How to remember formative vs. summative?
Summative happens at the end – like a
summary or to sum up the total.
Formative happens while instruction is taking
place, while students’ understanding is still
Criteria of Good AssessmentS
• A good assessment is supposed to show what students have truly
Some MAJOR qualities of good assessments.
•Validity refers to the accuracy of the assessment.
•Validity addresses the question of whether the
assessment accurately measures what it was intended
•An assessment can be reliable but not valid.
•The extent to which an assessment yields consistent
information about the knowledge, skills, or abilities
•An assessment is considered reliable if the same results
are yielded each time the test is administered.
•Closely defined questions, which demand definite
answers, are associated with higher reliability.
•An unsatisfactory mark scheme can be the principal
source of unreliable marking.
•The extent to which the assessment and procedures of
administering the assessment are similar, and the
assessment is scored similarly for each student.
•Standardization reduces the error in scoring.
•The more standardized the assessment, the higher the
•The extent to which an assessment or assessment
procedure is easy to administer and score.
How long will it take to develop and administer the
How expensive are the assessment materials?
How much time will the assessment take away from
•The effect of testing on teaching and learning.
•There are two opposite effectives of testing: positive
washbacks and negative washbacks.
Positive Washback Negative Washback
Guided washback, providing
effective feedback both to the
teaher and the student.
Test-driven, only studying what
they need to know for the test.
Frasturating if students do not
meet the prerequisite level yet.
The role of assessment
There is a clear alignment between expected learning outcomes,
what is taught and learnt, and the knowledge and skills assessed.
Generally, the written order is CABD.
The s of Learning Objectives
Cognitive– “After the types of living things has been learnt and through the
activity, Grade 2 students will be able classify the living things into four main
groups correctly, without having misunderstandings, mistakes and confusions,
within the context of long-term memory goals.”
Psychomotor – “Given a standard balance beam raised to a standard height, the
student (attired in standard balance beam usage attire) will be able to walk the
entire length of the balance beam (from one end to the other) steadily, without
falling off, and within a six second time span.”
Affective - "Given the opportunity to work in a team with several people of
different races and cultures, the students will demonstrate a positive increase in
attitude towards non-discrimination of race, as measured by a checklist
utilized/completed by non-team members."
Problems Error Types Solutions
The objective is too broad in scope or is actually
more than one objective.
Use the ABCD method to identify each desired
behavior or skill in order to break objectives apart.
No behavior to
No true overt, observable performance listed. Many
objectives using verbs like "comprehend" or
"understand" may not include behaviors to observe.
Determine what actions a student should
demonstrate in order for you to know of the
material has been learned.
Only topics are
Describes instruction, not conditions. That is, the
instructor may list the topic but not how he or she
expects the students to use the information.
Determine how students should use the
information presented. Should it be memorized?
Used as background knowledge? Applied in a later
project? What skills will students need?
The objective does not list the correct behavior,
condition, and/or degree, or they are missing.
Students may not sure of how to complete
assignments because they are lacking specifics.
Determine parameters for your assignments and
specify them for your students.
Objective Writing Problems with Solutions
CAT: K-W-L Charts & Pass Slip
What I know
What I want to know
What I've learned
K W L
animals are mammals
Is there any
Yes, there are
many, such as
Portfolios are purposeful, organized,
systematic collections of student work that
tell the story of a student's efforts,
progress, and achievement in specific areas
They reflect with students on their
work, to develop students' ability to
critique their own progress.
Sample materials included in a portfolio:
Audio- and videotaped recordings of readings or oral presentations
Writing samples such as dialogue journal entries, book reports,
writing assignments (drafts or final copies), reading log entries, or
other writing projects
Art work such as pictures or drawings, and graphs and charts
Conference or interview notes and anecdotal records
Checklists (by teacher, peers, or student)
Tests and quizzes
To gain multiple perspectives on students' academic development, it is
important to include more than one type of material in the portfolio.
One of the ways in which students internalize
the characteristics of quality work is by evaluating
the work of their peers.
Self assessment encourages students to become
independent learners and can increase their
really Great! How
handsome I am!
Using various forms of assessment techniques help
us evaluate our students of different intelligences,
strengths and weaknesses in all aspects.
Let’s experience the fun of assessment together with
Happy Teaching, and Happy Testing!