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12 th internal foot structure
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  • This view shows normal anatomical bone and healthy coria position.
  • A section of the laminar bed. Notice the secondary epidermal lamina, unique to the equine.
  • An electron micrograph of three primary lamina and their secondary laminar leaves.


  • 1. Internal Structure of the Hoof
  • 2. there are 3 bones that make-up the coffin joint -P2 -P3-The distalSesamoid bone
  • 3. The coffin joint is the most distal joint of thelimb and the first joint to feel the concussionof the ground It is the central axis point of balancing the limb z and foot y x x y z
  • 4. the front ½ of the foot is internally supported bybone:The back ½ is supported by the design of thecapsule, cartilage & cushion Front half of foot Back half of foot
  • 5. Common Integument (CI) Skin• CI is the largest organ of the body• Hair, horns and hooves are part of the CI• CI has two components called the dermis and epidermis
  • 6. Definition of dermis• Highly vascularized with blood• Highly innervated with nerves• Nutritionally supports “cornified” epidermis Dermis=Sensitive=Coria
  • 7. The coffin jt. is literally suspended withinthe hoof capsule by the dermal lamellae surrounding P3 The dermis attaches P3 to the inner hoof capsule: It is a dynamic buffer between the hoof capsule and P3
  • 8. The dermal laminae and coronary “coria”interdigitate with and nourish the hoof walland coronary band
  • 9. The dermal lamellae function to attach the skeleton to the wall, providing suspension for P3Laminae arearranged inprimary and2nd aryleaves:They have amoremechanicalrather thannutritive fxn
  • 10. Transverse view
  • 11. transverse view
  • 12. Inner capsule
  • 13. The coronary coria function to provide nutrients and direction to wall horn tubule growthCoronarypapilla
  • 14. Blood nourishes epidermis via papillae
  • 15. Coronary Corium• These papillae of the coronary corium have been been gently teased away from the proximal hoof wall..
  • 16. Papillae-coronary, solar, frog, perioplic Fxn: to bring nutrients to the stratum germanativum
  • 17. Coronary papilla being pulled out of the sockets in the coronary groove CORONARY GROOVE CORIA EPIDERMIS DERMIS
  • 18. *Papilla of the sole & frog *dermal lamellae of the bars DLPAPILLAE
  • 19. The dermal solethe sensitive sole same thingsthe sole coria Dissecting away the dermal sole
  • 20. the front ½ of the foot is internally supported bybone:The back ½ is supported by the design of thecapsule, cartilage & cushion Front half of foot Back half of foot
  • 21. the ungular cartilages are positioned abaxially on P3The co-lateral cartilagesmake up ½ of the mass ofthe caudal foot:The other ½ is made-up ofthe digital cushion
  • 22. Venous perforations in the ungular cartilage
  • 23. Back view
  • 24. Venous Return• No muscles are present in the distal limb to return blood back up the leg. – Return circulation is entirely dependent on compression of vascular plexi in the hoof by movement of the horse.• There are no valves in the veins below mid pastern.