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The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
The skeletal system
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The skeletal system

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  • 1. THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • 2.  The word skeleton comes from the Greek word meaning “dried-up body”. Strong, yet light, it is perfectly adapted for its functions of body protection and motion.  The skeletal system includes joints, cartilages, and ligaments (fibrous cord that bind the bones together at joints). The skeleton is subdivided into two divisions:  Axial skeleton – the bones that from longitudinal axis of the body.  Appendicular skeleton – the bones of the limbs and girdles.
  • 3. BONES  are rigid organ that constitute part of the endoskeleton of vertebrates. They support and protect the various organs of the body, produce red and white blood cells and store minerals. Functions of the Bones  SUPPORT – Bones, the “steel girders” and “reinforced concrete” of the body, from the internal frame work that supports and anchors all soft organs. The bones of the leg act as pillars to support the body trunk when we stand, and the rib cage supports the thoracic wall.
  • 4.  PROTECTION – Bones protect soft body organs.  MOVEMENT – Skeletal muscles, attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts.  STORAGE – Fat is stored in the internal cavities of bones. Bones itself serve as a storehouse for minerals, the most important being calcium and phosphorus, although others are also stored.  BLOOD CELL FORMATION – Blood cell formation, or hematopoiesis, occurs within the marrow cavities of certain bones.
  • 5. CLASSIFICATION OF BONES There are two basic types of osseous, or bone, tissue:  COMPACT BONE – is dense and look smooth and homogeneous.  SPONGY BONE – is composed of small needle like pieces of bone and lots of open space.
  • 6. Bones are classified according to shape into four groups: long, short, flat, and irregular.  LONG BONES – are typically longer than they are wide. As a rule they have a shaft with heads at both ends. Long bones are mostly compact bone.  SHORT BONES – are generally cube-shaped and contain mostly spongy bone. Sesamoid bones, which form within tendons, are special type of short bone. Ex. Patella or kneecap.
  • 7.  FLAT BONES– are thin, flattened, and usually curved. They have two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them.  IRREGULAR BONES – Bones that do not fit one of the preceding categories. The vertebrae, which make up the spinal column, and the hip bones fall into this group.
  • 8. STRUCTURE OF A LONG BONE GROSS ANATOMY  The diaphysis ,make up most of the bone’s length and is composed of compact bone. It is covered and protected by a fibrous connective tissue membrane, the periosteum.  The epiphyses are the ends of the long bone. Each epiphyses consist of a thin layer of compact bone enclosing an area filled with spongy bone.  Articular cartilage, it covers its external surface. Because the articular cartilage is grassy hyaline cartilage, it provides smooth, slippery surface that decreases friction at joint surfaces.  Epiphyseal line – is a remnant of the epiphyseal plate ( a flat plate of hyaline cartilage) seen in a young, growing bone.
  • 9.  Yellow marrow or medullary, cavity – the shaft is a primarily a storage area for dispose (fat) tissue in adults. However, in infants this area forms blood cells, and red marrow is found there.
  • 10. Bone markings – surface of bones are not smooth but scarred with bumps, holes, and ridges. It reveal where muscles, tendons, and ligaments were attached and where blood vessels and nerves passed. TWO CATEGORIES OF BONE MARKINGS  a.) projections or processes – which grow out from the bone surface.  b.) depressions or cavities – which are indentations in the bone.
  • 11.  Microscopic anatomy Compact bone tissue ----->  The mature bones cells, osteocytes are found in tiny cavities within the matrix called lacunae. The lacunae are arranged in concentric circles called lamellae around central (Harversian) canals.  Each complex consisting of central canal and matrix ring is called an osteon, or Haversian system.
  • 12.  Canaliculi (tiny canal) – rediate outward from the central canals to all lacunae. The canaliculi from a transportation system that cannecta all the bone cells to the nutrient supply through the hard bone matrix.  Perforating (volkmann’s) canals – the communication pathway from the outside of the bone to its interior (and the central canals), which run into the com- pact bone at right angles to the shaft.
  • 13.  Bones is one of the hardest material in the body, and although relatively light in weight, it has a remarkable ability to resist tension and other forces acting on it. The calcium salts deposited in the matrix give bone its hardness, whereas the organic parts provide for bone’s flexibility and great tensile strength.

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