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### Multimedia

1. 1. Start
2. 2. 1.2.1 Base Quantities 1.2.2 Derived Quantities 1.2.3 Prefixes 1.2.4 Scientific Notation 1.3 Scalar and Vector Quantities 1.4.0 Measurements and Error 1.4.1 Consistency, Accuracy and Sensitivity 1.4.2 Vernier Caliper 1.4.3 Micrometer Screw Gauge 1.4.4 Ruler, Thermometer, Stopwatch, Ammeter and Voltmeter 1.5 Scientific Investigation
3. 3. A derived quantity is a Physics quantity that is not a base quantity. It is the quantities which derived from the base quantities through multiplying and/or dividing them.
4. 4. (Speed is derived from dividing distance by time.)
5. 5. Prefixes are the preceding factor used to represent very small and very large physical quantities in SI units.
6. 6. Scientific notation (also known as Standard index notation) is a convenient way to write very small or large numbers. In this notation, numbers are separated into two parts, a real number with an absolute value between 1 and 10 and an order of magnitude value written as a power of 10. Physical quantities that are very big or very small need to be written in the standard form so that it is neat, simple and easy to read.
7. 7. Scalar Vector Has Magnitude only Has Magnitude and direction Examples : Examples : distance, speed, mass, volume, temperature, density displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, momentum, and and energy magnetic field * Magnitude is the numerical value of a quantity.
8. 8. difference between the actual value of a quantity and the value obtained in measurement. Systematic Error Random Error Systematic errors are errors which tend to 1. Random errors arise shift all measurements from unknown and in a systematic way so unpredictable their mean value is variations in displaced. Systematic condition. errors can be 2. Random errors are compensated if the caused by factors errors are known. that are beyond the control of the observers.
9. 9. Precision Accuracy ability of an instrument in measuring a the approximation quantity in a of the measurement to consistent the actual value manner with only for a certain a small relative quantity of deviation Physics. between readings.
10. 10. The difference between precision and accuracy can be shown by the spread of shooting of a tar-get (as shown in Diagram below). Sensitivity 1. The sensitivity of an instrument is its ability to detect small changes in the quantity that is being measured. 2. Thus, a sensitive instrument can quickly detect a small change in measurement. 3. Measuring instruments that have smaller scale parts are more sensitive.
11. 11. Vernier Caliper -The vernier caliper is used in length measurements to gain an additional digit of accuracy compared to a simple ruler. Click on the box to see the video…
12. 12. Click on the box to see the video…
13. 13. Micrometer Screw Gauge Range and Accuracy -The range of a micrometer is 0-25mm. - The accuracy of micrometer is up to 0.01mm.
14. 14. Here’s a guide on how to use the micrometer… • Turn the thimble until the object is gripped gently between the anvil and spindle. How to Use • Turn the ratchet knob until a "click" sound is heard. This is Micrometer? to prevent exerting too much pressure on the object measured. • Take the reading.
15. 15. Reading = Reading of main scale + Reading of thimble scale. Precaution 1. The spindle and anvil are cleaned with a tissue or cloth, so that any dirt present will not be measured. 2. The thimble must be tightened until the first click is heard. 3. The zero error is recorded.
16. 16. Here is the video of Micrometer
17. 17. Ruler, Thermometer, Stopwatch, Ammeter and Voltmeter • Thermometers of range -10oC - • A metre rule 110oC with has sensitivity accuracy 1oC. or accuracy • Thermometers of accuracy of range 0oC - 360oC 1mm. with accuracy 2oC. Thermometer Ruler
18. 18. •Ammeters are measuring •analogue stopwatches of instrument used to measure electric current. sensitivity 0.1s or 0.2s •Voltmeters are measuring •digital stopwatches of instrument used to measure sensitivity 0.01s. potential difference (voltage). Stopwatch Ammeter and Voltmeter Animated Stopwatch
19. 19. A report of the investigation must include: -Objective of the experiment -Inference -Hypothesis -Three types of variables: manipulated variable -responding variable and fixed variable -Defined operational variables -List of apparatus -Procedure -Tabulation of data -Analysis of data -Conclusion
20. 20. Chiew Carol 5SN SMK Ketari