Assessment FOR Learning f11

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Keynote used for teacher professional development on grading and assessment. Special focus on using assessment to improve learning.

Keynote used for teacher professional development on grading and assessment. Special focus on using assessment to improve learning.

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Transcript

  • 1. Assessment & Grading for Learning Kyle Kauffman & David Vega South Western High School October Inservice 2011The most erroneous stories are those we think we know best - and therefore never scrutinize or question.   - Stephen Jay Gould
  • 2. If a man will begin with certainties,he shall end in doubts;but if he will be content to begin with doubtshe shall end in certainties. - Sir Francis Bacon
  • 3. If a man will begin with certainties,he shall end in doubts;but if he will be content to begin with doubtshe shall end in certainties. - Sir Francis Bacon
  • 4. Assessment & Grading Committee• grading and assessment committee.swsd.wikispaces.net • 2010-2011 Reviewed Grading • 2011-2012 Review Assessment• Generated “Belief Statements” & “Best Practices” for Grading
  • 5. Grading
  • 6. Grading Belief StatementsGrading will reflect what students know, understand, and are able to do.Teachers will not use practices that directly distort the measure of student performance. Grades will be based on a variety of high-quality summative, common assessments. Students should be involved in the assessment and grading process.
  • 7. What does each“Grading Belief Statement” mean to you?
  • 8. Grading Belief StatementsGrading will reflect what students know, understand, and are able to do.Teachers will not use practices that directly distort the measure of student performance. Grades will be based on a variety of high-quality summative, common assessments. Students should be involved in the assessment and grading process.
  • 9. Assessment
  • 10. Assessment Overview:A Three Part Thriller 1.Foundations 2.Quality 3.Depth
  • 11. Part 1 of 3: Foundations Assessment for Learning• Assessment Terminology• Assessment Research• Assessment Types and Purpose• Assessment as Feedback
  • 12. AssessmentTerminology
  • 13. measured performance againstachievement established criteria process of describing & interpretingassessment student performance; used for formative scores, summative scores, or feedback evaluation judgement of achievement over time item, tool, strategies and elements used to collect assessment data; can be obstructive, product unobtrusive, or student generated
  • 14. measured performance againstachievement established criteria process of describing & interpretingassessment student performance; used for formative scores, summative scores, or feedback evaluation judgement of achievement over time item, tool, strategies and elements used to collect assessment data; can be obstructive, product unobtrusive, or student generated
  • 15. statement of what and how well students are expected to understand and standard perform; broad & measurable, requiring multiple lessons to achieve statement of what and how well studentsobjective or are expected to understand andlearning goal perform; narrow & measurable, achievement of one / multiple per lesson consistency of the assessment strategy in reliability measuring what it is supposed to measure the degree to which an assessment validity strategy measures what it is intended to measure
  • 16. statement of what and how well students are expected to understand and standard perform; broad & measurable, requiring multiple lessons to achieve statement of what and how well studentsobjective or are expected to understand andlearning goal perform; narrow & measurable, achievement of one / multiple per lesson consistency of the assessment strategy in reliability measuring what it is supposed to measure the degree to which an assessment validity strategy measures what it is intended to measure
  • 17. To Be Data-wise Increase reliability:construct several questions assessingthe same concept or skill and analyze performance over the set. Common, is key
  • 18. To Be Data-wise Increase validity:Carefully align questions and items with objectives or standards and analyze results of classroom performance against external assessments Common, is key
  • 19. criterion- measurements of performance against objectives, learning goals, expectations, orreferenced criteria norm- measurements of performance against other students or segments of areferenced population self- measurements of performance againstreferenced prior attempts by the student
  • 20. criterion- measurements of performance against objectives, learning goals, expectations, orreferenced criteria norm- measurements of performance against other students or segments of areferenced population self- measurements of performance againstreferenced prior attempts by the student
  • 21. assessment conducted before instructiondiagnostic to determine student readiness or interests assessment conducted during learning toformative inform teachers and students of ways to improve learning assessment conducted at regularbenchmark intervals to determine progress towards learning goals; used often as evaluation assessment conducted at the conclusionsummative of a period of learning primarily for assigning grades and evaluations
  • 22. assessment conducted before instructiondiagnostic to determine student readiness or interests assessment conducted during learning toformative inform teachers and students of ways to improve learning assessment conducted at regularbenchmark intervals to determine progress towards learning goals; used often as evaluation assessment conducted at the conclusionsummative of a period of learning primarily for assigning grades and evaluations
  • 23. As a teacher, how do you use classroom assessment?
  • 24. How do students inyour classroom use assessments?
  • 25. “Assessment always has more todo with helping students grow than with cataloging their mistakes.” C. A. Tomlinson
  • 26. AssessmentResearch
  • 27. When Lipsey & Wilson (1993) analyzed 204 research studies on the effect on learning of having clearly definedgoals or objectives, they found anaverage effect size of 0.55 which is 21 percentile points.
  • 28. “The research reported here showsconclusively that formative assessment does improve learning.” P. Black & D. Wiliam Assessment in Education 1998 The effect size (0.7) is equivalent to elevating theaverage American student in math to the performance level of the average student from Singapore, Korea, Japan, or Hong Kong.
  • 29. In meta-analysis of 196 studies, “feedback” wasfound to have an average effect size of 0.79, which is 29 percentile points (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). However, feedback can have negative affect on achievement and ES are variable.negative feedback = -0.14 reinforcement = 0.94 (33 PP) punishment = 0.20 cues = 1.10 (36 PP) praise = 0.14 Hattie & Timperley, 2007
  • 30. Achievement Gain Associated with Number of Assessments Over 15 Weeks (Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, and Kulik, 1991)# of Assessments Effect Size Percentile Point Gain 0 0 0 1 0.34 13.5 5 0.54 20.0 10 0.60 22.5 15 0.66 24.5 20 0.71 26.0 25 0.78 28.5 30 0.82 29.0
  • 31. How much of the assessment tools &practices are common across grade-level or course?
  • 32. Common Assessments...• are more efficient.• are more equitable.• effectively determine if the curriculum is being learned.• inform the practice of individual teachers.• build a team’s capacity to improve its program.• facilitate a systematic, collective response to students who are experiencing difficulty. DuFour (2006)
  • 33. From Focus... Teams should make the development and refinement of good text-based questions among their highest priorities -creating banks of temporary and permanent collectionsof questions readily available to all teachers, trying the questions, and then discussing results (Which questions worked? Which bombed?) Schmoker (2011)
  • 34. Professional Learning Communities
  • 35. Four Fundamental Questions that Drive the Work of a PLC1. What is it we want our students to learn?2. How will we know if each student has learned it?3. How will we respond when some students do not learn it?4. How can we extend and enrich the learning for students who have demonstrated proficiency? DuFour
  • 36. OUR Promise To You...We are a community that will work together to helpeach and everyone of us reach our potential.• You will always know what you are learning and why it is important.• We will make sure you do learn, and we will check to see if you are.• We will help you when you do not learn.• We will raise your level of learning even higher if you understand. www.somonauk.net
  • 37. AssessmentTypes & Purpose
  • 38. Stages in the Backward Design Process & the LFS ConnectionIdentify desired results. Determine acceptable evidence. Plan learning experiences and G. Wiggins & J. McTighe instruction.
  • 39. Stages in the Backward Design Process & the LFS ConnectionIdentify desired results. Determine acceptable evidence. Plan learning experiences and G. Wiggins & J. McTighe instruction.
  • 40. Stages in the Backward Design Process & the LFS Connection . .DIdentify desired K.U results. on ts m en om sm C es Determine acceptable A ss evidence. Plan learning experiences and G. Wiggins & J. McTighe instruction. Units and Lesson Plans
  • 41. How well do your assessmentsmeasure, provide feedback, andreport achievement towards the objectives on unit KUD’s?
  • 42. informs the learning processinforms the evaluation process
  • 43. assessment conducted beforediagnostic instruction to determine student readiness or interests informs the learning assessment conducted during learning processformative to inform teachers and students of ways to improve learning assessment conducted at regular intervals to determine progressbenchmark towards learning goals; used often as evaluation informs the assessment conducted at the evaluation conclusion of a period of learning processsummative primarily for assigning grades and evaluations
  • 44. assessment conducted beforediagnostic instruction to determine student readiness or interests informs the learning assessment conducted during learning processformative to inform teachers and students of ways to improve learning assessment conducted at regular intervals to determine progressbenchmark towards learning goals; used often as evaluation informs the assessment conducted at the evaluation conclusion of a period of learning processsummative primarily for assigning grades and evaluations
  • 45. assessment conducted beforediagnostic instruction to determine student readiness or interests informs the learning assessment conducted during learning processformative to inform teachers and students of ways to improve learning assessment conducted at regular intervals to determine progressbenchmark towards learning goals; used often as evaluation informs the assessment conducted at the evaluation conclusion of a period of learning processsummative primarily for assigning grades and evaluations
  • 46. assessment conducted beforediagnostic instruction to determine student readiness or interests informs the learning assessment conducted during learning processformative to inform teachers and students of ways to improve learning assessment conducted at regular intervals to determine progressbenchmark towards learning goals; used often as evaluation informs the assessment conducted at the evaluation conclusion of a period of learning processsummative primarily for assigning grades and evaluations
  • 47. Formative Assessment“Formative assessment is a planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence of students’ status isused by teachers to adjust their ongoing instructional procedures or by students to adjust their current learning tactics.” - W. James Popham
  • 48. Formative Assessment “Formative assessment is aplanned process in which teachers orstudents use assessment-based evidence to adjust what they’re currently doing.” - W. James Popham
  • 49. Comparison ofFormative and Summative Assessments
  • 50. Comparison of Formative and Summative Assessments Formative Summative To improve instruction and To measure student Function adjust tactics competency (form the improvement) (summarize the achievement) When Ongoing throughout unit End of unit or courseadministered To gauge progress towardHow students To monitor understanding course or grade-level goals &use the results and adjust tactics benchmarksHow teachers To check for understanding For grades, promotionuse the results and modify instruction
  • 51. Comparison of Formative and Summative Assessments Formative Summative To improve instruction and To measure student Function adjust tactics competency (form the improvement) (summarize the achievement) When Ongoing throughout unit End of unit or courseadministered To gauge progress towardHow students To monitor understanding course or grade-level goals &use the results and adjust tactics benchmarksHow teachers To check for understanding For grades, promotionuse the results and modify instruction
  • 52. Comparison of Formative and Summative Assessments Formative Summative To improve instruction and To measure student Function adjust tactics competency (form the improvement) (summarize the achievement) When Ongoing throughout unit End of unit or courseadministered To gauge progress towardHow students To monitor understanding course or grade-level goals &use the results and adjust tactics benchmarksHow teachers To check for understanding For grades, promotionuse the results and modify instruction
  • 53. Comparison of Formative and Summative Assessments Formative Summative To improve instruction and To measure student Function adjust tactics competency (form the improvement) (summarize the achievement) When Ongoing throughout unit End of unit or courseadministered To gauge progress towardHow students To monitor understanding course or grade-level goals &use the results and adjust tactics benchmarksHow teachers To check for understanding For grades, promotionuse the results and modify instruction
  • 54. Comparison of Formative and Summative Assessments Formative Summative To improve instruction and To measure student Function adjust tactics competency (form the improvement) (summarize the achievement) When Ongoing throughout unit End of unit or courseadministered To gauge progress towardHow students To monitor understanding course or grade-level goals &use the results and adjust tactics benchmarksHow teachers To check for understanding For grades, promotionuse the results and modify instruction
  • 55. When the chef tastes the soup,it’s formative assessment.
  • 56. When the chef tastes the soup, it’s formative assessment.When the patron tastes the soup,it’s summative assessment.
  • 57. When the chef tastes the soup, it’s formative assessment.When the patron tastes the soup,it’s summative assessment.it’s not the assessment tool...
  • 58. When the chef tastes the soup, it’s formative assessment.When the patron tastes the soup,it’s summative assessment.it’s not the assessment tool... it’s what you do with the information
  • 59. Unless there is specific feedback, it’s not assessment - just an activityUnless there are opportunities to improve, it’s not assessment - just an evaluation
  • 60. Making Success a Possibility for All Students in a Standards Based Curriculum & Assessment System Key point 1: Unless specific feedback is provided, it’s not an assessment – just an activity. Key point 2: Unless opportunities to improve are provided, it’s not an assessment – just an evaluation. Key point 3: Students should have clear learning targets and continuous specific feedback about their progress towards those targets. (objectives) (assessment) Differentiation of Instruction Enrichment Pre-assessment (Diagnostic) Instruction on Success New ObjectivesStandards Formative Further SummativeCurriculum Instruction Assessment(s) Success Instruction Assessment(s)Objectives Evidence for Needs Improvement Evaluation/Grades Correctives Needs Improvement Adapted from Guskey, T.R. and J.M. Bailey. Developing Grading and Reporting Systems for Student Learning. p. 98 © 2001 Sage Publications
  • 61. AssessmentFeedback
  • 62. “Learning can be enhanced to the degree thatstudents share the challenging goals oflearning, adopt self-assessment andevaluation strategies, and develop errordetection procedures and heightenedself-efficacy to tackle more challenging tasksleading to mastery and understanding of lessons.” - Hattie & Timperley (p 103)
  • 63. What are the qualitiesof effective feedback?
  • 64. Feedback is effective...• When it relates to... • Task (the what) • Process (the how) • Self-regulation (the choices)• When it is not about... • Self (the who)
  • 65. Feedback is effective...• When it is... • Frequent, positive and specific • Suggesting ways to improve • Reinforcing progress• When it is not negative (actually produces decreased achievement)
  • 66. The Gomez family is taking a trip from Kittanning [Pennsylvania] to Atlanta,Georgia. The trip is 744 miles. They are leaving at 6 a.m. and would like toarrive at 6 p.m. How fast would they have to drive in order to arrive on time?Show and explain your work. Brookhart pg 32
  • 67. The Gomez family is taking a trip from Kittanning [Pennsylvania] to Atlanta,Georgia. The trip is 744 miles. They are leaving at 6 a.m. and would like toarrive at 6 p.m. How fast would they have to drive in order to arrive on time?Show and explain your work. Response #1Work:12 hours744 miles ÷ 12 hours = 62mph62 mphExplanation: I counted howmany hours they drove whichis 12 then divided 12 into 744to get my answer of 62 mph. Brookhart pg 32
  • 68. The Gomez family is taking a trip from Kittanning [Pennsylvania] to Atlanta,Georgia. The trip is 744 miles. They are leaving at 6 a.m. and would like toarrive at 6 p.m. How fast would they have to drive in order to arrive on time?Show and explain your work. Response #1 Feedback:Work:12 hours “This is correct, but explain why you divided744 miles ÷ 12 hours = 62mph — what are you looking to find? Your62 mph explanations are improving — continue toExplanation: I counted howmany hours they drove which include every piece ofis 12 then divided 12 into 744 data in the explanation.”to get my answer of 62 mph. Brookhart pg 32
  • 69. The Gomez family is taking a trip from Kittanning [Pennsylvania] to Atlanta,Georgia. The trip is 744 miles. They are leaving at 6 a.m. and would like toarrive at 6 p.m. How fast would they have to drive in order to arrive on time?Show and explain your work. Brookhart pg 32
  • 70. The Gomez family is taking a trip from Kittanning [Pennsylvania] to Atlanta,Georgia. The trip is 744 miles. They are leaving at 6 a.m. and would like toarrive at 6 p.m. How fast would they have to drive in order to arrive on time?Show and explain your work. Response # 2Work: d=rxt744 = r x 12 12 12 62 = r744 = 62 mph · 12 hoursdistance = rate x timeExplanation: In order to get therate, I took the amount of hoursand cancelled it out by dividing12 by 12 and 744 by 12 and gotthe rate which is 62. Brookhart pg 32
  • 71. The Gomez family is taking a trip from Kittanning [Pennsylvania] to Atlanta,Georgia. The trip is 744 miles. They are leaving at 6 a.m. and would like toarrive at 6 p.m. How fast would they have to drive in order to arrive on time?Show and explain your work. Response # 2 Feedback:Work: d=rxt “Good use of the744 = r x 12 formula.” 12 12 62 = r744 = 62 mph · 12 hoursdistance = rate x time “62_? Please refer to theExplanation: In order to get therate, I took the amount of hours question to display theand cancelled it out by dividing units! Good12 by 12 and 744 by 12 and got Explanation!”the rate which is 62. Brookhart pg 32
  • 72. Can multiple choice beeffective as a feedback tool?
  • 73. multiple choice items can give feedback to teachers... distractors based on misconceptionsStem: A plant is able to grow larger because A student who chooses this answer does not understand that nutrientsA. it gets its food from the soil. misconception are manufactured internally by the plant. The student understands that food is manufactured internally but does notB. it turns water and air into sugar. oversimplification understand that water and carbon dioxide are used to make sugar and oxygen. The student does not understand that chlorophyll is only the pigmentC. it has chlorophyll to produce food. overgeneralization that absorbs light energy; doesn’t actually produce sugars..D. it adds biomass through photosynthesis. correct answer D. Fisher & N. Frey pg 108
  • 74. multiple choice items can give feedback to teachers... distractors based on misconceptionsStem: A plant is able to grow larger because A student who chooses this answer does not understand that nutrientsA. it gets its food from the soil. misconception are manufactured internally by the plant. The student understands that food is manufactured internally but does notB. it turns water and air into sugar. oversimplification understand that water and carbon dioxide are used to make sugar and oxygen. The student does not understand that chlorophyll is only the pigmentC. it has chlorophyll to produce food. overgeneralization that absorbs light energy; doesn’t actually produce sugars..D. it adds biomass through photosynthesis. correct answer D. Fisher & N. Frey pg 108
  • 75. Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning • Where Am I Going? • Provide students with clear learning targets • Show strong and weak work • Where Am I Now? • Offer regular descriptive feedback • Teach self-assessment & goal setting • How Can I Close the Gap? • Design focused lessons • Teach focused revision • Engage students in self-reflection Chappuis (2009)
  • 76. Scores as Feedback
  • 77. Why do we assignpercentage scores?
  • 78. What feedback does astudent receive from a percentage score?
  • 79. Adopted from Marzano & Associates aspublished in “Classroom Assessment & Grading That Work” (ASCD)
  • 80. Adopted from Marzano & Associates aspublished in “Classroom Assessment & Grading That Work” (ASCD)
  • 81. Adopted from Marzano &Associates as published in“Classroom Assessment &Grading That Work” (ASCD)
  • 82. Adopted from Marzano & Associates as published in “Classroom Assessment & Grading That Work” (ASCD)
  • 83. Adopted from Marzano & Associates as published in “Classroom Assessment & Grading That Work” (ASCD)
  • 84. Assessment for Learning 3 New Insights 2 Questions 1 Action
  • 85. A quality assessment system,with emphasis on formative assessment,can drastically improve student learning.
  • 86. ResourcesBangert-Drowns, R. L., J. A. Kulik, and C. C. Kulik. "Effects of Frequent Classroom Testing." Journal of Educational Research 85.2 (1991): 89–99. Print.Black, Paul, and Dylan Wiliam. "Assessment and Classroom Learning." Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice 5.1 (1998): 7–74. Print.Brookhart, Susan M. How to Assess Higher-order Thinking Skills in Your Classroom. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2010. Print.Brookhart, Susan M. How to Give Effective Feedback to Your Students. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2008. Print.Chappuis, Jan. Seven Strategies of Assessment for Learning. Boston: Pearson Education, 2009. Print.DuFour, Richard. Learning by Doing: a Handbook for Professional Learning Communities at Work. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree, 2006. Print.Fisher, Douglas, and Nancy Frey. Checking for Understanding: Formative Assessment Techniques for Your Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2007. Print.Guskey, Thomas R., and Jane M. Bailey. Developing Grading and Reporting Systems for Student Learning. Thousand Oaks: Corwin, 2001. Print.Hattie, J., and H. Timperley. "The Power of Feedback." Review of Educational Research 77.1 (2007): 81–112. Print.Lipsey, Mark W., and David B. Wilson. "The Efficacy of Psychological, Educational, and Behavioral Treatment: Confirmation from Meta- analysis." American Psychologist 48.12 (1993): 1181–209. Print.Marzano, Robert J., and John S. Kendall. Designing & Assessing Educational Objectives: Applying the New Taxonomy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin, 2008. Print.Marzano, Robert J. Classroom Assessment & Grading That Work. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2006. Print.Marzano, Robert J. Formative Assessment & Standards-based Grading. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree, 2010. Print.OConnor, Ken. How to Grade for Learning: Linking Grades to Standards. Arlington Heights, IL: SkyLight Professional Development, 2002. Print.Popham, W. James. Transformative Assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2008. Print.Schmoker, Michael J. Focus: Elevating the Essentials to Radically Improve Student Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2011. Print.Tomlinson, Carol A., and Jay McTighe. Integrating Differentiated Instruction & Understanding by Design: Connecting Content and Kids. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2006. Print.Wiggins, Grant P., and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, 2006. Print.