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  1. 1.  Techniques = the specific activities manifested in the classroom that are consistent with a method and therefore in harmony with an approach as well
  2. 2. Approach Design Procedure Elements and sub-elements of method – Richards and Rogers  Theory of native language  A theory of the nature of language learning  The general and the specific objectives  Syllabus  Types of learning and teaching activities  Learner’s role  Teacher’s role  The role of instrumental material Classroom Technic and procedures And behaviours observed when the method is used
  3. 3. Definitions that reflect current usage: Methodology = the study of pedagogical practices in general (how to teach) Approach = theoretical positions and beliefs about the nature of language, the nature of language learning Method = a generalized set of classroom specifications for accomplishing linguistic objectives Syllabus = design for carrying out a particular language program Technique = any of a wide variety of exercises, activities or devices used in the language classroom for realising lesson objectives
  4. 4. Categorizing techniques 1. From manipulation to communication manipulative = totally controlled by the teacher and require a predicted response from the students (choral repetition, drills, dictation and reading aloud) communicative = students responses are open-ended and unpredictable (story-telling, brainstorming, role – plays, games) Drill mechanical drill = only one correct response from a student = no connection with the reality meaningful drill = may have a predicted response, but is connected to some form of reality quasi-communicative practice = if the exercise is communicative is no longer a drill
  5. 5. 2. Controlled to free techniques Controlled Free = teacher centered =student centered = manipulative = communicative = structured = open-ended = predicted responses = unpredicted responses = pre-planned objectives = negotiated objectives
  6. 6. Taxonomy of techniques Controlled techniques -warm up -setting -organizational -content explanation -role-play demonstration -reading aloud -question-answer, display -drill -translation -dictation -copying -identification -review -testing Semi controlled techniques -Brainstorming -Story-telling -Dialogue -Narration -Information transfer -Information exchange -Wrap up -Preparation Free techniques -Role play -Games -Report -Problem solving -Drama -Simulation -Interview -Discussion -composition
  7. 7. Supporting materials Textbooks - Selecting a textbook is a complex task, different things must be taken into consideration: a) goals of the course b) background of students (age, education, native language, motivation) c) approach d) language skills (listening, speaking, reading, writing) e) general content (proficiency level, authenticity) f) quality of practice material (exercises, explanation, review) g) sequencing h) vocabulary i) sociolinguistic factors (variety of English, cultural content) j) format k) supplementary material (workbook, tapes, tests, posters) l) teacher´s guide (answer keys, alternative exercises)
  8. 8. Other written texts -among other written texts available for use is an unlimited supply of real-world textual material such as signs, schedules, calendars, advertisements, menus, notes... Audio-visual aids 1.Commercially produced – audio cassettes with: listening exercises lectures stories - video tape and films: documentation instruction - slides, photographs, posters 2.Creative your own – tapes of conversations of people known to the students - posters, charts, magazine pictures 3. Realia Objects – food items, cosmetics, tools and other materials Computer assisted language learning (CALL) -tutorial programs (covering grammar, vocabulary, revising, editing) -text building programs -process writing (drafting, revising, editing) -games -testing