Understanding the Volunteer in VGI<br />Christopher J. Parker<br />Spatial SocialCultural Knowledge Workshop <br />15 June...
Overview<br />The language of Volunteered Geographic Information<br />Why human factors?<br />Current work<br />Future wor...
Overview<br />3<br />
Overview<br />4<br />
1	The Language of VGI<br />5<br />
6<br />1	The Language of VGI<br />Volunteered Geographic Information <br />The creation of geographic information by large...
1	The Language of VGI<br /><ul><li>Volunteered Geographic Information </li></ul>The creation of geographic information by ...
1	The Language of VGI<br />8<br />www.Rottenneighbor.com<br />www.housingmaps.com<br />
1	The Language of VGI<br />"Digital Earth is an integral part of other advanced technologies including: earth observation,...
1	The Language of VGI<br />10<br />(Elwood 2008; Crampton 2008; Wozniak 2009; Zook, Graham 2007; Tulloch 2008; Aberley, Si...
1	The Language of VGI<br />Neogeography<br />PGIProfessional Geographic Information<br />VGIVolunteered Geographic Informa...
1	The Language of VGI<br />12<br />
1	The Language of VGI<br />13<br />PGI<br />VGI<br />VGLI<br />
2	Why Research Human Factors?<br />14<br />
2	Why Research Human Factors<br />To date little research in this area<br />Focusing on human issues may allow for higher ...
2	Why Research Human Factors<br />Usability <br />A set of attributes that bear on the effort needed for use, and on the i...
3	Current Research<br />17<br />
3	Current Research<br />The nature of VGI users<br />Who is producing VGI?<br />What are the relationships between users?<...
3	Current Research<br />19<br />
20<br />3	Current Research<br />15 respondents <br />OpenStreetMap<br />Google Maps<br />GI Professionals<br />Semi struct...
21<br />3	Current Research<br />
22<br />3	Current Research<br />Consumers select their map product to best fit their circumstances with little loyalty to ...
23<br />3	Current Research<br />Special Interest Mapping Groups (SIMGs), contributors (SIMGCs) and professionals are parti...
24<br />3	Current Research<br />SIMGCs produce data for group members and external parties to use their data:<br />It’s ma...
25<br />3	Current Research<br />SIMGCs are less concerned about inaccuracies as they have a vested interest in improving t...
26<br />3	Current Research<br />SIMGs and professionals can be in constant tension with each other as their agendas and id...
27<br />3	Current Research<br />Between professional bodies, business rivalry may exist but they work alongside each other...
3	Current Research<br />The main stakeholder groups are identified<br />Consumers, <br />Special Interest Mapping Groups<b...
4	Future Research<br />29<br />
4	Future Research<br />30<br />
4	Future Research<br />What is the ‘value’ of volunteered data to the user in terms of benefit over and above professional...
4	Future Research<br />
4	Future Research<br />33<br />
4	Future Research<br />34<br />
4	Future Research<br />35<br /><ul><li>Professional Information
Volunteered Geo-Located Information
Under  different tasks, information has different levels of importance
Focus on where the VGLI may have a profound impact on the task at hand to demonstrate potential value of VGLI.</li></li></...
4	Future Research<br />37<br />
4	Future Research<br />38<br />Part 1 – Data Collection<br />Part 2 – VGI Vs PGI in User Value<br />Volunteered Informatio...
5	Summary<br />39<br />
5	Summary<br />Research Aim<br />How volunteered information can be used with professional information to produce products...
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Understanding the Volunteer in VGI

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Presenting a new, clear approach to defining neogeography and its various elements, understanding the stakeholders in VGI and researching how volunteered information may benefit users over and above traditional cartography.

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  • Next slide – who I am and what I DO
  • Research potential impact of volunteered data that professional data can not provideIdeas in Transit + Loughborough UniversityResearch how VGI and traditional Cartography can be combined together to produce new forms of map based productsNot in the computer science sense of ‘can we do it’ but in the human factors sense of creating products of higher worth and ‘enjoyment’ to consumers than either VGI or professional information alone.In the last year I have been out researching this with various groups and attending conferences such as State of the Map 2009 and 1st Geograph conference.
  • How volunteered information can be used with professional information to produce products and services of higher user value than either VGI or PGI aloneThese are the gaps in known literature I will address
  • Quick recap of what VGI isthe problems with naming phenomenon in the literatureMy address of the situation
  • General overview of Neogeography and VGI
  • Some of the 14 names used to describe the Neogeography Phenomenon
  • NEOGEOGRAPHY IS THE ENTIRE THINGVGI is similar to PGI (OSM being open source Ordnance Survey)Within potential scope of traditional cartographyVGLI is something different from both – can only come from communityOutside of traditional cartographyVGLI – birdwatchers
  • Overlap between PGI (Ordnance Survey), VGI (OpenStreetMap) and VGLI (Rotten Neighbours)
  • Lots of work in:Santa Barbara (USA)UCL (UK)Bonn (Germany)Etc.
  • Clear up two terms which are different but complimentary
  • Aims of the research – starting out almost blank in October 2008At the start of this study, the position of human factors within VGI, and associated elements of User-centred Design may be considered unknown.Distinct lack of human factors research into VGI (Harding, Sharples et al. 2009)
  • We have seen these Research Questions beforeFocus on VGI in the strictest state, OpenStreetMapNext slide go over methods used in addressing these two issues
  • Rich Picture – Monk &amp; Howard
  • LAST SLIDE ON THE FINDINGS – summary next
  • Tackle the other research questions
  • Research Aims#1 most important in shaping studyDirects us towards focusing on VGLI rather than VGI
  • Where to start – finding a communityPoints – what will make a good communityComing up – rich picture then Andy’s drawing
  • Click for the shapes to appear
  • difficulty of courses, parking spots, landing points and local amenities. Information on course may depend on water levels which may change rapidly over a 24 hour period.Their results should be transferable to other groups who use ‘dynamic data’NEXT SLIDE – REMINDER OF CONDITIONS REQUIRED
  • Highlight how Kayakers fit the requirements
  • Diagram to show
  • 4 main points
  • Today’s slides are already online on the blogDiscussion points- What do you think of VGLI
  • Understanding the Volunteer in VGI

    1. 1. Understanding the Volunteer in VGI<br />Christopher J. Parker<br />Spatial SocialCultural Knowledge Workshop <br />15 June 2010<br />
    2. 2. Overview<br />The language of Volunteered Geographic Information<br />Why human factors?<br />Current work<br />Future work<br />Summary<br />Discussion<br />2<br />
    3. 3. Overview<br />3<br />
    4. 4. Overview<br />4<br />
    5. 5. 1 The Language of VGI<br />5<br />
    6. 6. 6<br />1 The Language of VGI<br />Volunteered Geographic Information <br />The creation of geographic information by largely untrained volunteers (Goodchild 2007)<br />Day 0<br />Day 10<br />OSM – State of the Map 2009<br />6<br />
    7. 7. 1 The Language of VGI<br /><ul><li>Volunteered Geographic Information </li></ul>The creation of geographic information by largely untrained volunteers<br />Neogeography<br />Neogeography is the process of take geotagged information (data) and layering it over a map. <br />Information?<br />Geographic Information<br />Geolocated Information<br />7<br />Neogeography<br />Consumer<br />Volunteer<br />
    8. 8. 1 The Language of VGI<br />8<br />www.Rottenneighbor.com<br />www.housingmaps.com<br />
    9. 9. 1 The Language of VGI<br />"Digital Earth is an integral part of other advanced technologies including: earth observation, geo-information systems, global positioning systems, communication networks, sensor webs, electromagnetic identifiers, virtual reality, grid computation, etc. It is seen as a global strategic contributor to scientific and technological developments, and will be a catalyst in finding solutions to international scientific and societal issues”<br />http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Earth<br />9<br />
    10. 10. 1 The Language of VGI<br />10<br />(Elwood 2008; Crampton 2008; Wozniak 2009; Zook, Graham 2007; Tulloch 2008; Aberley, Sieber 2010)<br />
    11. 11. 1 The Language of VGI<br />Neogeography<br />PGIProfessional Geographic Information<br />VGIVolunteered Geographic Information<br />VGLIVolunteered Geo-Located Information<br />11<br />
    12. 12. 1 The Language of VGI<br />12<br />
    13. 13. 1 The Language of VGI<br />13<br />PGI<br />VGI<br />VGLI<br />
    14. 14. 2 Why Research Human Factors?<br />14<br />
    15. 15. 2 Why Research Human Factors<br />To date little research in this area<br />Focusing on human issues may allow for higher ‘value’<br />Net benefits over net sacrifices (Zeithaml 1988)<br />Need to address the issues of usability of VGI products<br />Useful, usable, satisfying to use<br />15<br />
    16. 16. 2 Why Research Human Factors<br />Usability <br />A set of attributes that bear on the effort needed for use, and on the individual assessment of such use, by a stated or implied set of users (ISO 9126)<br />Human Factors<br />A philosophy based on the needs and interests of the user, with an emphasis on making products usable and understandable (Norman 2002)<br />16<br />
    17. 17. 3 Current Research<br />17<br />
    18. 18. 3 Current Research<br />The nature of VGI users<br />Who is producing VGI?<br />What are the relationships between users?<br />What data flow exists between users?<br />The value of VGI to users<br />What perceptual benefits may be received from the use of VGI?<br />What concerns or tensions are felt by users of VGI which may affect the user experience of VGI systems?<br />How do different types of users perceive the information they are producing/ utilising?<br />How do the theories of consumer value associate with user perceptions of VGI?<br />18<br />
    19. 19. 3 Current Research<br />19<br />
    20. 20. 20<br />3 Current Research<br />15 respondents <br />OpenStreetMap<br />Google Maps<br />GI Professionals<br />Semi structured interviews<br />Focused on Personal Value<br />‘snowball’ non-probability sampling<br />In depth analysis with NVivo 8<br />Thematic analysis; 208 salient themes<br />Compared stakeholder groups against one another<br />Creation of a Rich Picture from results<br />20<br />
    21. 21. 21<br />3 Current Research<br />
    22. 22. 22<br />3 Current Research<br />Consumers select their map product to best fit their circumstances with little loyalty to the brand: <br />Apart from using it like everybody does in terms of looking for places and directions, I’ve used Google My Maps, at the moment mainly for my own use... I’ve used it in a work context because I was trying to organise a meeting.<br />
    23. 23. 23<br />3 Current Research<br />Special Interest Mapping Groups (SIMGs), contributors (SIMGCs) and professionals are particularly vested in the use of their groups’ map:<br />I’ll often check out to see if the local CTC has a website [same map project involved in] to see what’s on there. And being able to find where the tea places are in the locality is quite useful.<br />
    24. 24. 24<br />3 Current Research<br />SIMGCs produce data for group members and external parties to use their data:<br />It’s mainly just a project to collect data... we hope other people will use it for whatever they feel free to use it for.<br />
    25. 25. 25<br />3 Current Research<br />SIMGCs are less concerned about inaccuracies as they have a vested interest in improving the data - seeing gaps as opportunities:<br />It has its faults but there are no glaring errors... It’s very much if you don’t like it you can fix it yourself which appeals to my, well, sense of working I suppose.<br />
    26. 26. 26<br />3 Current Research<br />SIMGs and professionals can be in constant tension with each other as their agendas and ideologies do not necessarily fit with each other. <br />It kind of annoys me that Google are potentially using the same kind of idea. [OpenStreetMap SIMGC]<br />
    27. 27. 27<br />3 Current Research<br />Between professional bodies, business rivalry may exist but they work alongside each other. <br />I will be chatting to my opposite number at Microsoft, and my opposite number at Google... we shouldn't even be friendly for Christ's sake according to the old fashioned rules of how you do business, and those old fashioned rules don't really apply any more.<br />
    28. 28. 3 Current Research<br />The main stakeholder groups are identified<br />Consumers, <br />Special Interest Mapping Groups<br />Local Communities <br />Professionals<br />The Rich Picture effectively provided context to the research outcomes and represented stakeholder relationships in an easily accessible fashion. <br />Different stakeholders will perceive elements of VGI very differently, based on which stakeholder group they may be identified with.<br />If considering value as the improvement to a stakeholder’s condition through utilising VGI, a salient increase in stakeholder value can be observed in all functional and work related perceptions<br />The implication of this work should be to provide a framework of VGI stakeholders to be utilised within future user-centred VGI research <br />28<br />28<br />
    29. 29. 4 Future Research<br />29<br />
    30. 30. 4 Future Research<br />30<br />
    31. 31. 4 Future Research<br />What is the ‘value’ of volunteered data to the user in terms of benefit over and above professional data?<br />What is the perceived benefit to the user of combining VGLI with PGI in a map based product?<br />How does volunteered information impact upon the activities of user communities?<br />What factors influence the users ‘trust’ in the volunteered or professional information presented through the map mashup?<br />31<br />
    32. 32. 4 Future Research<br />
    33. 33. 4 Future Research<br />33<br />
    34. 34. 4 Future Research<br />34<br />
    35. 35. 4 Future Research<br />35<br /><ul><li>Professional Information
    36. 36. Volunteered Geo-Located Information
    37. 37. Under different tasks, information has different levels of importance
    38. 38. Focus on where the VGLI may have a profound impact on the task at hand to demonstrate potential value of VGLI.</li></li></ul><li>4 Future Research<br />36<br />Need information about water courses which may change dramatically<br />Cover diverse information types from simple canals to dangerous white water<br />Accessible, sociable and wide spread<br />All year round<br />Not tied to a single spot<br />Many different forms of information needed for one trip<br />
    39. 39. 4 Future Research<br />37<br />
    40. 40. 4 Future Research<br />38<br />Part 1 – Data Collection<br />Part 2 – VGI Vs PGI in User Value<br />Volunteered InformationLocal Kayaking group donate information about a selected course (test course) they are familiar with.<br />Using VGLI enhanced productA non-local group is invited to the test course and provided with standard ‘traditional’ information sourced enhanced by VGI about the course.<br />Information<br />Using Standard PGI productA non-local group is invited to the test course and provided with standard ‘traditional’ information sourced enhanced by VGI about the course.<br />Professional Information<br />The ‘professional’ information used by the Kayaking club for the test course is collected to be presented to later participants<br />Information<br />
    41. 41. 5 Summary<br />39<br />
    42. 42. 5 Summary<br />Research Aim<br />How volunteered information can be used with professional information to produce products and services of higher user value than either VGI or PGI alone<br />Presented a simple language<br />PGI<br />VGI<br />VGLI<br />Demonstrated how different user types perceive VGI different<br />Proposal of research to demonstrate how volunteered information can provide value to the user over and above professional information<br />40<br />
    43. 43. www.UserGeneratedDesign.co.uk<br />41<br />Thank You<br />
    44. 44. References<br />ABERLEY, D. and SIEBER, R., February 2nd, 2010-last update, About PPGIS [Homepage of PPGIS.net], [Online]. Available: http://www.ppgis.net/ppgis.htm [March 16th, 2010].<br />CRAMPTON, J.W., 2008. Cartography: maps 2.0. Progress in human geography, 33(1), 91-100.<br />ELWOOD, S., 2008. Geographic Information Science: new geovisualisation technologies emerging questions and linkages with GIScience research. Progress in human geography, 33(2), 256-263.<br />GOODCHILD, M.F., 2007. Citizens as Sensors: The world of Volunteered Geography. GeoJournal, 69(4), 211-221<br />GOULD, J.D. and LEWIS, C., 1985. Designing for usability: key principles and what designers think. Communications of the ACM, 28(3), 300-311.<br />HARDING, J., SHARPLES, S., HAKLAY, M., BURNETT, G., DADASHI, Y., FORREST, D., MAGUIRE, M., PARKER, C.J. and RATCLIFF, L., 2009. Usable geographic information – what does it mean to users? Proceedings of the AGI GeoCommunity ’09 Conference, 23rd-24th September 2009, AGI GeoCommunity.<br />ISO, 1998. ISO 9241-11:1998. Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDT)s - Part 11 Guidance on usability. ISO edn. ISO.<br />NORMAN, D.A. 2002, The Design of Everyday Things, 2002 edn, Basic Books, United States of America.<br />SHIRKY, C., 3rd June, 2009-last update, How cellphones, Twitter, Facebook can make history [Homepage of TED Talks], [Online]. Available: http://www.ted.com/talks/clay_shirky_how_cellphones_twitter_facebook_can_make_history.html [June 3rd, 2009].<br />TULLOCH, D.L., 2008. Is VGI participation? From vernal pools to video games. GeoJournal, 72, 161-171.<br />WOZNIAK, S., August 21st, 2009-last update, Homebrew and how Apple came to be [Homepage of Atariarchives.org], [Online]. Available: http://www.atariarchives.org/deli/homebrew_and_how_the_apple.php [August 21st, 2009].<br />ZEITHAML, V.A., 1988. Consumer perceptions of price, quality, and value: a means-end model and synthesis of evidence. The Journal of Marketing, 52(3), 2-22.<br />ZOOK, M.A. and GRAHAM, M., 2007. Mapping DigiPlace: Geocoded Internet data and the representation of place. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 34(3), 466-482.<br />42<br />
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