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Our mutual book

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  • 1. Crossroads over the Aegean.Human soul remains the same ,through centuries and borders.
  • 2. Bilateral Comenius project.Armenio Larissa Greece high schoolSuat Terimer Anatolian high school 2011 – 2013
  • 3. Greek and Turkish partners
  • 4. Greek mythologyGreek mythology is a Η Ελληνική μυθολογία garden of shiny myths . είναι ένας κήπος Full of brave men and λαμπερών μύθων , beautiful , yet , fatal γεμάτος από γενναίους women . άντρες και όμορφες , μοιραίες γυναίκες .Let’s have a look onsome of these myths. Ας δούμε μερικούς από τους μύθους.
  • 5. The twelve gods at mount OlympusIn general, the Olympians are the Οι δώδεκα θεοί, ζουν στον Όλυμπο, gods who live on Mount και όλοι συγγενεύουν με τον Olympus, all of them somehow πατέρα των Θεών , τον Δία. related to the supreme god Zeus. Το Ολύμπιο Δωδεκάθεο , αποτελείται More specifically, the Twelve από τους : Olympians are the major deities Δίας of the Greek Pantheon : Ήρα ( αδελφή και σύζυγος του Δία ,Zeus θεά του γάμου ) Hera ( Zeus sister and wife , goddess Ποσειδών ( αδελφός του Δία , of marriage) θεός της θάλασσας )Poseidon ( Zeus brother and God of Δήμητρα ( αδελφή του Δία , the sea ) θεά της γεωργίας )Demeter ( Zeus sister and goddess of Αθηνά ( κόρη του Δία , agriculture ) θεά της σοφίας )Athena ( Zeus daughter , goddess of wisdom )
  • 6. Zeus - Poseidon
  • 7. The twelve gods at mount OlympusHestia ( Zeus sister , virgin goddess Εστία ( αδελφή του Δία , παρθένος of home and family ) θεά της οικογένειας )Apollo ( Zeus son , god of music ) Απόλλων ( γιος του Δία , θεός της μουσικής )Artemis ( Zeus daughter , virgin Άρτεμις ( κόρη του Δία , δίδυμη goddess of hunting , Apollo’s twin αδελφή του Απόλλωνα , sister ), παρθένος θεά του του κυνηγιού)Ares ( Zeus son, god of war ) Αφροδίτη ( κόρη του Δία , θεά τηςAphrodite /Venus ( Zeus daughter ομορφιάς ) goddess of beauty ) , Ήφαιστος ( ο μοναχογιός του Δία καιHephaestus ( Zeus and Hera’s only της Ήρας , σύζυγος της child , god of fire , Aphrodite’s Αφροδίτης , θεός της φωτιάς ) husband ) Ερμής ( γιος του Δία , θεός του εμπορίου )Hermes ( Zeus son and god of commerce ) .
  • 8. Hermes – Aphrodite
  • 9. The twelve gods at mount OlympusHestia was often replaced • Τη θέση της Εστίας στο Ολύμπιο by Dionysus ( Zeus son and god of Δωδεκάθεο , πολλές φορές wine ) . έπαιρνε ο Διόνυσος , ο θεός τουHeracles, Asclepius, Pluto / κρασιού . Hades and Persephone were Ο Πλούτωνας ή Άδης , ο τρίτος sometimes also included as part αδελφός του Δία , δεν έμενε στον of the twelve Olympians Όλυμπο ,αλλά στο βασίλειό του , (primarily due to the influence of στον Κάτω Κόσμο . the Eleusinian Mysteries), although in general Pluto was excluded, because he resided permanently in the underworld and never visited Mount Olympus.
  • 10. Apollo – Athina
  • 11. Jason and the Argonauts Το μυθικό ταξίδι του Ιάσωνα και τωνIt’s the myth of the voyage of Jason and the Αργοναυτών από την Ιωλκό για να Argonauts from Iolkos ( Greece ) to φέρουν πίσω το Χρυσόμαλλο δέρας από retrieve the Golden Fleece from την Κολχίδα , στην Μαύρη Θάλασσα. remote Colchis ( Black Sea ). Οι ηρωικές του περιπέτειες και ο δεσμός τουTheir heroic adventures and Jasons Ιάσονα με την μάγισσα και πριγκίπισσα relationship with the Colchian των Κόλχων , Μήδεια. princess/sorceress Medea. Η Μήδεια σε ένα λουτρό αίματος , σκοτώνειMedea had to kill and cut into pieces her own πρώτα τον αδελφό της για να φύγουν από brother to succeed saving Jason and his την Κολχίδα και μετά τον Αίσονα , θείο partners from Colchis . του Ιάσονα στην Ιωλκό , για να σώσει τονThey, finally, achieve to arrive at Iolkos , Ιάσονα και για να του εξασφαλίσει τον where Medea kills Jason uncle , so they θρόνο. have have to leave again for Korinthos . Τελικά , διωγμένοι καταφεύγουν στηνJason leaves Medea for the Korinthos young Κόρινθο , όπου ο Ιάσονας εγκαταλείπει την princess , so Medea kills their two children Μήδεια για να νυμφευθεί την and the young princess and her father , as πριγκίπισσα και τότε η Μήδεια σκοτώνει well. Medea escapes to the skies helped τα παιδιά της ( και του Ιάσονα ) καθώς by the Sun. και την πριγκίπισσα και τον πατέρα της πριγκίπισσας και διαφεύγει με το άρμα του Ήλιου.
  • 12. Jason , Medea and the golden fleece
  • 13. TheseusTheseus was Aethra’s and Aegeus ( king of Ο Θησέας ήταν γιος του βασιλιά της Αθήνας Athens) son. Αιγέα και της πριγκίπισσας της ΤροιζήναςWhen Aethra became pregnant, Aegeus decided Αίθρας . to return to Athens. Before leaving, however, Όταν η Αίθρα ήταν έγκυος , ο Αιγέας την άφησε he buried his sandals and sword under a στην Τροιζήνα και επέστρεψε στην Αθήνα , huge rock and told Aethra that when their λέγοντας στην Αίθρα , ότι έκρυψε κάτω από son grew up, he should move the rock, if he ένα γιγάντιο βράχο το σπαθί και τα were heroic enough, and take the tokens for σανδάλια του και όταν ο γιος τους himself as evidence of his royal parentage. καταφέρει να τα πάρει , ας έλθει να τον βρειIn Athens, Aegeus was joined by Medea, who had στην Αθήνα. left Corinth after slaughtering the children Στην Αθήνα ο Αιγέας συνδέθηκε με την Μήδεια , she had borne Jason, and had taken Aegeus η οποία είχε καταφύγει εκεί μετά την as her new consort. Priestess and consort δολοφονία των παιδιών της. together represented the old order in Όταν ο Θησέας μεγάλωσε ,κοντά στην μητέρα Athens. του , σήκωσε τον βράχο και ξεκίνησε για τηνThus Theseus was raised in his mothers land. Αθήνα για να διεκδικήσει τα δικαιώματά του When Theseus grew up and became a brave από τον πατέρα του. young man, he moved the rock and recovered his fathers tokens. His mother then told him the truth about his fathers identity and that he must take the sword and sandals back to king Aegeus to claim his birthright.
  • 14. Theseus and the MinotaurTo journey to Athens, Theseus could choose to go by Για να πάει στην Αθήνα ο Θησέας διάλεξε τον sea (which was the safe way) or by land, δύσκολο δρόμο της στεριάς , παρά τον ασφαλή following a dangerous path around the Saronic της θάλασσας ., ξέροντας ότι θα συναντούσε έξι Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six χθόνιες εισόδους στον Κάτω Κόσμο , καθώς και entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by φοβερούς ληστές . a chthonic enemy. Young, brave, and ambitious, Οι ληστές αυτοί ,που σκότωναν και λήστευαν τουςTheseus decided to go alone by the land route and εμπόρους και περαστικούς ,ήταν : defeated a great many bandits along the way , Ο Σίνης ο Πιτυοκάμπτης , που λύγιζε δύο πεύκα και έδενε επάνω τους τους περαστικούς ,μετά ταSinis Pityocamptes ( Sinis the pine –bender , who tied άφηνε και το θύμα σκιζόταν στα δύο. his victims on a bent pine ,tearing them apart to Ο Περιφήτης , ο Σκίρωνας , που έβαζε να του take their money ), πλύνουν τα πόδια και μετά κλωτσούσε το θύμαPeriphetes , στο γκρεμό , όπου το έτρωγε μία πελώριαSciron ( with his giant human eater sea turtle) , θαλάσσια χελώνα.Procroustes ( the stretcher , placing on a bed his Ο Προκρούστης , που είχε ένα κρεβάτι πάνω στο οποίο τοποθετούσε τα θύματα του και είτε τα victims , cutting their feet , if longer than the τέντωνε είτε τα άκρωτηρίαζε για να είναι ίσα με bed , or stretching them to death if they were το κρεβάτι. shorter ). Ο Θησέας κατάφερε να καθαρίσει τον τόπο απόTheseus going to Crete killed Minotaur, a half-man, τους ληστές και να σκοτώσει και τον half-bull monster that lived in Μινώταυρο μέσα στον Λαβύρινθο,στο παλάτι the Labyrinth created by Daedalus. του Μίνωα στην Κρήτη.
  • 15. Theseus and the Minotaur
  • 16. HerculesHercules was the son of Zeus and the Ο Ηρακλής ήταν γιος του Δία και της Αλκμήνης. mortal Alcmene. Hercules is famous for his Φημισμένος για την δύναμη του και για τις strength and for his numerous far-ranging πολυάριθμες περιπέτειές του. adventures. Hercules is known for his many Πιο γνωστές , οι Δώδεκα άθλοι του . adventures, which took him to the far reaches Το λιοντάρι της Νεμέας of the world. The :"Twelve Labours," : Η Λερναία ΎδραSlay the Nemean Lion. Το ελάφι της ΆρτεμηςSlay the nineheaded Lernaean Hydra. Ο κάπρος του ΕρύμανθουCapture the Golden Hind of Artemis. Οι στάβλοι του ΑυγείαCapture the Erymanthian Boar. Οι Στυμφαλίδες ΌρνιθεςClean the Augean stables in a single day. Ο ταύρος του ΠοσειδώναSlay the Stymphalian Birds. Τα άλογα του ΔιομήδηCapture the Cretan Bull. Η ζώνη της Ιππολύτης , βασίλισσας των ΑμαζόνωνSteal the Mares of Diomedes. Τα βόδια του ΓηρυόνηObtain the girdle of Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons. Τα μήλα των ΕσπερίδωνObtain the cattle of the monster Geryon. Ο Κέρβερος .Steal the apples of the Hesperides.Capture and bring back Cerberus.
  • 17. Hercules
  • 18. Trojan war / IliadHandsome Paris, prince of Troy, eloped the Ο όμορφος Πάρις , που ήταν πρίγκιπας της prettiest of all women Elena of Sparta , Τροίας , απήγαγε την ωραία Ελένη , σύζυγο king Menelaus wife. Menelaus along with του Μενέλαου του βασιλιά της Σπάρτης. his brother Agamemnon campaigned Ο Μενέλαος μαζί με τον αδελφό του against Troy, with all Greek (Achaean) Αγαμέμνονα , βασιλιά των Μυκηνών leaders. It has been a ten year siege and συγκεντρώνουν όλους τους βασιλιάδες των finally Achaean army achieved their goal: Ελλήνων / Αχαιών και εκστρατεύουν Trojans surrender and total destruction., εναντίον της Τροίας . through Odysseus Trojan horse . Η Τροία πολιορκείται δέκα ολόκληρα χρόνια καιMany brave men had died, both Trojans πολλοί γενναίοι άντρες ,( Hector ) and Achaeans ( Ajax , Achilles etc) Αχαιοί και Τρώες , φονεύονται σε μονομαχίεςAchaean leaders return home but their way ,όπως ο Έκτορας , ο back isn’t easy at all. Αίας , ο Αχιλλέας και άλλοι .It takes Ulysses ( Odysseus ) ten years of Η Τροία κυριεύεται με τον Δούρειο ίππο adventurous voyages to get back home . του Οδυσσέα , αλλά οι περιπέτειες των Αχαιών δεν τελειώνουν εκεί. Ο ΟδυσσέαςAgamemnon faces death from his own wife περιπλανιέται δέκα χρόνια μέχρι να φθάσει and cousin. στην Ιθάκη και ο Αγαμέμνονας βρίσκει το θάνατο από το χέρι της ίδιας του της γυναίκας της Κλυταιμήστρας .
  • 19. Achilles – Laokoon
  • 20. Odusseus ( Ulisses) Odysseus , king of Ithaca , during his ten year Ο Οδυσσέας , ο βασιλιάς της Ιθάκης , στα δέκα adventurous trip back home , he had to face χρόνια του περιπετειώδους ταξιδιού της the : επιστροφής του αντιμετώπισε :full of rage Cikones , Τους άγριους Κίκονες the savage Cyclops ( one eyed human eater Τον ανθρωποφάγο Κύκλωπα monster ) , Τους καννίβαλους Λαιστρυγόνεςthe cannibals Lestrygons , Τους Λωτοφάγουςthe Lotophagus (Lotus eaters, lotus was a fruit Τις Σειρήνες , που τραγουδώντας αγγελικά , causing to forget their homecoming ), ξεγελούσαν τους ναυτικούς για να τουςthe Sirenes ( human eating monsters , singing like φάνε angels ) , Την Σκύλλα με τα έξι κεφάλια και την φρικτή the six-headed monster Scylla and the Χάρυβδη. whirlpool Charybdis , Την Μάγισσα – θεά Κίρκη και τελικά την the witch-goddess Circe and finally arrived ship πανέμορφη νύμφη Καλυψώ , που τον wrecked and alone at the pretty nymph κράτησε φυλακισμένο επτά χρόνια . Calypso island . Κατάφερε να φτάσει στην Ιθάκη μόνο όταν οHe managed to arrive to Ithaca , only when Zeus Ποσειδώνας και ο Δίας του το επέτρεψαν. and Poseido allowed that.
  • 21. Ulisses
  • 22. Antigone Sophocles• ANTIGONE Yes. Zeus did not announce those laws to • (450) ΑΝ. Οὐ γάρ τί μοι Ζεὺς ἦν ὁ κηρύξας τάδε, me. [450] οὐδ’ ἡ ξύνοικος τῶν κάτω θεῶν Δίκη And Justice living with the gods below sent no such τοιούσδ’ ἐν ἀνθρώποισιν ὥρισαν νόμους·, laws for men. I did not think 510 οὐδὲ σθένειν τοσοῦτον ᾠόμην τὰ σὰ anything which you proclaimed strong enough κηρύγμαθ’ ὥστ’ ἄγραπτα κἀσφαλῆ θεῶν to let a mortal override the gods and their unwritten and unchanging laws. (455) νόμιμα δύνασθαι θνητὸν ὄνθ’ They’re not just for today or yesterday, ὑπερδραμεῖν. but exist forever, and no one knows Οὐ γάρ τι νῦν γε κἀχθές, ἀλλ’ ἀεί ποτε where they first appeared. So I did not mean ζῇ ταῦτα, κοὐδεὶς οἶδεν ἐξ ὅτου ’φάνη. to let a fear of any human will Τούτων ἐγὼ οὐκ ἔμελλον, ἀνδρὸς οὐδενὸς lead to my punishment among the gods. φρόνημα δείσασ’, ἐν θεοῖσι τὴν δίκην I know all too well I’m going to die— [460 (460) δώσειν· θανουμένη γὰρ ἐξῄδη, τί δ’ οὔ;• how could I not?—it makes no κεἰ μὴ σὺ προὐκήρυξας. Εἰ δὲ τοῦ χρόνου difference 520 what you decree. And if I have to die πρόσθεν θανοῦμαι, κέρδος αὔτ’ ἐγὼ λέγω· before my time, well, I count that a gain. ὅστις γὰρ ἐν πολλοῖσιν ὡς ἐγὼ κακοῖς When someone has to live the way I do, ζῇ, πῶς ὅδ’ οὐχὶ κατθανὼν κέρδος φέρει; surrounded by so many evil things, (465) Οὕτως ἔμοιγε τοῦδε τοῦ μόρου τυχεῖν how can she fail to find a benefit παρ’ οὐδὲν ἄλγος· ἀλλ’ ἄν, εἰ τὸν ἐξ ἐμῆς in death? And so for me meeting this fate won’t bring any pain. But if I’d allowed μητρὸς θανόντ’ ἄθαπτον ἠνσχόμην νέκυν, my own mother’s dead son to just lie there, κείνοις ἂν ἤλγουν· τοῖσδε δ’ οὐκ ἀλγύνομαι. an unburied corpse, then I’d feel distress.W Σοὶ δ’ εἰ δοκῶ νῦν μῶρα δρῶσα τυγχάνειν,What’s going on here does not hurt me at all 530 If you think (470) σχεδόν τι μώρῳ μωρίαν ὀφλισκάνω. what I’m doing now is stupid perhaps I’m being charged with foolishness [470] by someone who’s a fool.
  • 23. Antigone
  • 24. Hippolyte Euripides• O Zeus, why hast thou brought into the world to plague • Ιπ. ὦ Ζεῦ, τί δὴ κίβδηλον ἀνθρώποις κακὸν us such a tricksy thing as woman?If thou didst wish to • γυναῖκας ἐς φῶς ἡλίου κατώικισας; propagate mankind,Couldst thou not find some better • εἰ γὰρ βρότειον ἤθελες σπεῖραι γένος, way than this? • οὐκ ἐκ γυναικῶν χρῆν παρασχέσθαι τόδε,• We to the temples might have brought our price In gold • 620 ἀλλ ἀντιθέντας σοῖσιν ἐν ναοῖς βροτοὺς or weight of iron or of brass,And purchased offspring, • ἢ χαλκὸν ἢ σίδηρον ἢ χρυσοῦ βάρος each to the amount of that which he has paid; and so • παίδων πρίασθαι σπέρµα του τιµήµατος, have dweltIn quiet homes unvexed of womankind.Now, • τῆς ἀξίας ἕκαστον, ἐν δὲ δώµασιν to import a plague into our homes,First of our • ναίειν ἐλευθέροισι θηλειῶν ἄτερ. substance we make sacrifice,And here at once we see • [νῦν δ ἐς δόµους µὲν πρῶτον ἄξεσθαι κακὸν what woman is. • µέλλοντες ὄλβον δωµάτων ἐκτίνοµεν.]• The father that begot her gladly paysA dowry that he • τούτωι δὲ δῆλον ὡς γυνὴ κακὸν µέγα· might be rid of her,While he may bring this slip of evil • προσθεὶς γὰρ ὁ σπείρας τε καὶ θρέψας πατὴρ home.Fond man adorns with costly ornamentA • φερνὰς ἀπώικισ, ὡς ἀπαλλαχθῆι κακοῦ. worthless idol, and his living wastes to trick her out in • 630 ὁ δ αὖ λαβὼν ἀτηρὸν ἐς δόµους φυτὸν costly finery. • γέγηθε κόσµον προστιθεὶς ἀγάλµατι• He has no choice. Are his connections good,to keep • καλὸν κακίστωι καὶ πέπλοισιν ἐκπονεῖ them he must keep a hated wife; Are his connections • δύστηνος, ὄλβον δωµάτων ὑπεξελών. bad, he can but weigh against that evil a good • [ἔχει δ ἀνάγκην· ὥστε κηδεύσας καλῶς bedfellow.His is the easiest lot who has to wife a cipher, • γαµβροῖσι χαίρων σώιζεται πικρὸν λέχος, a good-natured simpleton; Quick wits are hateful. • ἢ χρηστὰ λέκτρα πενθεροὺς δ ἀνωφελεῖς • λαβὼν πιέζει τἀγαθῶι τὸ δυστυχές.]• Neer may wife of mine be wiser than consorts with • ῥᾶιστον δ ὅτωι τὸ µηδέν· ἀλλ ἀνωφελὴς εὐηθίαι womanhood.In your quick-witted dames the power of κατ οἶκον ἵδρυται γυνή. loveMore wickedness engenders; while the dull are by • 640 σοφὴν δὲ µισῶ· µὴ γὰρ ἔν γ ἐµοῖς δόµοις their dullness saved from going wrong. • εἴη φρονοῦσα πλείον ἢ γυναῖκα χρή.
  • 25. Hippolyte
  • 26. Medea Euripides ἄλλως ἄρ΄ ὑμᾶς͵ ὦ τέκν΄͵ ἐξεθρεψάμην͵ ἄλλως δ΄ ἐμόχθουν καὶ κατεξάνθην πόνοις͵ 1030 στερρὰς ἐνεγκοῦσ΄ ἐν τόκοις ἀλγηδόνας.• In vain, my children, have I brought you up,Borne all ἦ μήν ποθ΄ ἡ δύστηνος εἶχον ἐλπίδας the cares and pangs of motherhood,And the sharp πολλὰς ἐν ὑμῖν͵ γηροβοσκήσειν τ΄ ἐμὲ pains of childbirth undergone.In you, alas, was καὶ κατθανοῦσαν χερσὶν εὖ περιστελεῖν͵ treasured many a hopeOf loving sustentation in my ζηλωτὸν ἀνθρώποισι· νῦν δ΄ ὄλωλε δὴ age,Of tender laying out when I was dead,Such as γλυκεῖα φροντίς. σφῷν γὰρ ἐστερημένη all men might envy.Those sweet thoughts are mine λυπρὸν διάξω βίοτον ἀλγεινόν τ΄ ἐμοί. no more, for now bereft of youI must wear out a ὑμεῖς δὲ μητέρ΄ οὐκέτ΄ ὄμμασιν φίλοις drear and joyless life,And you will nevermore your mother see,Nor live as ye have done beneath her ὄψεσθ΄͵ ἐς ἄλλο σχῆμ΄ ἀποστάντες βίου. eye.Alas, my sons, why do you gaze on me,Why φεῦ φεῦ· τί προσδέρκεσθέ μ΄ ὄμμασιν͵ τέκνα; 1040 smile upon your mother that last smile?Ah me! τί προσγελᾶτε τὸν πανύστατον γέλων; What shall I do? My purpose meltsBeneath the αἰαῖ· τί δράσω; καρδία γὰρ οἴχεται͵ bright looks of my little ones.I cannot do it. γυναῖκες͵ ὄμμα φαιδρὸν ὡς εἶδον τέκνων. Farewell, my resolve,I will bear off my children from οὐκ ἂν δυναίμην· χαιρέτω βουλεύματα this land.Why should I seek to wring their fathers τὰ πρόσθεν· ἄξω παῖδας ἐκ γαίας ἐμούς. heart,When that same act will doubly wring my τί δεῖ με πατέρα τῶνδε τοῖς τούτων κακοῖς own?I will not do it. Farewell, my resolve.What has λυποῦσαν αὐτὴν δὶς τόσα κτᾶσθαι κακά; come oer me? Shall I let my foesTriumph, that I οὐ δῆτ΄ ἔγωγε. χαιρέτω βουλεύματα. may let my friends go free?Ill brace me to the deed. καίτοι τί πάσχω; βούλομαι γέλωτ΄ ὀφλεῖν Base that I wasTo let a thought of wickedness cross ἐχθροὺς μεθεῖσα τοὺς ἐμοὺς ἀζημίους; 1050 my soul.Children, go home. Whoso accounts it τολμητέον τάδ΄. ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐμῆς κάκης͵ wrongTo be attendant at my sacrifice,Let him stand τὸ καὶ προσέσθαι μαλθακοὺς λόγους φρενί. off; my purpose is unchanged.Forego my χωρεῖτε͵ παῖδες͵ ἐς δόμους. ὅτῳ δὲ μὴ resolutions, O my soul,Force not the parents hand θέμις παρεῖναι τοῖς ἐμοῖσι θύμασιν͵ to slay the child.Their presence where we will go αὐτῷ μελήσει· χεῖρα δ΄ οὐ διαφθερῶ. ἆ ἆ. will gladden thee.By the avengers that in Hades μὴ δῆτα͵ θυμέ͵ μὴ σύ γ΄ ἐργάσῃ τάδε· reign,It never shall be said that I have leftMy ἔασον αὐτούς͵ ὦ τάλαν͵ φεῖσαι τέκνων· children for my foes to trample on.It is decreed. ἐκεῖ μεθ΄ ἡμῶν ζῶντες εὐφρανοῦσί σε. μὰ τοὺς παρ΄ Ἅιδῃ νερτέρους ἀλάστορας͵ οὔτοι ποτ΄ ἔσται τοῦθ΄ ὅπως ἐχθροῖς ἐγὼ 1060 παῖδας παρήσω τοὺς ἐμοὺς καθυβρίσαι.
  • 27. Medea
  • 28. Electra Sophocles ἀλλ᾽ οὐ μὲν δὴ λήξω θρήνων• But I at least will neer refrain my στυγερῶν τε γόων, eyes from weeping, while I ἔστ᾽ ἂν παμφεγγεῖς ἄστρων105 live,Nor yet my voice from ῥιπάς, λεύσσω δὲ τόδ᾽ ἦμαρ, wail;Not while I see this day and yon bright twinkling stars;But like μὴ οὐ τεκνολέτειρ᾽ ὥς τις ἀηδὼν a nightingale of its young brood ἐπὶ κωκυτῷ τῶνδε πατρῴων bereaved,before the gates I πρὸ θυρῶν ἠχὼ πᾶσι προφωνεῖν. speak them forth to all.O house ὦ δῶμ᾽ Ἀΐδου καὶ Περσεφόνης,110 of Hades and Persephone,O Hermes of the abyss, and thou, ὦ χθόνι᾽ Ἑρμῆ καὶ πότνι᾽ Ἀρὰ dread Curse,And ye Erinyes, σεμναί τε θεῶν παῖδες Ἐρινύες, daughters of the gods,Ye dreaded αἳ τοὺς ἀδίκως θνῄσκοντας ὁρᾶθ᾽, ones, who lookOn all who perish, αἳ τοὺς εὐνὰς ὑποκλεπτομένους, slain unrighteously,On all whose bed is stealthily defiled,Come ye, ἔλθετ᾽, ἀρήξατε, τίσασθε πατρὸς115 and help avenge my fathers φόνον ἡμετέρου, death;Send me my brother here." καί μοι τὸν ἐμὸν πέμψατ᾽ ἀδελφόν· • 120
  • 29. Electra
  • 30. Ajax Sophocles• Woe to the mother, in her close of day,Woe • ὦ μᾶτερ αἰσχύνας ἐμᾶς-- to her desolate heart, and temples • ὥρμασε πανδάμους ἐπὶ βοῦς ἀγελαίας, gray,When she shall hearHer loved ones 175 story whispered in her ear!"Woe, woe!" will be the cry--No quiet murmur like the • ἦ πού τινος νίκας ἀκάρπωτον χάριν, tremulous wail of the lone bird, the • ἤ ῥα κλυτῶν ἐνάρων querulous nightingale--But shrieks that fly • ψευσθεῖσ᾽, ἀδώροις, εἴτ᾽ ἐλαφαβολίας; piercing, and wild, and loud, shall mourn the • ἢ χαλκοθώραξ μή τιν᾽ Ἐνυάλιος tale;And she will beat her breast, and rend her hair,Scattering the silver locks that Time • μομφὰν ἔχων ξυνοῦ δορὸς ἐννυχίοις hath left her there.Oh! when the pride of 180 Græcias noblest race wanders, as now, in • μαχαναῖς ἐτίσατο λώβαν; darkness and disgrace,When Reasons day • οὔ ποτε γὰρ φρενόθεν γ᾽ ἐπ᾽ ἀριστερά, Sets rayless--joyless--quenched in cold • παῖ Τελαμῶνος, ἔβας decay,Better to die, and sleepThe never- waking sleep, than linger on and dare to live, • τόσσον, ἐν ποίμναις πίτνων· 185 when the souls life is gone;But thou shalt • ἥκοι γὰρ ἂν θεία νόσος· ἀλλ᾽ ἀπερύκοι weep,Thou wretched father, for thy dearest • καὶ Ζεὺς κακὰν καὶ Φοῖβος Ἀργείων φάτιν. son,The best beloved, by inward Furies • εἰ δ᾽ ὑποβαλλόμενοι torn,The deepest, bitterest curse, thine ancient house hath borne! • κλέπτουσι μύθους οἱ μεγάλοι βασιλῆς • ἢ τᾶς ἀσώτου Σισυφιδᾶν γενεᾶς, 190 • μὴ μή, ἄναξ, ἔθ᾽ ὧδ᾽ ἐφάλοις κλισίαις • ὄμμ᾽ ἔχων κακὰν φάτιν ἄρῃ.
  • 31. Ajax
  • 32. Crossing through space and Yer ve zamanda yolculuktime, we are now at the yaptıktan sonra şimdiOttoman Empire and Turkish Osmanlı İmparatorluğu venation. Türk devletindeyiz.We can see lots of legends and Burada da insan ruhunapoems leaning on human soul dayanan birçok efsane ve şiirhere ,too. örnekleri görebiliriz.
  • 33. TURKISH FOLK LITERATURE TURK HALK EDEBİYATI ,is an oral tradition deeply Orta Asya’nın göçeberooted,in its form,in Central geleneklerini almış sözselAsian nomadic traditions. Here edebiyattır. Ejderhalar, devler,are dragons, giants, witches, cadılar, tuhaf yaratıklarlavillains, weird creatures-but also karşılaşacağımız gibi;masuminnocent children, lovable çocuklar, sevgi dolucharacters, romantic lovers, and karakterler,romantik aşıklar veguardian angels. The vision can koruyucu meleklerle dechange from perfect clarity to karşılaşırız.Görüntü tam birtrompe loeil . netlikten bir göz yanılmasına geçebilir.
  • 34. Frequently one gets the Hikayelerin durgun ve sabitimpression that these are stories bir toplumun ürünü olduğugenerated by a static society, but izlenimine varılsa da ,then one finds a dizzyingly birdenbire karşımıza göçebedynamic tale of quest that hayat ve onunreflects a nomadic culture and its belirsizliklerini yansıtandisquietude. The collection hikayeler de çıkar. Eserleroscillates between realism and realizm ve sürrealizmsurrealism. A goodly number arasında gidip gelir . Birçoğupossess political criticism, politik eleştiriler yaparkenwhereas a few are straight love bazıları da aşkla ilgilistories. Fatalism alternates with a hikayelerdir. Kadercilik vedefiant, almost revolutionary, meydan okuyan , yenilikçi birspirit. Many belong to the pure ruh birbirini izler. Bazıları"masal" (tale) genre told for sadece keyif için anlatılanpleasure while some are "mesel" ‘masal’lardır, bazılarıysa(parables with a moral). ahlaksal ya da dinsel ders veren ‘mesel’lerdir.
  • 35. The first oral literature in early Eski Türk dönemlerinde ilk sözlüTurkish periods is produced during edebiyat dini ritüeller süresincethe religious rituals. Religious ortaya çıkmıştır. Dindar insanlarpeople play saz, called ‘kopuz and ‘kopuz’denilen sazlar çalarlar vethey tell poems. But most of the şiirler okurlar.Fakat şiirler,poems, proverbs, epics etc. are atasözleri, destanlar gibi eserlercarried into written forms yüzlerce yıl sonra yazılı dilehundreds of years later.So,we can geçirilmiştir. Bu yüzden, bizleronly reach the ones in the written sadece yazılı olanlarınaforms. ulaşabilmekteyiz.
  • 36. During this period, poems, music and Bu dönem boyunca, şiirler, müzikreligion are closely related to each ve din birbiriyle iç içedir. Şiirlerinother. The main topics of the poems ana konusu; doğa,ölüm,aşk,diniare nature, death, love, religious inançlar, kahramanlık vs. Obeliefs, heroism etc. The poems have dönemlerde ki şiirler farklı isimlerledifferent names: adlandırılır:Sagu: It is a kind of funeral song. These Sagu :Bir çeşit cenazepoems are told after the death of a şarkısıdır(yuğ). Bu şiirler bir kişininperson. ln these poems, people explain ölümünün ardından söylenir.how brave the dead person was, and Şiirlerde , ölen kişinin ne kadarhow sad they are after his death. So, cesur olduğundan ve insanlarınsagu is a poem that is about death and onun ölümünün ardındansadness. duydukları acı anlatılır.Bu yüzden, sagu, ölüm ve keder ile ilgilidir.Koşuk: lt is a kind of poem that is toldduring the feast before and after Koşuk :Avlanmadan önce ve sonrahunting. ln these poems, the main düzenlenen ziyafetler boyuncathemes are heroism, nature, war and söylenen şiirlerdir.Bu şiirlerde analove. konular kahramanlık,doğa,savaş ve aşktır.
  • 37. Sav: These are the proverbs of that Sav: O zamanın özdeyişleridir.term.Epic: Epics are literary works which Destan : Destanlar ülkelerin önemlicontain important events and cultural olaylarını ve kültürel öğelerini içerenelements for nations. An epic is a edebi eserlerdir.Destan uzun epic birlengthy narrative poem and ordinarily şiirdir ve genellikle kahramanlıkla ilgiliconcern a serious subject containly şeyler ile önemli kültürel ve doğasaldetails of heroic deeds and significant olayları ele alır. Eski Türkler savaşçı vecultural and national events. Old Turks göçebe insanlardır, birçok savaşta yerare warriors and nomads, they are almışlardır,avlanma ve hayvancılıklainvolved in various wars, they are busy uğraşırlar.Destanlarda onların bu zor,with hunting and animal breeding. maceracı yaşamları anlatılır.Their difficult adventurous lives arereflected in the epics.
  • 38. The Orkhon inscriptions are Orhun Yazıtları , eski Türkknown as the oldest examples of alfabesinin en eski örnekleriOld Turkic alphabet.They are two olarak bilinir. 7 ve 8. yüzyıldanmemorial installations erected by kalan ve Göktürkler tarafındanthe Gökturks ,dating from the late Tonyukuk , Kültigin ve Bilge7th arid early 8th centuries. Kağan için yazılmış anıtsalThe Orhun monumental yapıtlardır.Orhun Yazıtları,inscriptions ,written for konusu ve kusursuz uslubuylaTonyukuk, Kültigin and for Bilge Türk Edebiyatının şaheseriKhagan ,are masterpieces of sayılır. Günümüzdeki TanrıTurkish literature with their ibadetinin en önemli delillerisubject matter and perfect style. Orhun Yazıtlarında bulunur.The most important contemporarytestimony of ‘Tengri’ worship isfound in the Orkhon inscriptions.
  • 39. TURKISH MYTHOLOGY is the TÜRK MİTOLOJİSİ tarihi Türkbody of myths and teachings that halklarının inanmış olduklarıbelong to the Turkic people. mitolojik bütüne verilenTurkic mythology embraces isimdir.Türk mitolojisiTengriist and Shamanist Tengricilik ve Şamanistliktraditions as well as all cultural öğelerini taşımasının yanısıra,and social subjects being a göçebe bir hayatnomad folk. Especially after sürüldüğünden kültürel veTurkic migration, some of the sosyal temalarla doludur.myths are decorated with Islamic Özellikle Türk göçünden sonra,symbols. It has many common bazı efsaneler İslamiyetpoints with Aegean and sembolleriyle süslenmiştir. EgeAnatolian mythologies (Green ve Anadolu mitolojileriyleand Hittite) as well as Mongol (özellikle Yunan ve Hitit) ortakmythology. Turkic mythology is noktalar gösterir,Tatarinfluenced by other local mitolojisi gibi diğermythologies, such as Tatar. mitolojilerin etkisi de görülür.
  • 40. Some of the Gods and Goddesses Türk Mitolojisindeki bazı Tanrıin Turkish Mythology ve TanrıçalarTengri is one of the names for the Tengri eski Türk ler için ilkprimary chief deity in the religion of sıradaki ,en önemli ilahtır.the early Turkic people.Umay is the goddess of fertility and Umay bereket ve dogurganlıkvirginity. tanrıçasıdır.Kayra is the Spirit of God and creator Kayra Tanrı’nın ruhu ve of god. yaratıcısıdır.Bai-Ulgan is the son of Kayra and the Bai Ulgan Kayra’nın oğlu vegod of goodness. iyilik tanrısıdır.Erlik is the god of death and Erlik ölüm ve yer altı tanrısıdır.underworld.Ay Dede is the moon god Ay Dede ay tanrısıdır.Gün Ana is the sun god Gün Ana güneş tanrıçasıdır.
  • 41. The WOLF (Böri) symbolizes Türk edebiyatında ‘KURT’;honour and is also considered onuru, şerefi simgeler ve Kurtthe mother of most Turkish çoğu Türk’ün anası olarakpeople. düşünülür.In BOZKURT LEGEND, BOZKURT DESTANInda ‘Asena’‘Aseana’ (Ashina Tuwu) is Göktürklerin ilk hükümdarıknown as the wolf mother of olan Bumen’in annesi olarakBumen, the first Khan of the bilinir.Göktürks. ERGENEKON DESTANI’ndaIn ERGENEKON LEGEND, Göktürkler nesli tükenmekwhen Göktürks are about to üzereyken, kurttan tekrardie out, they are reborn from çoğalırlar ve Türk soylarıthe wolf, and they maintain böylece devam eder.Turk descendants.
  • 42. The HORSE is also one of the ‘AT’ da Türk mitolojisindekimain figures of Turkic ana figürlerden biridir.mythology. In early times, Geçmişte, Türkler ‘at’ıTurks consider the horse as an kendilerinin bir uzantısı olarakextension of the individual- görürler-genellikle erkekleregenerally dedicated to the özgüdür- ve onunla ‘tam’male- and they think one is olduklarını düşünürler. ‘At’ıncomplete with it.The horse is rüzgardan yaratıldığınabelieved to be created from the inanılır. Böylece rüzgarın gücüwind. So ‘horse’ has got the ve hızı ata geçmiştir. Atlarstrength and speed of the wind. efsane ve masallarda önemliHorses take important parts in yer tutar. Örneğin Aşkarlegends and tales. For example (Battal Gazi’nin atı), KıratAşkar (Battal Ghazi’s horse), (Köroğlu’nun atı), AkkulaKırat (Köroğlu’s horse), Akkula (Manas Han’ın atı) vs.(Manas Han’s horse) and so on.
  • 43. The DRAGON (Evren, Ebren), EJDERHA , genellikle yılan yawhich is a typically snake –like da dev kertenkele biçimindeor lizard-like legendery creature, efsanevi bir yaratıktır veis the symbol of might and power Türk mitolojsinde güç vein Turkish mythology. It is kuvvetin simgesidir.Dağlarlabelieved, especially in kaplı Orta Asya’da ejdarhalarınmountainous Central Asia, that hala varolduğuna inanılır. Eskidragons still live in the Türk geleneğinde ejdarhalarmountains! Dragons also ayrıca ‘Tanrı’yı sembolizesymbolize the god Tengri (Tanrı) ederler, bununla birlikte Tanrıin ancient Turkic tradition, olarak tapılmazlar. Fakatalthough dragons themselves are zamanla , ejderhalar üstesindennot worshiped as gods.However gelinmesi gereken bir düşmanlater in time , dragons become ya da tehlikenin sembolü halinethe symbol of the danger and gelmişlerdir.enemy thas has to be overcome.
  • 44. KÖROĞLU is a poet who KÖROĞLU, Anadolu’dalives in Anatolia. The name yaşamış bir şairdir.TürkKöroğlu literally means "Son tarihinde bilinen ikiof a Blind Man". Although Köroğlu figürü olmasınathere are two different well- rağmen, Türklerin zihnindeknown Köroğlu figures in tek bir karakter olarakTurkish history, they are şekillenmiştir.combined in one unique Köroğlu insafsızcharacter in Turkish yöneticilere karşı savaşanpeoples mind. Köroğlu is bir kahraman olarak bilinir.known as a hero who isagainst the unfair rulers.
  • 45. In the EPIC of KÖROĞLU , it is KÖROĞLU DESTANI’nda,told that, Köroğlus father is the Köroğlu’nun babasının Boluhostler of the Lord of Bolu. When Beyi’nin seyisi olduğu söylenir.Boluthe lord does not appreciate the Beyi, Köroğlu’nun babasının aldığıhorse that is bought by Köroğlus atı beğenmez ve babasının gözlerinifather, he makes the father blind. kör eder.Köroğlu büyüyünce o atıWhen Köroğlu grows up, he trains eğitir ve babasının öcünü almayathe horse and promises to take yemin eder. Dağlarda yaşamayarevenge of his father. He starts to başlar, ünü yayılır, adaletsizlive in mountains, his fame spreads zenginlerden alıp fakirlere veren birand he becomes a hero who takes kahraman olur. (Destan bu yöndefrom unfair rich people in order to Robin Hood maceraları ilegive the poor. (The epic combines benzerlik gösterir.)Silah ve tüfekthe occasional romance with Robin icat edildiğinde, Köroğlu’nunHood-like chivalry.) It is said that, ‘cesaret cömertlik yok oldu’when gun and rifle are invented, diyerek bu dünyadan kaybolduğuKöroğlu vanish off the face of the söylenir.earth by saying courage andchivalry have been lost.
  • 46. In Köroğlus poems; courage, Köroğlu’nun şiirlerinde; cesaret,friendship, love, nature, and dostluk, aşk,doğa ve intikamrevenge are told in a lyrical konuları lirik ve basit bir dilleand simple language. Here is anlatılır. Köroğlu’nun Bolua well-known Köroğlu poem Beyi’ne yazdığı bir şiir :in which he addresses to Lordof Bolu: Benden selam olsun Bolu From me, to Lord of Bolu, Beyinehere is greetings, It is needed to snuggle Çıkıp şu dağlara yaslanmalıdırthose mountains. Thanks to creak of arrow, Ok gıcırtısından kalkanvoice of shield, sesinden Should give out sound, the Dağlar seda veripmountains. seslenmelidir.
  • 47. The EPIC of TIMUR (Temir) TİMUR DESTANI en eski ve enise one of the most ancient bilinen Türk destanlarındanand well known legends. The biridir. Destanda, Moğollegend is about the Mongol hükümdarı Timur’un yaptığıruler Timur, his battles and savaşlar ve diğer milletlerlerelations with other nations. In ilişkileri anlatılır. Efsanedethe legend, Timur finds a Timur, gökyüzünden düşenstrange stone that falls from tuhaf bir taş bulur (demirthe sky maden bir göktaşı) ve ondan ilk ( an iron ore meteorite) and demir kılıcı yapar. Bugün ‘demir’makes the first Iron sword kelimesi İngilizce’de ‘iron’from it. Today, the word demektir.‘demir’ means ‘iron’.
  • 48. The EPIC OF MANAS is the MANAS DESTANI dünyannınlongest epic in the world. The en uzun destanıdır. Destandalegend tells the story of Kyrgyz daha küçük yaştan kahramanManas, who is believed to be a olacağı bilinen Kırgız Manasınhero when he is a child. I is said hikâyesi anlatılmaktadır.that Manas is cheated and killed Manasın dostları tarafındanby his companions. The animals ihanete uğratılıp öldürüldüğücry for him at his grave and söylenir. Mezarı başındaGoktanrı (the Tengri of Sun ) ağlayan hayvanlar Manasa ağıtrevives him , and then Manas yakarlar ve Göktanrı acıyarakfollows his friends to take Manası diriltir. Manas darevenge. kendisine ihanet eden dostlarının peşine düşer.
  • 49. The EPIC of OGHUZ KHAN is OĞUZ KAĞAN DESTANI, Ortaa central polical mythology for Asya Türkleri için başlıca politikTurkic people of CentralAsia.The destanlardan biridir. Destan,epic is about Oghuz Khan, who Türklerin atası olduğuna inanılanis believed the father of the Oğuz Han ve onunTurks, and his bravery. Oghuz kahramanlıklarıyla ilgilidir. OğuzKhan is a legendary and semi- Han, efsanevi ve yarı mitolojik birmythological Khan of the Turks. Türk kağanıdır. Bazı TürkSome Turkic cultures use this kültürlerine göre bu destanlegend to describe their ethnic Türkmenler, Osmanlılar, ve diğerorigins and the origin of the Oğuz Türkleri tarafındansystem of poltical clans used by kullanılan siyasi klan sistemi veTurkmen, Ottoman and other etnik kaynakları tanımlar. Destan,Oghuz Turks. The various Oğuz boyları, Türk Dili Edebiyatı,versions of the narrative folkloru, tarihi ve kültürüpreserved in many different hakkında bilgi verir. Elmanuscripts has been published yazmalarında muhafaza edilenin numerous languages. The epic öykünün bir çok değişik versiyonugives information about Oghuz sayısız dile çevrilmiştir.Turks, Turkish language,literature, folklore, history, and
  • 50. According to the legend, Oghuz, Efsaneye göre; Orta Asya’da doğanborn in Central Asia, is the leader Oğuz Han Türklerin lideridir. Doğarof the Turks. He starts talking as doğmaz konuşmaya başlar. Annesoon as he is born.He stops sütünü bir kez içer ve ilk içişindendrinking his mother’s milk after sonra kımız ve çiğ et ister. Gücüthe first time and asks for simgeleyen boynuzlu bir tacı vardır.‘kımız’(an alcholic beverage Olağanüstü hızlı bir şekilde büyürmode with horse milk) and raw ve sadece 40 günde genç bir yetişkinmeat. He has got ‘a horned olur. Oğuz, Kıyant denilen güçlü vecrawn’ symbolizing power. He büyük bir yaratık olan gergedanıgrows supernaturally fast and öldürdükten sonra ulusal bironly in 40 days, he becomes a kahraman olur. Pek çok boyayoung adult. After Oghuz kills adlarını o verir.( Uygur, Kanglı,the strong, dragon, named Kıpçak, Kalaç, Karluk). Kağan olur,Kıyant, he becomes a national olağanüstü güzel iki kadınla evlenir,hero. He becomes the khan, he altı oğlu olur. Oğullarına Gün, Ay,marries two supernaturally Yıldız, Gök, Dağ, Deniz isimlerinibeatifull girls, he has six sons. verir.Their names are Sun, Moon, Star,Sky, Mountain and Sea!
  • 51. After his sons are born, Oghuz Oğuz Han oğulları doğduktanKhan gives a great feast and he sonra büyük bir ziyafet verir, tümgives this order to his lords: Türk boylarını davet eder ve şu buyruğu verir:I have become your Khan Ben sizin Kağanınız oldumLet’s all take swords and shields Hepimiz kılıç ve kalkanlarımızıKut (divine power) will be ousign alalımGrey wolf will be our uran Kurt bizim sembolümüz(wacry) Gri kurt bizim uranımızOur iron lances will be a forest Demir mızraklar orman olacakKhulan will walk on the hunting Daha fazla deniz, daha fazla nehirground Güneş bizim bayrağımız, gökMore seas and more rivers bizim çadırımız.Sun is our flag and sky is ourtent.
  • 52. The BOOK of DEDE DEDE KORKUT HİKAYELERİ,KORKUT , ist the most famous Oğuz Türkleri’nin en ünlüepic stories of the Oghuz destansı hikayeleridir.Turks. The stories carry morals Hikayeler, göçebe Türkler veand values significant to the onların İslamiyet öncesisocial lifestyle of the nomadic inanışları için önemli olanTurks and their pre-Islamic manevi ve ahlaki değerler taşır.beliefs. The book consists of a Kitap 12 hikayeden oluşur,series of epics (12 epics), orally bunlar kitap olarak basılmadantold and transferred over the önce sözlü olarak anlatılmış vegenerations before published nesilden nesile aktarılmıştır.as a book. In the stories of Hikayelerde; mitoloji ve destan,Dede Korkut ; mythology and efsane ve hikaye, hikaye veepic, legend and story, tale and masal iç içedir.story are mixed altogether.
  • 53. DEDE KORKUT is the first DEDE KORKUT hikayelerin ilkteller of the stories. He is wise anlatıcısı olarak bilinir. Çokand prescient. People ask for akıllıdır ve kehanet gücühis advice and ideas about vardır. İnsanlar önemliimportant issues. Language is konularla ilgili ondan tavsiyequite simple in the book. In isterler. Kitaptaki dil oldukçathe epics, it is mentioned yalındır. Hikayelerde,about daily lives of the people, insanların günlük yaşamları,their religious believes, the dini inanışları, savaşlar,battles, fighting with yaratıklarla mücadeleleri,creatures, heroism etc. kahramanlık gibi konulardan bahsedilir.
  • 54. TEPEGOZ is a legendary creature in TEPEGÖZ, Türk mitolojisindeTurkic mythology who has only one alnında tek bir gözü olan efsanevi bireye on his forehead.He is an ogre that yaratıktır.Dede Korkutappears in the Book of Dede Korkut, a hikayelerinde, Oğuz Türklerinin ünlüfamous epic story of the Oghuz bir destanında görülen bir ‘dev’dir.BuTurks.In this epic,Tepegoz starts to destanda, Tepegöz büyüdüğündekill everybody when he grows , so the herkesi öldürmeye başlar, bu yüzdenkhans of Oghuz people decide to de Oğuz Kağan halkı onu sonsuzabanish him forever.But nobody is able dek yok etmeye karar verir.Fakatto kill him.The sword cannot cut kimse onu öldüremez.Kılıç onuhim,the arrow cannot kill him.His kesmez, ok ona işlemez.Derisi çokskin is very hard.Half of the all Oghuz serttir.Oğuz kahramanlarının yarısıhereos die trying to kill Tepegoz.Just tepegözü öldürmeye çalışırkenone man is able to kill him-a hero ölürler.Sadece Basat adında bircalled Basat.He kills terrible Tepegoz kahraman onu öldürebilir.Basatby striking his eye.Then he cuts off ,Tepegözü ancak gözünden vurarakhis head with a magical sword and öldürebilir.Sihirli bir kılıçla kafasınıthus he saves not only himself but keser, böylece sadece kendini değilalso his nation from the terror of tüm ulusu Tepegözün gazabındanTepegoz. kurtarır.
  • 55. The warriors of the Oghuz and Oğuz savaşçıları ve Tepegözebattles against Tepegoz karşı yapılan mücadelelerdercribed are likely grounded in Peçenkler ve Kıpçaklarthe conflicts between the arasındaki çekişmeyePechenegs and Kipchaks.The dayanır.,Homer’in Odysseystory elements bear destanındaki Kiklop ile yapılanresemblance to the encounter çatışmayla benzerlik gösterir.with the Cyclops in Homer’s Hikayenin Yunan destanındanOdeyssey.It is believed to have etkiler taşıdığına ve ortak birbeen influenced by the Greek köke sahip olduklarına inanılır.epic or to have one commonancestral root.
  • 56. SEYYİD BATTAL GHAZI, is a SEYYİD BATTAL GAZİ,mythical leader, an important Anadolu’ da görülen mitik birfigure and warrior in Anatolia. lider, önemli bir figür veHe is believed to have lived in savaşçıdır. Battal Gazi’nin 8.the 8th century. ‘Battal’ means yüzyılda yaşadığı tahmin‘hero’ in Arabic. The legend of edilmektedir. ‘Battal’ Arapça’ daBattal Ghazi is based on the ‘ kahramanlık’ demektir. Battalexploits of Umayyad military Gazi Destanı, Emevi liderileader Abdallah al-Battal. In Abdullah al- Batal ‘ınthe legend, Battal Ghazi is an serüvenlerine dayanmaktadır.intellectual, religious and Destanda Battal Gazi, bilgin,generous hero. He both dinine bağlı ve cömert birstruggles to expand Islam and kahramandır. Hemfights against extraordinary Müslümanlığı yaymak içinpower such as giants, witches savaşır, hem de dev, büyücü gibietc. olağanüstü güçlere karşı mücadele eder.
  • 57. MINSTREL (AŞIK) is a kind of AŞIK, Türk Halk Edebiyatındapoet seen in the Turkish Folk 11. yüzyılın başından bu yanaLiterature since the beginning görülen bir çeşit halk ozanıdır.of 11th century. It is believed ’Aşık’ ın şair niteliğini,that minstrel takes his quality rüyasında bir bilge tarafındanof poet by drinking the ‘love verilen ‘aşk şarabı’ içerek vewine’ served by the sage in his sevgilisinin suretini görerekdream and by seeing the aldığına inanılır. Aşıklar, uzakimage of his lover. Minstrels diyarlar, var olan ya da hayalperform songs whose Iyrics ürünü tarihi olaylar ile ilgilitell stories of distant places or hikayeler anlatan şarkılarof existing or imaginary söylerler. Aşıklar genellikle aşk,historical events. They usually doğa, kahramanlıkla ilgilising songs about love, nature, eserler üretirler ve ellerindeheroism and play a saz ( a sazları ile diyar diyar dolaşarakfolkloric musical instrument), sanatlarını icra ederler.by walking around fromvillage to village, town to
  • 58. Much of the poetry and song Şiir ve Aşık edebiyatı geleneğiof the aşık/ozan tradition anonim olarak günümüzeremains anonymous. There gelmiştir. Bununla birlikte yazılıare, however, a few well- eserleriyle elimize ulaşan ünlüknown aşıks from that time aşıklarımız dawhose names survive together vardır.Köroğlu,Karacaoğlan,with their written works: Dadaloğlu vb.Köroğlu, Karacaoğlan,Dadaloğlu etc. 19. yüzyılda Aşık edebiyatı azalmaya başlamasına rağmen,Despite the decline of the Aşık Veysel,Aşık Mahsuni veaşık/ozan tradition in the 19th diğer birçok ozanlarımızcentury ,it experiences a sayesinde 20. yüzyılda da busignificant revival in the 20th geleneğin devamı görülebilir.century thanks to suchoutstanding figures as AşıkVeysel, Aşık Mahsuni andmany others.
  • 59. The Turkish Folk Literature Türk Halk Edebiyatınınwhich has survived till our günümüze kadar gelen eserleriday, reflect the influence of İslamiyetin etkilerini yansıtır.Islam. They also reflects the Ayrıca, İslamiyetin kabulnew life style and form of the edilmesinden sonra Ortatraditional literature of Asya’nın yeni yaşam tarzını veCentral Asia after the geleneksel edebiyatadaption of Islam. It is örneklerinin özelliklerini destrongly influenced by the gösterir. Sufi ve ŞiiIslamic Sufi and Shia geleneğinden büyük ölçüdetraditions. etkilenmiştir
  • 60. Conclusion Studying both civilizations , we realized that as many the differences as much the similarities , between two neighbours !!Heroes and beautiful ladies , supernatural creatures , both good and evil , minstrels travelling all over countries singing their stories !!!It was an exciting and joyful journey through time and borders!!!
  • 61. A happy end !!!