Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab


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Characterization of solid waste by Muhammad Ikram A Wahab

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Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Characterization
  2. 2. Instant Quiz <ul><li>Which is the range of composition for food waste in Cities of SEA region? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 20-30% B 40-50% C 70-80% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which is the typical value of moisture content of collected MSW in US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A 10% B 25% C 40% </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Contents <ul><li>Properties of SW </li></ul><ul><li>Composition of SW and Options for Recovery or Reuse </li></ul><ul><li>Physical, chemical and biological properties </li></ul>
  4. 4. Properties of SW <ul><li>To design and operation of the functional elements associated with the SWM, it requires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources + types of SW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data on the composition and rates of generation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sources of solid waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to land use and zoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be categorized as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Sources Of SW
  6. 6. Sources Of SW
  7. 7. Sources Of SW
  8. 8. Schematic Diagram of the Definition of SW
  9. 9. Special Wastes in MSW <ul><li>Include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulky items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer electronics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>White goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yard wastes that are collected separately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Batteries, oil and tire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usually handled separately from other residential and commercial waste </li></ul>
  10. 10. Special Wastes in MSW <ul><li>Bulky wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large worn out or broken household, commercial and industrial items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture, lamps, bookcases, filling cabinets, and other similar items </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer electronics includes worn out, broken, and other no longer wanted items such as radios , stereos, and television sets. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>White goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large worn out or broken household, commercial, and industrial appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Such as stoves, refrigerators, dishwashers, and clothes washers and dryers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collected separately </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually dismantled for the recovery of specific materials (e.g., copper, aluminium, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Special Wastes in MSW <ul><li>Brown goods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All kind of consumer electronics such as radios, stereo appliances, tv-sets, toys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hazardous wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes or combinations of wastes that pose due to their quantity and composition a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or living organisms </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Special Wastes in MSW <ul><li>Institutional waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include government centers, schools, prisons, and hospitals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health care waste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid and liquid wastes produced during the diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, prevention of disease or alleviation of handicap in humans and animals together with the research related to those activities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WHO  Handbook on Health Care Waste Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In most hospitals medical wastes are handled and processed separately </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Municipal services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and maintenance of municipal facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Street sweepings, road side litter, landscape and tree trimmings, catch basin debris, dead animals, and abandoned vehicles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Special Wastes in MSW <ul><li>Treatment plant wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid and semisolid wastes from water,ww and industrial wastes treatment facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WW treatment plant sludge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly co-disposed with MSW in municipal landfills or incinerated at MSWI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials remaining from the combustion of wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Categorized as ashes and residues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Composed of fine, powdery materials, cinders, clinkers, and small amounts of burned and partially unburned materials </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glass, crockery, and various metals are also found </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Residues from flue gas cleaning (air pollution control residue) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Other Wastes <ul><li>Industrial solid waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources and types of SW generated at industrial sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depend on various processes and products related wastes and hazardous wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construction and demolition waste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes from the construction, remodeling, and repairing of individual residences, commercial buildings and other structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable composition but may include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt, stones, concrete, bricks, plaster, lumber, shingles and plumbing, heating and electrical parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to construction waste but may include broken glass and reinforcing steel </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Other Wastes <ul><li>Agricultural wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From diverse agricultural activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Planting and harvesting of row, field, tree and vine crops; thr production of milk; the production of animals for slaughter; and the operation of feedlots </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Typical composition of MSW
  17. 17. Typical composition of MSW
  18. 18. Compostion MSW in Kuala Lumpur
  19. 19. General Stream of SWM Activities
  20. 20. <ul><li>Main stream of MSW in Bangkok </li></ul>
  21. 21. Attempts in MSW Separation and Collection in Bangkok
  22. 22. Properties of MSW <ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific weight, moisture content, particle size and size distribution, field capacity, compacted waste porosity (permeability) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in evaluating alternative processes and recovery options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proximate analysis, fusing point of ash, ultimate analysis (major elements), energy content </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important in considering organic fraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corresponding to biodegradability and production of odor </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Physical Properties <ul><li>Specific weight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weight of material per unit volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kg/m 3 , lb/yd 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometime referred as density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often reported as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loose, compacted, uncompacted, as found in containers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depend on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic location, season of the year, length of time in storage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Specific weight of MSW
  25. 25. Specific weight of MSW
  26. 26. Moisture Content of MSW
  27. 27. Physical Properties <ul><li>Field capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total amount of moisture that can be retained in a waste sample subject to downward pull of gravity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determining the formation of landfill leachate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water in excess will be released as leachate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depend on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Applied pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State of decomposition of waste </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Permeability of compacted wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or hydraulic conductivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important in governing the movement of gases and liquid in landfill site </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Used for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining alternative processing + recovery options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g: combustion, composting, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To use MSW as fuel, it is to consider </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proximate analysis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fusing (melting) point of ash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ultimate analysis (major elements) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy content </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Proximate analysis = analysis for combustible components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile combustible matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ash </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Chemical Properties
  31. 31. Chemical Properties
  32. 32. Chemical Properties
  33. 33. Chemical Properties
  34. 34. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Fusing Point of Ash </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp that cause ash (from burning wastes)  from a solid (clinker) by fusion and agglomeration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical range = 1,100-1,200 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May cause operational problems in incineration </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Ultimate analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine chemical composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C, H, O, N, S and ash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Halogen group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cl, Br, …. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Data is used for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine C.N ratio for composting or biological conversion processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of chlorinated compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dioxin, Furan, etc </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Chemical Properties – Ultimate analysis
  37. 37. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Energy content </li></ul><ul><li>Trace elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Co, Ni, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important for the production of biological conversion product as the essential nutrient </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Chemical Properties – Energy contents
  39. 39. Biological Properties <ul><li>Organic fractions of MSW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water soluble constituents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugars, starches, amino acid, organic acids, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemicellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats, oil, waxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lignin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lignincellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>However, the important biological properties are to determine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodegradability of organic fractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of odors, breeding of flies </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Biological Properties <ul><li>Biodegradability of organic fractions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determined by volatile solid (VS) content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ignition at 550 °C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But, may misinterpret for some components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Newsprint  high VS but low biodegradability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food wastes  low VS but high biodegradability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Production of odors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resultant of anaerobic decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SO 4 -2  reduced to sulfide (S 2- ) + combine with H  H 2 S </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant in a long storage and warm climate </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Applications of MSW Properties & Composition <ul><li>To determine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate transformation processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separation, reduction, combustion, composting, etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving efficiencies transformation processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. moisture content + C/N  composting reactions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>To design recovery methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse + recycling materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversion products + energy </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. MSW in Kuala Lumpur
  43. 43. Transformation processes for MSW
  44. 44. Transformation processes for MSW
  45. 45. Transformation processes for MSW