Internet 2 By kenneth Ayebazibwe256774185458 / 256702555890
Multimedia on the Web• Todays Web presents a diversified multimedia experience. In fact, the Web has become a broadcast medium, offering live TV and radio, pre-recorded video, photos, images, and animations. Expect to encounter multimedia just about anywhere on the Web. This tutorial presents a brief overview.• Plugins, media players, and multimedia types
• plugins and media players are software programs that allow you to experience multimedia on the Web. These terms are sometimes used interchangeably. File formats requiring this software are known as MIME types. MIME stands for Multimedia Internet Mail Extension, and was originally developed to help e-mail software handle a variety of binary (non-textual) file attachments such as photos. The use of MIME has expanded to the Web. For example, the basic MIME type handled by Web browsers is text/html associated with the file extention .html. MIME types area also used to process multimedia on the Web. A few examples:
– Jpeg photo: image/jpeg – MPEG video: video/mpeg – Quicktime movie: video/quicktime – MP3 audio: audio/x-mpeg-3 – Flash presentation: application/x-shockwave-flash• Nowadays, many personal computers come pre-loaded with plugins and media players. This is an acknowledgement of the importance of the Web multimedia experience. If your computer doesnt have a particular piece of software, it can be easily obtained from the website of the company that created it. Downloading is easy and instructions are usually provided.
• plugins are software programs that work with your Web browser to display multimedia. When your browser encounters a multimedia file, it hands off the data to the plugin to play or display the file. Working in conjunction with plugins, browsers can offer a seamless multimedia experience. The plugins needed to experience Web multimedia are available for free.• A common plugin used on the Web is the Adobe Reader. This software allows you to view documents created in Adobes Portable Document Format (PDF). These documents are the MIME type "application/pdf" and are associated with the file extension .pdf. A PDF is a type of image file. When the Adobe Reader has been downloaded to your computer, the software will open and display the file when you click on its link on a Web page.
• media players are software programs that can play audio and video files, both on and off the Web. The concept of streaming media is important to understanding how media can be delivered on the Web. With streaming technology, audio or video files are played as they are downloading, or streaming, into your computer. Sometimes a small wait, called buffering, is necessary before the file begins to play. Extensive pre-recorded files such as interviews, lectures, televised video clips, podcasts, and music work very well with these players. They can also be used for real-time radio and TV, including Web-only TV. Popular media players include the Windows Media Player, RealPlayer, QuickTime Player, and Flash Player.
• Audio• Audio files, including music, are an important part of the Web experience. Listening to music on the Web is a popular pastime. Audio files of many types are supported by the Web with the appropriate players. The MP3 file format probably the most popular option for audio files.• MP3 files are also the source of podcasts. These are audio files distributed through RSS feeds, though the term is sometimes also used to describe video programming (or vodcast). You can subscribe to a podcasts RSS feed, and listen to the podcast series, with a special type of player called a podcatcher. A podcatcher can be either available on the Web or downloaded to your computer like any other plugin. iTunes can serve as a podcatcher. Keep in mind that you can often listen to a podcast on the originating site. For an example, visit NYTimes.com Podcasts.
• Video• Streaming video is the backbone of live and pre- recorded broadcasting on the Web. YouTube is one of the most popular sites on the Web for pre-recorded video. Real-time professional or personal broadcasts are also very popular.• The Web is a medium for exchanging information among professionals. A live professional broadcast from a conference, company, or institution is sometimes referred to as a webcast. A variation on this is a webinar, a seminar broadcast on the Web.
• o watch video discussions by experts in their fields, take a look at:• Academic Earth, a collection of free video lectures by top scholars• BigThink, where experts discuss current events• Bloggingheads.tv, where academics, journalists, and others have two-way conversations, or diavlogs, on substantive topics• Hulu, a site offering TV broadcasts and movies• iTunes U, which offers free lectures from a handful of universities• WebMedia: Special Events at Princeton University, offering archived speeches and conferences
• live cams and live tv are a part of the real-time video experience available on the Web. Live cams are video cameras that send their data in real time to a Web server. These cams may appear in all kinds of locations, both serious and whimsical: an office, on top of a building, a scenic locale, a special event, a fish tank, and so on. Live cams are stationary and only broadcast what is in their line of sight. Moving video takes live broadcasting to the next level: TV on the Web. Some people wear portable cameras and allow the public to observe their lives - an intense form of reality TV. Justin.tv was a pioneer in this type of live broadcasting. Other people broadcast their involvement in specific topics, such as cooking or technology. Check out Blip.tv and Ustream for examples.• Live TV broadcasts abound on the Web. As with radio stations mentioned above, use a search engine to locate a stations website and follow the links to the live broadcast. There are also plenty of pre-recorded network TV shows available on the Web. Check out Hulu for an example of a site that hosts this type of content.
• Photos• Photos may seem like old hat, but the Web has found interesting ways of presenting them. Most major search engines have an option for searching for photos. This is usually combined with a search for non-photographic images along with photos, and is therefore called an image search. Google Image Search is a good example. There are also search engines dedicated to image searching, for example Picsearch.• The social Web has come up with innovative ideas for photo sharing. Check out Flickr and Pinterest for examples of different ways in which you can use the social Web to display and share your photos - and also to view, share and comment on the photos of others.
The Web and You: A Guide to Participation• In 2006, Time magazine named You as the Person of the Year with the comment: "Yes, you. You control the Information Age. Welcome to your world."• This tutorial will explain how you - yes, you - can participate in and therefore control your experience of the Web. The Web allows anyone with an Internet connection to join in. (Unfortunately, some of this capability is blocked in certain countries.) With the proper tools, you can create content either alone or collaboratively, share your content, and comment on the content of others. There are various terms used to describe this phenomenon, including web 2.0, the social web, the read-write web. The topic is huge. This tutorial is intended as a brief introduction to the lay of the land.
• Its interesting to watch as the content of the social Web is entering the mainstream of the Web experience. For example, blog posts can be found in search engine results. The search engine Bing indexes Twitter content in order to provide up-to-the-minute results, and Facebook status updates are in the works. This brings up the importance of the social Web to the real-time web. It is becoming increasingly important to the development of the Web to present real-time, or near real-time, content.• A large factor in interacting with the Web is having access to the Web at any time and any place. The Web and its functionalities are becoming increasingly mobile. While laptop computers have been around for years, the focus now is on cell phones, tablet computers and other portable devices connected to the Web. The iPhone is just one example of a device that allows people to take the Web with them wherever they go to access websites, social networks, search engines, and location-based information. Mobile devices can keep us connected to the networked world with ever-expanding capabilities.
Social networking sites• social networking sites are online communities in which members interact. In fact, everything covered in this tutorial involves social networking of some sort. A site that specializes in social networking is focused on making connections among its users. The activities may be limited to one activity or interest, such as sharing videos, to multiple activities such as creating a personal profile, posting your current activity or state of mind, making "friends", engaging in discussions, joining groups, sending messages, sharing photos, and so on. Social networking can involve individuals or institutions, and can be used for recreational, informational, academic, and professional purposes.• Examples: Facebook, Google +, LinkedIn, MySpace, FriendFeed, LibraryThing, Digg• It is becoming easier to share content from around the Web. Lets say you have read an article that you want to share on your Facebook account. websites, especially blog and news sites, sometimes offer an easy way to post this content to the social networking site of which you are a member. Here is an example of the many sharing options featured on a technology blog. If you have an account on any of these services, you can share the posting there with just a few clicks.
RSS Basics• RSS is a feed format that is used to distribute frequently-published content. The feed format is a standardized subset up the mark-up language known as XML. The resulting feeds can be pushed to RSS readers and Web pages.• The initials RSS can stand for different things, including Rich Site Summary or Really Simple Syndication. RSS content is often referred to as syndicated content because of its wide distribution. Users can subscribe to the RSS feeds of their choice, and then have access to the updated information as it comes in.• The presence of an RSS feed is often signaled by an orange icon of some type. Two examples are shown here.• RSS is an important part of the participatory web. Wherever content is frequently added, you will probably find an RSS feed. This is because many sites on the social Web automatically create RSS feeds and add to the feed as you add content. Blogs create RSS feeds, and so does Twitter. Tags assigned to photos on the photo sharing site Flickr can be followed with an RSS feed. If you want to keep up with the latest contributions by people on the social Web, reading RSS feeds is a useful way to do it.
Reading RSS feeds• To experience RSS, you first need to subscribe to the feed using an rss reader, or aggregator. This is software that displays new items posted to your feed subscriptions and stores the old updates. It is similar to e-mail software, except that the incoming items are derived from RSS feeds.• There are all kinds of RSS readers. Popular Web browsers offer integrated RSS readers. You can also download a reader to your computer or mobile device. Or, you can use an RSS reader on the Web, for example the Google Reader. The advantage here is that you can access your RSS feeds from any computer that is connected to the Web.• Subscribing to an RSS feed is as simple as adding its address to your readers subscription list. Below is an example from the Google Reader.
SEARCH TOOLS General Search Engines• Alexa Web Search - analyzes site traffic including ranking, global users, pages linking to the site, and links to related pages of interest• Ask.com - general search engine enhanced by a number of specialty searches including images, news and video; search results show related searches and popular questions and answers• Bing - Microsoft engine that displays excerpts from sites retrieved by your search and offers related search suggestions; multimedia and other deep Web results are also displayed. Also check out Bing Maps.• Blekko - retrieves results from trustworthy sites and offers filtered searching with the use of slash tags, e.g., global warming /climate; can sort results by relevance or date; allows searchers to integrate their Facebook "likes" into search results• ChaCha - offers live human guides to help answer queries; accepts queries from mobile devices• DuckDuckGo - offers results from content-rich sites, displays "zero-click" answers at the top of the search result page, and features numerous search options and site settings; offers unusual search privacy
• Exalead - offers thumbnail images of retrieved sites, and organization of results by type of site, file type, language and country• Factbites - searches for full topic matches and returns meaningful, full sentence excerpts from sites in its results list; offers related searches• Yahoo! - portal with a general Web search and many other content services; the search feature uses the Bing index and offers the Axis app for visual results Zanran - searches for data and statistics found in graphs, tables and charts; hover your mouse over the item icon for a preview
• Google - Webs most popular search engine. Also check out EcoSmartSearch.com, a Google-powered search engine with a black background display that saves energy.• Google offers a number of Services that are worth exploring, including: Google Blog Search, for searching blog entries Google Book Search, for searching the full text of books from most publishers in the U.S. Google Scholar, offers the full text, abstracts, and/or citations to scholarly materials including books, journal articles, documents in academic repositories and the free Web. This link will allow you to access the full text of articles in journals to which the Libraries subscribe when you are off campus. Google U.S. Government Search, a searchable database of U.S. government Web sites (.gov and .mil) ranked by link popularity
Subject Directories & Encyclopedias• Academic Info - gateway to college and research level Internet resources maintained by former librarian Mike Madin and a volunteer group of subject specialists• BUBL Link - UK funded project of selective resources from the Centre for Digital Library Research of Strathclyde University in Glasgow, Scotland (ceased updating in April 2011)• INFOMINE - large collection of scholarly Internet resources collectively maintained by several libraries, including those from the University of California• ipl2 - large, selective collection maintained by students and professionals in library and information science; the collection is the result of a merger of the Internet Public Library (IPL) and the Librarians Internet Index (LII).• Research Guides - extensive collection of subject pages from the University of Delaware Library• The WWW Virtual Library - guides to many disciplines sponsored by the W3 Consortium
Encyclopedias• Mashpedia - real-time, social encyclopedia that combines Wikipedia articles with the latest news, videos, images, Twitter messages and relevant links• Wikipedia - wiki-based major encyclopedia, available in many languages, that anyone can edit