Who here had a bowl of cereal for breakfast, used canola oil to fry some eggs, or had some sugar in their coffee this morning? If so, the odds are that you have already consumed some form of genetically modified food today.
Breed cows with increased levels of bovine somatotropin (BST) which is a growth hormone which helps with producing more milk. Modern way of creating transgenic animals does not work 100% of the time. Cloning is more popular due increased reliability and the long gestation period of most farm animals. This, however, is also met with much opposition.
Genetic mutation does occur naturally over time in species. People have been genetically modifying organisms through breeding for hundreds of years. GMO’s, today, almost universally refer to scientifically speeding up this process for desired traits within a species; or crossing a species genome and combining two desired traits from separate species which is more accurately labeled as transgenic.
Most European countries in general are far healthier than the U.S. In addition the environmentalist movement is much stronger in these countries – strong enough to get certain laws passed. In accepting countries, GMO’s are still regulated and tested thoroughly. Just like any other food source they are assessed for safety including; toxicological, nutritional and allergenic potential before approved for marketing. African drought story about Monsanto and Cargill from interview.
Marketers of these products say that putting a label like that on the shelf would be a deterrent and negatively effect sales
Many years of both animal and clinical research, however, are still required to determine anything substantial. Biggest thing is that they are so new no one really knows any long term effects.
To date there has been no reported allergic reactions to EPSP-Synthase which is what makes these plants resistant to Roundup. Animals are incapable of digesting this enzyme which means there is no harm in eating foods containing it. To date there have been zero cases of allergic reactions to this modification.
Due to the altered genetics of these crops, they can be sprayed with only one herbicide (Which in the case of the U.S. mostly means Roundup), which kills all other invasive species of plants and insects without harming the crop.
When harmful insects, diseases, and weeds are taken out of the picture crops are put in a position to flourish. Not only do they do better in the field, but modified crops also tend to store better
Overview Common genetically engineered crops/animals The origin of genetic engineering Top three main areas of controversy surrounding issue Concluding statements
The top threegeneticallyengineered cropsbeing produced onU.S. soil- Soybeans atestimated 87-90%- Cotton at estimated81-93%- Corn at estimated 81-86%(USDA, 2011) Genetically Modified Plants
- Salmon DNAaltered so fishgrow tomaturity in halfthe time- TransgenicLivestock Genetically Modified Animals
- James Watson andFrancis Crick- Ultimately whatmade possible the-“Direct, intentionalalteration of thegenetic materials oforganisms bymoving genes fromone organism toanother” The Discovery of DNA-(Wohlers, 2010, p. 17)
Areas of Deliberation Regulative Policies Health Effect on Human Body Environmental/Economic Consequences
Regulative PoliciesHigh Uncertainty Low Uncertainty Southern Europe North America South America Scandinavia
RegulativePoliciesContinued…- Not requiredto identifyvariousgeneticallymodifiedorganisms infood labels
Health Effects- Animal toxicitystudies withvarious GMO’shave shownpossiblenegative effectson certainorgans
Health Effects Continued… Does anyone in class have food allergies? Transgenic foods believed to have high food allergy potential Salmon and corn transgenic example
Geneticallymodified crops canlead to certainenvironmentalbenefits- Usually lead to areduced use ofpesticides- Usually absorbfertilizer in moreproductive manner Environmental Effects
Geneticallymodified crops mayalso lead tobeneficial economiceffects- Increased cropyield and quality- Subsequentlyincreased profit Economic Effects
Conclusion GMO’s present both positive and negative aspects to society as a whole They are a topic of much deliberation and tension; very prevalent in some parts of the world and banned in others Ultimately, GMO’s are still a relatively premature technology and in the developmental process. Only time will reveal their ultimate effect on humans.