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Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab
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Solid Waste Management: characterization by Muhammad Ikram B A Wahab

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Characterization of solid waste by Muhammad Ikram A Wahab

Characterization of solid waste by Muhammad Ikram A Wahab

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  • 1. Chapter 2 Characterization
  • 2. Instant Quiz
    • Which is the range of composition for food waste in Cities of SEA region?
      • A 20-30% B 40-50% C 70-80%
    • Which is the typical value of moisture content of collected MSW in US
      • A 10% B 25% C 40%
  • 3. Contents
    • Properties of SW
    • Composition of SW and Options for Recovery or Reuse
    • Physical, chemical and biological properties
  • 4. Properties of SW
    • To design and operation of the functional elements associated with the SWM, it requires
      • Sources + types of SW
      • Data on the composition and rates of generation
    • Sources of solid waste
      • Related to land use and zoning
      • Can be categorized as
        • Residential
        • Institutional
        • Municipal services
        • Commercial
        • Industrial
        • Agricultural
  • 5. Sources Of SW
  • 6. Sources Of SW
  • 7. Sources Of SW
  • 8. Schematic Diagram of the Definition of SW
  • 9. Special Wastes in MSW
    • Include
      • Bulky items
      • Consumer electronics
      • White goods
      • Yard wastes that are collected separately
      • Batteries, oil and tire
    • Usually handled separately from other residential and commercial waste
  • 10. Special Wastes in MSW
    • Bulky wastes
      • Large worn out or broken household, commercial and industrial items
        • Furniture, lamps, bookcases, filling cabinets, and other similar items
        • Consumer electronics includes worn out, broken, and other no longer wanted items such as radios , stereos, and television sets.
    • White goods
      • Large worn out or broken household, commercial, and industrial appliances
        • Such as stoves, refrigerators, dishwashers, and clothes washers and dryers
      • Collected separately
        • Usually dismantled for the recovery of specific materials (e.g., copper, aluminium, etc.)
  • 11. Special Wastes in MSW
    • Brown goods
      • All kind of consumer electronics such as radios, stereo appliances, tv-sets, toys
    • Hazardous wastes
      • Wastes or combinations of wastes that pose due to their quantity and composition a substantial present or potential hazard to human health or living organisms
  • 12. Special Wastes in MSW
    • Institutional waste
      • Include government centers, schools, prisons, and hospitals
        • Health care waste
          • Solid and liquid wastes produced during the diagnosis, monitoring, treatment, prevention of disease or alleviation of handicap in humans and animals together with the research related to those activities
        • WHO  Handbook on Health Care Waste Management
          • In most hospitals medical wastes are handled and processed separately
    • Municipal services
      • Operation and maintenance of municipal facilities
        • Street sweepings, road side litter, landscape and tree trimmings, catch basin debris, dead animals, and abandoned vehicles
  • 13. Special Wastes in MSW
    • Treatment plant wastes
      • Solid and semisolid wastes from water,ww and industrial wastes treatment facilities
      • WW treatment plant sludge
        • Commonly co-disposed with MSW in municipal landfills or incinerated at MSWI
      • Materials remaining from the combustion of wastes
        • Categorized as ashes and residues
          • Composed of fine, powdery materials, cinders, clinkers, and small amounts of burned and partially unburned materials
          • Glass, crockery, and various metals are also found
          • Residues from flue gas cleaning (air pollution control residue)
  • 14. Other Wastes
    • Industrial solid waste
      • Sources and types of SW generated at industrial sites
      • Depend on various processes and products related wastes and hazardous wastes
    • Construction and demolition waste
      • Wastes from the construction, remodeling, and repairing of individual residences, commercial buildings and other structures
      • Variable composition but may include
        • Dirt, stones, concrete, bricks, plaster, lumber, shingles and plumbing, heating and electrical parts
        • Similar to construction waste but may include broken glass and reinforcing steel
  • 15. Other Wastes
    • Agricultural wastes
      • From diverse agricultural activities
        • Planting and harvesting of row, field, tree and vine crops; thr production of milk; the production of animals for slaughter; and the operation of feedlots
  • 16. Typical composition of MSW
  • 17. Typical composition of MSW
  • 18. Compostion MSW in Kuala Lumpur
  • 19. General Stream of SWM Activities
  • 20.
    • Main stream of MSW in Bangkok
  • 21. Attempts in MSW Separation and Collection in Bangkok
  • 22. Properties of MSW
    • Physical
      • Specific weight, moisture content, particle size and size distribution, field capacity, compacted waste porosity (permeability)
    • Chemical
      • Important in evaluating alternative processes and recovery options
          • Proximate analysis, fusing point of ash, ultimate analysis (major elements), energy content
    • Biological
      • Important in considering organic fraction
      • Corresponding to biodegradability and production of odor
  • 23. Physical Properties
    • Specific weight
      • Weight of material per unit volume
        • Kg/m 3 , lb/yd 3
      • Sometime referred as density
      • Often reported as
        • Loose, compacted, uncompacted, as found in containers
      • Depend on
        • Geographic location, season of the year, length of time in storage
  • 24. Specific weight of MSW
  • 25. Specific weight of MSW
  • 26. Moisture Content of MSW
  • 27. Physical Properties
    • Field capacity
      • Total amount of moisture that can be retained in a waste sample subject to downward pull of gravity
        • Determining the formation of landfill leachate
        • Water in excess will be released as leachate
      • Depend on
        • Applied pressure
        • State of decomposition of waste
    • Permeability of compacted wastes
      • Or hydraulic conductivity
        • Important in governing the movement of gases and liquid in landfill site
  • 28. Chemical Properties
    • Used for
      • Determining alternative processing + recovery options
      • E.g: combustion, composting, etc.
      • To use MSW as fuel, it is to consider
        • Proximate analysis
        • Fusing (melting) point of ash
        • Ultimate analysis (major elements)
        • Energy content
  • 29. Chemical Properties
    • Proximate analysis = analysis for combustible components
      • Moisture content
      • Volatile combustible matter
      • Fixed carbon
      • Ash
  • 30. Chemical Properties
  • 31. Chemical Properties
  • 32. Chemical Properties
  • 33. Chemical Properties
  • 34. Chemical Properties
    • Fusing Point of Ash
      • Temp that cause ash (from burning wastes)  from a solid (clinker) by fusion and agglomeration
      • Typical range = 1,100-1,200 °C
      • May cause operational problems in incineration
  • 35. Chemical Properties
    • Ultimate analysis
      • To determine chemical composition
        • C, H, O, N, S and ash
        • Halogen group
          • Cl, Br, ….
    • Data is used for
      • Determine C.N ratio for composting or biological conversion processes
      • Awareness of chlorinated compounds
        • Dioxin, Furan, etc
  • 36. Chemical Properties – Ultimate analysis
  • 37. Chemical Properties
    • Energy content
    • Trace elements
      • K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, Co, Ni, etc
      • Important for the production of biological conversion product as the essential nutrient
  • 38. Chemical Properties – Energy contents
  • 39. Biological Properties
    • Organic fractions of MSW
      • Water soluble constituents
        • Sugars, starches, amino acid, organic acids, etc
      • Hemicellulose
      • Cellulose
      • Fats, oil, waxes
      • Lignin
      • Lignincellulose
      • Protein
    • However, the important biological properties are to determine
      • Biodegradability of organic fractions
      • Production of odors, breeding of flies
  • 40. Biological Properties
    • Biodegradability of organic fractions
      • Determined by volatile solid (VS) content
        • Ignition at 550 °C
      • But, may misinterpret for some components
        • Newsprint  high VS but low biodegradability
        • Food wastes  low VS but high biodegradability
    • Production of odors
      • Resultant of anaerobic decomposition
        • SO 4 -2  reduced to sulfide (S 2- ) + combine with H  H 2 S
      • Significant in a long storage and warm climate
  • 41. Applications of MSW Properties & Composition
    • To determine
      • Appropriate transformation processes
        • Separation, reduction, combustion, composting, etc
      • Improving efficiencies transformation processes
        • E.g. moisture content + C/N  composting reactions
    • To design recovery methods
      • Reuse + recycling materials
      • Conversion products + energy
  • 42. MSW in Kuala Lumpur
  • 43. Transformation processes for MSW
  • 44. Transformation processes for MSW
  • 45. Transformation processes for MSW

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