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    CSI CSI Presentation Transcript

    • WASHINGTON COUNTY Lead Investigator: Kyleen Burgess Northampton County 4-H
    • Forensic Science
        • The application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by police agencies in a criminal justice system.
        • i.e. any application of science to law enforcement
        • Includes geology, chemistry, physics, biology, etc.
        • Criminalistics – any of the services provided by a crime lab
        • For all intents and purposes, the term is interchangeable with forensic science
    • Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
      • Author of the Sherlock Holmes series
      • Popularized forensic investigation through his novels Used up-and-coming detective methods in his stories, including fingerprinting, serology, firearm identification, and questioned documents
      • Mathieu Orfila (1787-1853) – father of toxicology – the science of dealing with poisons and their effects.
      • Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914) – developed science of anthropometry – the taking of a series of body measurements for means of personal identification (later replaced by more reliable fingerprinting)
      Major contributors to the field
      • Francis Galton (1822-1911) – first thorough study of fingerprints and how to classify them; offered statistical proof of their uniqueness
      • Leone Lattes (1887-1954) – developed procedure for determining the ABO blood type of dried blood stains
      • Calvin Goddard (1891-1955) – popularized the use of comparison microscopes for matching bullets with weapons
      • Albert S. Osborn (1858-1946) – authored Questioned Documents , a reference book for document examiners
    • Hans Gross
      • Hans Gross (1847-1915) – wrote Criminal Investigation and Criminology , books detailing how the sciences are incorporated into crime scene investigation
    • Edmond Locard (1877-1966)
        • created the first crime lab in Lyons, France.
        • Locard’s Exchange Principle – when a criminal comes in contact with an object or person, a cross-transfer of evidence occurs
        • Every criminal can be connected to his/her crime scene by something as small as dust particles carried to or from the scene
      • First to request that suspects’ clothing be examined in the lab
      • His success led to the establishment of police labs in Vienna, Berlin, Sweden, Finland, and Holland
    • Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
      • Under director J. Edgar Hoover, national lab for forensic services established in 1932
      • FBI lab is now the world’s largest, with 1 million examinations each year