιι᾽ ἀπεξύθνη • θαὶ Ζεὺο θαθὰλ θαὶ Φνῖβνο Ἀξγείσλ θάηηλ. • εἰ δ᾽ ὑπνβαιιόκελνη • θιέπηνπζη κύζνπο νἱ κεγάινη βαζηι῅ο • ἢ ηᾶο ἀζώηνπ Σηζπθηδᾶλ γελεᾶο, 190 • κὴ κή, ἄλαμ, ἔζ᾽ ὧδ᾽ ἐθάινηο θιηζίαηο • ὄκκ᾽ ἔρσλ θαθὰλ θάηηλ ἄξῃ.
  39. 39. Ajax
  40. 40. Crossing through space and time, we are now at the Ottoman Empire and Turkish nation. We can see lots of legends and poems leaning on human soul here ,too. Yer ve zamanda yolculuk yaptıktan sonra şimdi Osmanlı İmparatorluğu ve Türk devletindeyiz. Burada da insan ruhuna dayanan birçok efsane ve şiir örnekleri görebiliriz.
  41. 41. A millenium of Turkish literature A millenium of Turkish history
  42. 42. TURKISH FOLK LITERATURE is an oral tradition deeply rooted,in its form,in Central Asian nomadic traditions. Here are dragons, giants, witches, villains, weird creatures-but also innocent children, lovable characters, romantic lovers, and guardian angels. The vision can change from perfect clarity to trompe l'oeil . TURK HALK EDEBİYATI , Orta Asya’nın göçebe geleneklerini almış sözsel edebiyattır. Ejderhalar, devler, cadılar, tuhaf yaratıklarla karşılaşacağımız gibi;masum çocuklar, sevgi dolu karakterler,romantik aşıklar ve koruyucu meleklerle de karşılaşırız.Görüntü tam bir netlikten bir göz yanılmasına geçebilir.
  43. 43. Turkish folk singers Turkish folk singers
  44. 44. Frequently one gets the impression that these are stories generated by a static society, but then one finds a dizzyingly dynamic tale of quest that reflects a nomadic culture and its disquietude. The collection oscillates between realism and surrealism. A goodly number possess political criticism, whereas a few are straight love stories. Fatalism alternates with a defiant, almost revolutionary, spirit. Many belong to the pure "masal" (tale) genre told for pleasure while some are "mesel" (parables with a moral). Hikayelerin durgun ve sabit bir toplumun ürünü olduğu izlenimine varılsa da , birdenbire karşımıza göçebe hayat ve onun belirsizliklerini yansıtan hikayeler de çıkar. Eserler realizm ve sürrealizm arasında gidip gelir . Birçoğu politik eleştiriler yaparken bazıları da aşkla ilgili hikayelerdir. Kadercilik ve meydan okuyan , yenilikçi bir ruh birbirini izler. Bazıları sadece keyif için anlatılan ‘masal’lardır, bazılarıysa ahlaksal ya da dinsel ders veren ‘mesel’lerdir.
  45. 45. The first oral literature in early Turkish periods is produced during the religious rituals. Religious people play saz, called ‘kopuz' and they tell poems. But most of the poems, proverbs, epics etc. are carried into written forms hundreds of years later.So,we can only reach the ones in the written forms. Eski Türk dönemlerinde ilk sözlü edebiyat dini ritüeller süresince ortaya çıkmıştır. Dindar insanlar ‘kopuz’denilen sazlar çalarlar ve şiirler okurlar.Fakat şiirler, atasözleri, destanlar gibi eserler yüzlerce yıl sonra yazılı dile geçirilmiştir. Bu yüzden, bizler sadece yazılı olanlarına ulaşabilmekteyiz.
  46. 46. During this period, poems, music and religion are closely related to each other. The main topics of the poems are nature, death, love, religious beliefs, heroism etc. The poems have different names: Sagu: It is a kind of funeral song. These poems are told after the death of a person. ln these poems, people explain how brave the dead person was, and how sad they are after his death. So, sagu is a poem that is about death and sadness. Koşuk: lt is a kind of poem that is told during the feast before and after hunting. ln these poems, the main themes are heroism, nature, war and love. Bu dönem boyunca, şiirler, müzik ve din birbiriyle iç içedir. Şiirlerin ana konusu; doğa,ölüm,aşk,dini inançlar, kahramanlık vs. O dönemlerde ki şiirler farklı isimlerle adlandırılır: Sagu :Bir çeşit cenaze şarkısıdır(yuğ). Bu şiirler bir kişinin ölümünün ardından söylenir. Şiirlerde , ölen kişinin ne kadar cesur olduğundan ve insanların onun ölümünün ardından duydukları acı anlatılır.Bu yüzden, sagu, ölüm ve keder ile ilgilidir. Koşuk :Avlanmadan önce ve sonra düzenlenen ziyafetler boyunca söylenen şiirlerdir.Bu şiirlerde ana konular kahramanlık,doğa,savaş ve aşktır.
  47. 47. Folk poetry
  48. 48. Sav: These are the proverbs of that term. Epic: Epics are literary works which contain important events and cultural elements for nations. An epic is a lengthy narrative poem and ordinarily concern a serious subject containly details of heroic deeds and significant cultural and national events. Old Turks are warriors and nomads, they are involved in various wars, they are busy with hunting and animal breeding. Their difficult adventurous lives are reflected in the epics. Sav: O zamanın özdeyişleridir. Destan : Destanlar ülkelerin önemli olaylarını ve kültürel öğelerini içeren edebi eserlerdir.Destan uzun epic bir şiirdir ve genellikle kahramanlıkla ilgili şeyler ile önemli kültürel ve doğasal olayları ele alır. Eski Türkler savaşçı ve göçebe insanlardır, birçok savaşta yer almışlardır,avlanma ve hayvancılıkla uğraşırlar.Destanlarda onların bu zor, maceracı yaşamları anlatılır.
  49. 49. Epic poetry
  50. 50. The Orkhon inscriptions are known as the oldest examples of Old Turkic alphabet.They are two memorial installations erected by the Gökturks ,dating from the late 7th arid early 8th centuries. The Orhun monumental inscriptions written for Tonyukuk, Kültigin and for Bilge Khagan ,are masterpieces of Turkish literature with their subject matter and perfect style. The most important contemporary testimony of ‘Tengri’ worship is found in the Orkhon inscriptions. Orhun Yazıtları , eski Türk alfabesinin en eski örnekleri olarak bilinir. 7 ve 8. yüzyıldan kalan ve Göktürkler tarafından Tonyukuk , Kültigin ve Bilge Kağan için yazılmış anıtsal yapıtlardır.Orhun Yazıtları, konusu ve kusursuz uslubuyla Türk Edebiyatının şaheseri sayılır. Günümüzdeki Tanrı ibadetinin en önemli delilleri Orhun Yazıtlarında bulunur.
  51. 51. Orkhon inscriptions Orkhon inscriptions
  52. 52. TURKISH MYTHOLOGY is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the Turkic people. Turkic mythology embraces Tengriist and Shamanist traditions as well as all cultural and social subjects being a nomad folk. Especially after Turkic migration, some of the myths are decorated with Islamic symbols. It has many common points with Aegean and Anatolian mythologies (Green and Hittite) as well as Mongol mythology. Turkic mythology is influenced by other local mythologies, such as Tatar. TÜRK MİTOLOJİSİ tarihi Türk halklarının inanmış oldukları mitolojik bütüne verilen isimdir.Türk mitolojisi Tengricilik ve Şamanistlik öğelerini taşımasının yanısıra, göçebe bir hayat sürüldüğünden kültürel ve sosyal temalarla doludur. Özellikle Türk göçünden sonra, bazı efsaneler İslamiyet sembolleriyle süslenmiştir. Ege ve Anadolu mitolojileriyle (özellikle Yunan ve Hitit) ortak noktalar gösterir,Tatar mitolojisi gibi diğer mitolojilerin etkisi de görülür.
  53. 53. Turkish mythology Turkish mythology
  54. 54. Some of the Gods and Goddesses in Turkish Mythology Tengri is one of the names for the primary chief deity in the religion of the early Turkic people. Umay is the goddess of fertility and virginity. Kayra is the Spirit of God and creator of god. Bai-Ulgan is the son of Kayra and the god of goodness. Erlik is the god of death and underworld. Ay Dede is the moon god Gün Ana is the sun god Türk Mitolojisindeki bazı Tanrı ve Tanrıçalar Tengri eski Türk ler için ilk sıradaki ,en önemli ilahtır. Umay bereket ve dogurganlık tanrıçasıdır. Kayra Tanrı’nın ruhu ve yaratıcısıdır. Bai Ulgan Kayra’nın oğlu ve iyilik tanrısıdır. Erlik ölüm ve yer altı tanrısıdır. Ay Dede ay tanrısıdır. Gün Ana güneş tanrıçasıdır.
  55. 55. Ancient Gods
  56. 56. The WOLF (Böri) symbolizes honour and is also considered the mother of most Turkish people. In BOZKURT LEGEND, ‘Aseana’ (Ashina Tuwu) is known as the wolf mother of Bumen, the first Khan of the Göktürks. In ERGENEKON LEGEND, when Göktürks are about to die out, they are reborn from the wolf, and they maintain Turk descendants. Türk edebiyatında ‘KURT’; onuru, şerefi simgeler ve Kurt çoğu Türk’ün anası olarak düşünülür. BOZKURT DESTANInda ‘Asena’ Göktürklerin ilk hükümdarı olan Bumen’in annesi olarak bilinir. ERGENEKON DESTANI’nda Göktürkler nesli tükenmek üzereyken, kurttan tekrar çoğalırlar ve Türk soyları böylece devam eder.
  57. 57. The HORSE is also one of the main figures of Turkic mythology. In early times, Turks consider the horse as an extension of the individual-generally dedicated to the male- and they think one is complete with it.The horse is believed to be created from the wind. So ‘horse’ has got the strength and speed of the wind. Horses take important parts in legends and tales. For example Aşkar (Battal Ghazi’s horse), Kırat (Köroğlu’s horse), Akkula (Manas Han’s horse) and so on. ‘AT’ da Türk mitolojisindeki ana figürlerden biridir. Geçmişte, Türkler ‘at’ı kendilerinin bir uzantısı olarak görürler-genellikle erkeklere özgüdür- ve onunla ‘tam’ olduklarını düşünürler. ‘At’ın rüzgardan yaratıldığına inanılır. Böylece rüzgarın gücü ve hızı ata geçmiştir. Atlar efsane ve masallarda önemli yer tutar. Örneğin Aşkar (Battal Gazi’nin atı), Kırat (Köroğlu’nun atı), Akkula (Manas Han’ın atı) vs.
  58. 58. Horse legends
  59. 59. The DRAGON (Evren, Ebren), which is a typically snake –like or lizard- like legendery creature, is the symbol of might and power in Turkish mythology. It is believed, especially in mountainous Central Asia, that dragons still live in the mountains! Dragons also symbolize the god Tengri (Tanrı) in ancient Turkic tradition, although dragons themselves are not worshiped as gods.However later in time , dragons become the symbol of the danger and enemy thas has to be overcome. EJDERHA , genellikle yılan ya da dev kertenkele biçiminde efsanevi bir yaratıktır ve Türk mitolojsinde güç ve kuvvetin simgesidir.Dağlarla kaplı Orta Asya’da ejdarhaların hala varolduğuna inanılır. Eski Türk geleneğinde ejdarhalar ayrıca ‘Tanrı’yı sembolize ederler, bununla birlikte Tanrı olarak tapılmazlar. Fakat zamanla , ejderhalar üstesinden gelinmesi gereken bir düşman ya da tehlikenin sembolü haline gelmişlerdir.
  60. 60. Dragon legends
  61. 61. KÖROĞLU is a poet who lives in Anatolia. The name Köroğlu literally means "Son of a Blind Man". Although there are two different well-known Köroğlu figures in Turkish history, they are combined in one unique character in Turkish people's mind. Köroğlu is known as a hero who is against the unfair rulers. KÖROĞLU, Anadolu’da yaşamış bir şairdir.Türk tarihinde bilinen iki Köroğlu figürü olmasına rağmen, Türklerin zihninde tek bir karakter olarak şekillenmiştir. Köroğlu insafsız yöneticilere karşı savaşan bir kahraman olarak bilinir.
  62. 62. In the EPIC of KÖROĞLU , it is told that, Köroğlu's father is the hostler of the Lord of Bolu. When the lord does not appreciate the horse that is bought by Köroğlu's father, he makes the father blind. When Köroğlu grows up, he trains the horse and promises to take revenge of his father. He starts to live in mountains, his fame spreads and he becomes a hero who takes from unfair rich people in order to give the poor. (The epic combines the occasional romance with Robin Hood- like chivalry.) It is said that, when gun and rifle are invented, Köroğlu vanish off the face of the earth by saying courage and chivalry have been lost. KÖROĞLU DESTANI’nda, Köroğlu’nun babasının Bolu Beyi’nin seyisi olduğu söylenir.Bolu Beyi, Köroğlu’nun babasının aldığı atı beğenmez ve babasının gözlerini kör eder.Köroğlu büyüyünce o atı eğitir ve babasının öcünü almaya yemin eder. Dağlarda yaşamaya başlar, ünü yayılır, adaletsiz zenginlerden alıp fakirlere veren bir kahraman olur. (Destan bu yönde Robin Hood maceraları ile benzerlik gösterir.)Silah ve tüfek icat edildiğinde, Köroğlu’nun ‘cesaret cömertlik yok oldu’ diyerek bu dünyadan kaybolduğu söylenir.
  63. 63. In Köroğlu's poems; courage, friendship, love, nature, and revenge are told in a lyrical and simple language. Here is a well- known Köroğlu poem in which he addresses to Lord of Bolu: From me, to Lord of Bolu, here is greetings, It is needed to snuggle those mountains. Thanks to creak of arrow, voice of shield, Should give out sound, the mountains. Köroğlu’nun şiirlerinde; cesaret, dostluk, aşk,doğa ve intikam konuları lirik ve basit bir dille anlatılır. Köroğlu’nun Bolu Beyi’ne yazdığı bir şiir : Benden selam olsun Bolu Bey'ine Çıkıp şu dağlara yaslanmalıdır Ok gıcırtısından kalkan sesinden Dağlar seda verip seslenmelidir.
  64. 64. The EPIC of TIMUR (Temir) ise one of the most ancient and well known legends. The legend is about the Mongol ruler Timur, his battles and relations with other nations. In the legend, Timur finds a strange stone that falls from the sky ( an iron ore meteorite) and makes the first Iron sword from it. Today, the word ‘demir’ means ‘iron’. TİMUR DESTANI en eski ve en bilinen Türk destanlarından biridir. Destanda, Moğol hükümdarı Timur’un yaptığı savaşlar ve diğer milletlerle ilişkileri anlatılır. Efsanede Timur, gökyüzünden düşen tuhaf bir taş bulur (demir maden bir göktaşı) ve ondan ilk demir kılıcı yapar. Bugün ‘demir’ kelimesi İngilizce’de ‘iron’ demektir.
  65. 65. The EPIC OF MANAS is the longest epic in the world. The legend tells the story of Kyrgyz Manas, who is believed to be a hero when he is a child. I is said that Manas is cheated and killed by his companions. The animals cry for him at his grave and Goktanrı (the Tengri of Sun ) revives him , and then Manas follows his friends to take revenge. MANAS DESTANI dünyannın en uzun destanıdır. Destanda daha küçük yaştan kahraman olacağı bilinen Kırgız Manas'ın hikâyesi anlatılmaktadır. Manas'ın dostları tarafından ihanete uğratılıp öldürüldüğü söylenir. Mezarı başında ağlayan hayvanlar Manas'a ağıt yakarlar ve Göktanrı acıyarak Manas'ı diriltir. Manas da kendisine ihanet eden dostlarının peşine düşer.
  66. 66. The EPIC of OGHUZ KHAN is a central polical mythology for Turkic people of CentralAsia.The epic is about Oghuz Khan, who is believed the father of the Turks, and his bravery. Oghuz Khan is a legendary and semi-mythological Khan of the Turks. Some Turkic cultures use this legend to describe their ethnic origins and the origin of the system of poltical clans used by Turkmen, Ottoman and other Oghuz Turks. The various versions of the narrative preserved in many different manuscripts has been published in numerous languages. The epic gives information about Oghuz Turks, Turkish language, literature, folklore, history, and culture. OĞUZ KAĞAN DESTANI, Orta Asya Türkleri için başlıca politik destanlardan biridir. Destan, Türklerin atası olduğuna inanılan Oğuz Han ve onun kahramanlıklarıyla ilgilidir. Oğuz Han, efsanevi ve yarı mitolojik bir Türk kağanıdır. Bazı Türk kültürlerine göre bu destan Türkmenler, Osmanlılar, ve diğer Oğuz Türkleri tarafından kullanılan siyasi klan sistemi ve etnik kaynakları tanımlar. Destan, Oğuz boyları, Türk Dili Edebiyatı, folkloru, tarihi ve kültürü hakkında bilgi verir. El yazmalarında muhafaza edilen öykünün bir çok değişik versiyonu sayısız dile çevrilmiştir.
  67. 67. According to the legend, Oghuz, born in Central Asia, is the leader of the Turks. He starts talking as soon as he is born.He stops drinking his mother’s milk after the first time and asks for ‘kımız’(an alcholic beverage mode with horse milk) and raw meat. He has got ‘a horned crawn’ symbolizing power. He grows supernaturally fast and only in 40 days, he becomes a young adult. After Oghuz kills the strong, dragon, named Kıyant, he becomes a national hero. He becomes the khan, he marries two supernaturally beatifull girls, he has six sons. Their names are Sun, Moon, Star, Sky, Mountain and Sea! Efsaneye göre; Orta Asya’da doğan Oğuz Han Türklerin lideridir. Doğar doğmaz konuşmaya başlar. Anne sütünü bir kez içer ve ilk içişinden sonra kımız ve çiğ et ister. Gücü simgeleyen boynuzlu bir tacı vardır. Olağanüstü hızlı bir şekilde büyür ve sadece 40 günde genç bir yetişkin olur. Oğuz, Kıyant denilen güçlü ve büyük bir yaratık olan gergedanı öldürdükten sonra ulusal bir kahraman olur. Pek çok boya adlarını o verir.( Uygur, Kanglı, Kıpçak, Kalaç, Karluk). Kağan olur, olağanüstü güzel iki kadınla evlenir, altı oğlu olur. Oğullarına Gün, Ay, Yıldız, Gök, Dağ, Deniz isimlerini verir.
  68. 68. After his sons are born, Oghuz Khan gives a great feast and he gives this order to his lords: I have become your Khan Let’s all take swords and shields Kut (divine power) will be ousign Grey wolf will be our uran (wacry) Our iron lances will be a forest Khulan will walk on the hunting ground More seas and more rivers Sun is our flag and sky is our tent. Oğuz Han oğulları doğduktan sonra büyük bir ziyafet verir, tüm Türk boylarını davet eder ve şu buyruğu verir: Ben sizin Kağanınız oldum Hepimiz kılıç ve kalkanlarımızı alalım Kurt bizim sembolümüz Gri kurt bizim uranımız Demir mızraklar orman olacak Daha fazla deniz, daha fazla nehir Güneş bizim bayrağımız, gök bizim çadırımız.
  69. 69. The BOOK of DEDE KORKUT , ist the most famous epic stories of the Oghuz Turks. The stories carry morals and values significant to the social lifestyle of the nomadic Turks and their pre-Islamic beliefs. The book consists of a series of epics (12 epics), orally told and transferred over the generations before published as a book. In the stories of Dede Korkut ; mythology and epic, legend and story, tale and story are mixed altogether. DEDE KORKUT HİKAYELERİ, Oğuz Türkleri’nin en ünlü destansı hikayeleridir. Hikayeler, göçebe Türkler ve onların İslamiyet öncesi inanışları için önemli olan manevi ve ahlaki değerler taşır. Kitap 12 hikayeden oluşur, bunlar kitap olarak basılmadan önce sözlü olarak anlatılmış ve nesilden nesile aktarılmıştır. Hikayelerde; mitoloji ve destan, efsane ve hikaye, hikaye ve masal iç içedir.
  70. 70. DEDE KORKUT is the first teller of the stories. He is wise and prescient. People ask for his advice and ideas about important issues. Language is quite simple in the book. In the epics, it is mentioned about daily lives of the people, their religious believes, the battles, fighting with creatures, heroism etc. DEDE KORKUT hikayelerin ilk anlatıcısı olarak bilinir. Çok akıllıdır ve kehanet gücü vardır. İnsanlar önemli konularla ilgili ondan tavsiye isterler. Kitaptaki dil oldukça yalındır. Hikayelerde, insanların günlük yaşamları, dini inanışları, savaşlar, yaratıklarla mücadeleleri, kahramanlık gibi konulardan bahsedilir.
  71. 71. TEPEGOZ is a legendary creature in Turkic mythology who has only one eye on his forehead.He is an ogre that appears in the Book of Dede Korkut, a famous epic story of the Oghuz Turks.In this epic,Tepegoz starts to kill everybody when he grows , so the khans of Oghuz people decide to banish him forever.But nobody is able to kill him.The sword cannot cut him,the arrow cannot kill him.His skin is very hard.Half of the all Oghuz hereos die trying to kill Tepegoz.Just one man is able to kill him- a hero called Basat.He kills terrible Tepegoz by striking his eye.Then he cuts off his head with a magical sword and thus he saves not only himself but also his nation from the terror of Tepegoz. TEPEGÖZ, Türk mitolojisinde alnında tek bir gözü olan efsanevi bir yaratıktır.Dede Korkut hikayelerinde, Oğuz Türklerinin ünlü bir destanında görülen bir ‘dev’dir.Bu destanda, Tepegöz büyüdüğünde herkesi öldürmeye başlar, bu yüzden de Oğuz Kağan halkı onu sonsuza dek yok etmeye karar verir.Fakat kimse onu öldüremez.Kılıç onu kesmez, ok ona işlemez.Derisi çok serttir.Oğuz kahramanlarının yarısı tepegözü öldürmeye çalışırken ölürler.Sadece Basat adında bir kahraman onu öldürebilir.Basat ,Tepegözü ancak gözünden vurarak öldürebilir.Sihirli bir kılıçla kafasını keser, böylece sadece kendini değil tüm ulusu Tepegözün gazabından kurtarır.
  72. 72. The warriors of the Oghuz and battles against Tepegoz dercribed are likely grounded in the conflicts between the Pechenegs and Kipchaks.The story elements bear resemblance to the encounter with the Cyclops in Homer’s Odeyssey.It is believed to have been influenced by the Greek epic or to have one common ancestral root. Oğuz savaşçıları ve Tepegöze karşı yapılan mücadeleler Peçenkler ve Kıpçaklar arasındaki çekişmeye dayanır.,Homer’in Odyssey destanındaki Kiklop ile yapılan çatışmayla benzerlik gösterir. Hikayenin Yunan destanından etkiler taşıdığına ve ortak bir köke sahip olduklarına inanılır.
  73. 73. SEYYİD BATTAL GHAZI, is a mythical leader, an important figure and warrior in Anatolia. He is believed to have lived in the 8th century. ‘Battal’ means ‘hero’ in Arabic. The legend of Battal Ghazi is based on the exploits of Umayyad military leader Abdallah al-Battal. In the legend, Battal Ghazi is an intellectual, religious and generous hero. He both struggles to expand Islam and fights against extraordinary power such as giants, witches etc. SEYYİD BATTAL GAZİ, Anadolu’ da görülen mitik bir lider, önemli bir figür ve savaşçıdır. Battal Gazi’nin 8. yüzyılda yaşadığı tahmin edilmektedir. ‘Battal’ Arapça’ da ‘ kahramanlık’ demektir. Battal Gazi Destanı, Emevi lideri Abdullah al- Batal ‘ın serüvenlerine dayanmaktadır. Destanda Battal Gazi, bilgin, dinine bağlı ve cömert bir kahramandır. Hem Müslümanlığı yaymak için savaşır, hem de dev, büyücü gibi olağanüstü güçlere karşı mücadele eder.
  74. 74. MINSTREL (AŞIK) is a kind of poet seen in the Turkish Folk Literature since the beginning of 11th century. It is believed that minstrel takes his quality of poet by drinking the ‘love wine’ served by the sage in his dream and by seeing the image of his lover. Minstrels perform songs whose Iyrics tell stories of distant places or of existing or imaginary historical events. They usually sing songs about love, nature, heroism and play a saz ( a folkloric musical instrument), by walking around from village to village, town to town. AŞIK, Türk Halk Edebiyatında 11. yüzyılın başından bu yana görülen bir çeşit halk ozanıdır. ’Aşık’ ın şair niteliğini, rüyasında bir bilge tarafından verilen ‘aşk şarabı’ içerek ve sevgilisinin suretini görerek aldığına inanılır. Aşıklar, uzak diyarlar, var olan ya da hayal ürünü tarihi olaylar ile ilgili hikayeler anlatan şarkılar söylerler. Aşıklar genellikle aşk, doğa, kahramanlıkla ilgili eserler üretirler ve ellerinde sazları ile diyar diyar dolaşarak sanatlarını icra ederler.
  75. 75. Much of the poetry and song of the aşık/ozan tradition remains anonymous. There are, however, a few well-known aşıks from that time whose names survive together with their written works: Köroğlu, Karacaoğlan, Dadaloğlu etc. Despite the decline of the aşık/ozan tradition in the 19th century ,it experiences a significant revival in the 20th century thanks to such outstanding figures as Aşık Veysel, Aşık Mahsuni and many others. Şiir ve Aşık edebiyatı geleneği anonim olarak günümüze gelmiştir. Bununla birlikte yazılı eserleriyle elimize ulaşan ünlü aşıklarımız da vardır.Köroğlu,Karacaoğlan, Dadaloğlu vb. 19. yüzyılda Aşık edebiyatı azalmaya başlamasına rağmen, Aşık Veysel,Aşık Mahsuni ve diğer birçok ozanlarımız sayesinde 20. yüzyılda da bu geleneğin devamı görülebilir.
  76. 76. The Turkish Folk Literature which has survived till our day, reflect the influence of Islam. They also reflects the new life style and form of the traditional literature of Central Asia after the adaption of Islam. It is strongly influenced by the Islamic Sufi and Shi'a traditions. Türk Halk Edebiyatının günümüze kadar gelen eserleri İslamiyetin etkilerini yansıtır. Ayrıca, İslamiyetin kabul edilmesinden sonra Orta Asya’nın yeni yaşam tarzını ve geleneksel edebiyat örneklerinin özelliklerini de gösterir. Sufi ve Şii geleneğinden büyük ölçüde etkilenmiştir
  77. 77. Conclusion Studying both civilizations , we realized that as many the differences as much the similarities , between two neighbours !! Heroes and beautiful ladies , supernatural creatures , both good and evil , minstrels travelling all over countries singing their stories !!! It was an exciting and joyful journey through time and borders!!!
  78. 78. A happy end !!!