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Unit 54   assignment 1
 

Unit 54 assignment 1

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    Unit 54   assignment 1 Unit 54 assignment 1 Document Transcript

    • Unit 54 – Assignment 1Vector Graphics:Vector graphics are built up of geometrical primitives such as, points, lines, curves and shapes(polygons). All of these different primitives are linked together in order to represent an image incomputer graphics. Vector graphics are based on images made up of vectors that lead throughvarious different locations called control points. Each point, as well, is a variety of database,including the location of the point in the workspace and the direction of the vector. Each track canbe assigned a colour, shape and a thickness, also a fill. This does not affect the size of the files in abig way because all information resides in the structure; it describes how to draw the vector.This is what makes vector images different from others as they aren’t built up of pixels like rasterimages, the fact that they are built up of this special formula allows it to be enlarged without the lossof quality or the event of pixilation, it can be stretched and stretched and it will always appear to bethe same.Some common file formats for vector graphics can be chosen using Adobe Illustrator (.Al), Illustratoris the main software for creating vectors. Adobe Illustrator is a charting programme; this means thatit deals different shapes such as squares, circles and other shapes. These shapes then representdifferent sizes, locations, shape and colour that have been chosen.Software which can deal with vector graphics is Adobe Photoshop; this software can open vectorfiles and has the ability to manipulate them. Adobe Photoshop offers more file formats for thecreator to choose from, whilst Adobe Illustrator only offers seven. This is why some people dealbetween the two different types of software and import their work back and forward. Due to vectorgraphics being able to stretch without the event of pixilation or loss of quality, this makes them idealfor media printing. Whilst raster graphics will lose quality depending on the amount they have beenenlarged.Kyle Mckendrick Page 1
    • An example of a vector format is a Scalable Vector Graphic (.SVG) this type of format allows the graphic to be enlarged to any size without the loss of quality in the image. The vector is built up of a fixed set of shapes which allows the graphic to do this, as the shapes enlarge with the graphic. This is a large advantage over Bitmap graphics.Vector Based Applications:There are various different applications which deal with vector graphics, the most popular and wellknown applications fall under the Adobe software branch; these are Photoshop, Fireworks,Illustrator and Flash. Work from the different types of Adobe collection can be shared and usedbetween the others, for example, if I created a graphic in Photoshop I could import it to flash forfurther editing and use.Adobe Fireworks:Adobe Fireworks is a bitmap and vector graphic editor which was originally developed in 2009, it wasaimed at web designers as it has a suitable collection of tools such as slices, the ability to addhotspots, etc. this enabled authors to create website prototypes and application interfaces on ashorter time scale.Adobe Illustrator:Adobe Illustrator is a vector graphics editor which was developed and marketed by Adobe. Illustratoris a type of software that allows the user to create distinctive vector graphics for use in multipletypes of media projects. Illustrator allows the user to save their work as an Al. format which is themain format for the software, which then it can be opened in Photoshop.Adobe Illustrator is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Adobe. Adobe Illustratorsoftware helps you create distinctive vector graphics for multiple media projects. When a file issaved as an AI. Which is Illustrators main format; this format can also be opened in Photoshop.Thelatest version of Illustrator CS5, is the fifteenth generation in the product line. Since it has beenmade there have been multiple changes, most recently there has been a change where it is possibleto create simple 3D objects.Adobe Flash:Adobe Flash is a multimedia platform which is used to add animation, video, and interactivity to webpages. Flash is frequently used for advertisements, games and flash animations for broadcast. Morerecently, it has been positioned as a tool for Rich Internet Applications RIAs.Flash manipulates vector graphics to provide animation of text, drawings, and still images. Itsupports bidirectional streaming of audio and video, and it can capture user input through themouse, the keyboard, the microphone, and through a camera.Adobe Photoshop:In Adobe Photoshop, it’s possible to draw vector shapes and paths. Photoshops main strength is asa pixel based image editor, unlike vector based image editors. However Photoshop also enables theKyle Mckendrick Page 2
    • creation, incorporation, and manipulation of vector graphics through its Paths, Pen tools, Shapetools, Shape Layers, Type tools, Import command and Smart object functions. These tools andcommands are suitable when you want to combine pixel-based and vector-based images in onePhotoshop document, because you may not have to use more than one program. However if youwant to create very complex vector graphics with numerous shapes and colours, you may find iteasier to use software that was created primarily for that purpose, such as Adobe Illustrator.Raster Graphics: Raster images also known as a bitmap is a way to define digital images. Raster graphics are built up of a series of bits of information translated into a pixel on a screen; these pixels represent different colours in order to finish an image. The pixels created from a raster image are assigned a specific value to analyse its colour that is selected from the (RGB) red, green and blue colour system.There are two techniques used in order to compress files; they both reduce the file size of theimages in order for them to fit in smaller spaces. However there is only one way to compress a filewithout a loss of quality, this is called lossless compression. The other file compression technique iscalled lossy compression, in the event of lossy compression the file will drop in quality depending onthe amount of compression added.Lossy provides a larger space when saving but does mean loss inthe image detail, whilst lossless squeezes the large image into a smaller space but doesn’t losedetail.Some common file formats for raster graphics are BMP (Bitmaps), TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)and JPEG (Joint Photographic Expert Group). These types of images are mostly created in Photoshop,as this software provides a wide range of file formats for the user to save their image as. Differentfile formats have advantages and disadvantages to them, for example, some are lossy and some arelossless. Some save as fairly large files whilst others are relatively small file sized. JPEGS and some other raster file formats are used in interactive media products due to their file size being relatively low; which is a good thing as the smaller the file size, the faster it loads, whether that be on the internet or on an application, etc. Raster graphics are fairly good for print media, however Vectors are recommended due to them having the ability to be enlarged for print size without pixelating. Raster graphics are more suitable for print media such as business cards, or small posters due to them being quite small objects, whilst if I tried to enlarge a bitmap for a billboard it would pixelate massively.Kyle Mckendrick Page 3
    • A file format which is used as a raster type is a PSD, which is also known as a Photoshop file. This is alossless compression file, unlike the JPEG which is a lossy compressed file and will lose quality. Aphotoshop document is usually kept as the main file as they are quite high file size due to theirquality. They are very usefull as when saved, the layers created in photoshop remain the same sothat when the file is opened in the software the user can edit them layers and make changes to theirdesign.Raster Based Applications:There are four main applications that are used to construct raster graphics, these are Coral Painter,Photoshop, this is the main application used, and there is also GIMP and finally MS Paint, which isn’toften used due to all this new software being released.Coral Painter:Coral Painter is a raster-based digital art application created to make as accurately as possible theappearance and behaviour of traditional media associated with drawing, painting, and printmaking.It is a popular tool which is used in Real-Time by professional digital artists. The latest version,Painter 12, was released on May 11th 2011.Photoshop:Photoshop was developed and published by Adobe Systems Incorporated. Photoshop is graphicimaging software, which is used to create raster images. Photoshop is able to read both raster filesand vector files, for example as .EPS, .PNG, .GIF, and .JPEG, but it is not used to create vector files, asthey are created in Illustrator then they can be imported to Photoshop. Photoshop’s main strength isthat it is a pixel based image editor.GIMP:GIMP or GNU Image Manipulation Program is a free software raster graphics editor. It is mainly usedas an image retouching and editing tool and is freely available in versions made for most popularoperating systems including Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS X, and Linux. In addition to detailedimage retouching and free-form drawing, GIMP can edit the image in different editing tasks such asresizing, retouching, and cropping photos.Metafile:Metafile is a general term for a file format that can store multiple types of data. This commonlyincludes graphics file formats. These graphics files can contain raster, vector, and type data.Different file formats for metafiles are PDF (Portable Document Formats); this is suitable forinteractive media files as they can be used on portable devices. SVG (Scalable Vector Graphic) this isalso a metafile.Windows Metafile (WMF):WMF is a graphic file format on Microsoft windows systems. Windows metafiles are intended to beportable between applications and may also contain both vector and bitmap components. A WMFfile stores a list of functions that have to be assigned to the Windows Graphics Device layer in orderKyle Mckendrick Page 4
    • for the image to appear on the screen. In 1993, the 32-bit version of Win32/GDI introduced theEnhanced Metafile (EMF), a newer version with additional commands. EMF is also used as a graphicslanguage for printer drivers.With the release of Windows XP, the Enhanced Metafile Format plus Extensions (EMF+) format wasintroduced. EMF+ provides a way to serialize calls to the GDI+ API in the same way that WMF/EMFstores calls to GDI.File Extensions:Print File extensions:TiffTagged Image File Format (TIFF) is used mainly for exchanging documents between differentapplications and different computer platforms. The Tagged Image File Format was mainly designedto become the standard format. In order to become the standard, the format was designed tohandle just about anything. The result of this design delivered the flexibility of different number ofways of how a TIFF image can be saved. This file format can be found in Photoshop.JPEGShort for JointPhotographicExpertsGroup, JPEG is a lossy compressiontechnique for colorimages. Although it can reduce files sizes to about 5% of their normal size, some detail is lost in thecompression.JPEG supports only 8-bit images. If you save a 16-bit image to this format, Photoshopautomatically lowers the bit depth.SVG-Scalable Vector GraphicSVG, Scalable Vector Graphic, Is a range of specifications of an XML-based file format for describingtwo-dimensional vector graphics, both static and dynamic. This makes it an ideal format forinteractive, print and also a little bit of animation.Interactive extensions:PNGPortable Network Graphics is a bitmapped image format that employs lossless compression. PNGwas created to improve upon and replace GIF as an image file format. PNG supports palette-basedimages, grayscale images and RGB images. PNG was designed for transferring images on theInternet, not for professional-quality print graphics, and therefore does not support non RGB colorspaces such as CMYK.BMPBitmap is a Raster image file format used to store bitmap digital images, independently on displaydevice. The BMP File Format is capable of storing 2D digital images of random width, height, andresolution, both monochrome and color.BMP is a standard Windows image format on DOS andKyle Mckendrick Page 5
    • Windows-compatible computers. BMP format supports RGB, Indexed Colour, Grayscale, and Bitmapcolour modesMoving Image file extensions:PIXAR:The PIXAR format is designed specifically for swapping fileswith PIXAR image computers. There are no format optionsassociated with the PIXAR file format. This file format can befound in Photoshop. The Pixar format is designed specifically for high-end graphics applications, suchas those used for rendering three-dimensional images and animation. Pixar format supports RGBand grayscale images with a single alpha channel.Targa- TGAThe Targa TGA format was developed by Truevision for their Targa and Vista products.(Truevisionproduces award winning international documentaries, often human rights related, forBBC, Channel 4 and HBO.) It can handle images with up to sixteen million unique colours. It is anindustry standard but is not as widely supported as PCX or TIFF formats. The TGA format wasdesigned for use on systems that use MS-DOS colour applications.Kyle Mckendrick Page 6