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  • 1. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction to Nutrition
  • 2. 2 Factors Influencing What You Eat  Flavor  Taste  Smell  Appearance  Texture  Temperature  Other Aspects of Food  Cost  Convenience  Availability  Familiarity  Nutrition
  • 3. 3 The most important consideration when choosing something to eat is flavor. The most important consideration when choosing something to eat is flavor. (Courtesy of PhotoDisc/Getty Images)
  • 4. 4 Factors Influencing What You Eat  Demographics  Age  Gender  Educational level  Income
  • 5. 5 Factors Influencing What You Eat  Culture and Religion  Traditional foods  Special events/celebrations  Religious foods/practices
  • 6. 6 Factors Influencing What You Eat  Health  Health status  Desire to improve health/appearance  Nutrition knowledge and attitudes
  • 7. 7 Factors Influencing What You Eat  Social and Emotional Influences  Social status  Peer pressure  Emotional status  Food associations
  • 8. 8 Factors Influencing What You Eat  Food Industry and the Media  Food industry  Food advertising  Food portrayal in media  Reporting of nutrition/health studies
  • 9. 9 Factors Influencing What You Eat  Environmental Concerns  Use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides  Wastefulness of fattening up livestock/poultry
  • 10. 10 What is Nutrition? Nutrition is a science that:  studies nutrients and other substances in foods and in the body and how these nutrients relate to health and disease, and  explores why you choose particular foods and the type of diet you eat.
  • 11. 11 Nutrients are: Nourishing substances in food that provide energy and promote the growth and maintenance of your body.
  • 12. 12 Kilocalories  A measure of the energy in food.  1 kilocalorie raises the temperature of 1 kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius.  Also called a Calorie.  Abbreviated as kcalorie or kcal.  When you hear “calorie,” it is really a kilocalorie.
  • 13. 13 The number of kilocalories you need is based on:  Basal metabolism (about 2/3 of total energy needs for individuals who are not very active)  Physical activity  Thermic effect or specific dynamic action of foods (5 to 10% of total energy needs)
  • 14. 14 BMR depends on factors such as:  Gender  Age  Growth  Height  Temperature  Fever and stress  Exercise  Smoking and caffeine  Sleep
  • 15. 15 Classes of Nutrients - Overview  Carbohydrates  Lipids (fats)  Proteins  Vitamins  Minerals  Water
  • 16. 16 Carbohydrates  A large class of nutrients, including:  Sugars  Starch  Fibers that function as the body’s primary source of energy.
  • 17. 17 Lipids  A group of fatty substances, including triglycerides and cholesterol, that are not soluble in water and provide a rich source of energy and structure to cells.
  • 18. 18 Protein  Major structural parts of the body’s cells that are made of nitrogen- containing amino acids assembled in chains.  Particularly rich in animal foods.  Present in many plant foods.
  • 19. 19 Vitamins and Minerals  Vitamins: Noncaloric, organic nutrients found in a wide variety of foods that are essential to:  regulate body processes.  maintain the body.  allow growth and reproduction.  Minerals: Noncaloric, inorganic nutrients found in a wide variety of foods that are essential to:  regulate body processes.  maintain the body.  allow growth and reproduction.
  • 20. 20 Water  Inorganic nutrient that plays a vital role in all bodily processes and makes up just over half of the body’s weight.
  • 21. 21 Functions of Nutrients Nutrients Provide Energy Promote Growth and Maintenance Regulate Body Processes Carbohydrates X Lipids X X X Proteins X X X Vitamins X X Minerals X X Water X X
  • 22. 22 Food Facts  Most foods provide a mix of nutrients.  Food contains more than just nutrients – food may contain colorings, flavorings, caffeine, phytochemicals, and other substances.
  • 23. 23 Carbohydrates 4 kcal/gram Lipids 9 kcal/gram Protein 4 kcal/gram
  • 24. 24 More Vocabulary  Micronutrients  Macronutrients  Organic nutrients  Inorganic nutrients  Carbohydrates  Lipids  Proteins  Vitamins  Minerals  Water
  • 25. 25 Essential Nutrients Nutrients that either cannot be made in the body or cannot be made in the quantities needed by the body; therefore, we must obtain them through food. EXAMPLES Glucose, vitamins, minerals, water, some lipids, and some parts of protein.
  • 26. 26 Nutrient Density  All foods were not created equal in terms of the kcalories and nutrients they provide.  Nutrient density: A measure of the nutrients provided in a food per kcalorie of the food.  Empty-kcalorie foods: Foods that provide few/no nutrients for the number of kcalories they contain.
  • 27. 27 Nutrient Density Comparison: % DRI intakes for selected nutrients.
  • 28. 28 Characteristics of A Nutritious Diet  Adequate  Balanced  Moderate  Varied
  • 29. 29 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI)  Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Intake value sufficient to meet nutrient requirements of 97-98% of all healthy individuals in a group.  Adequate Intake (AI) Intake value used when a RDA cannot be based on an EAR because there’s not enough scientific data.  Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) Maximum intake level above which toxicity would increase.  Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) Intake value estimated to meet requirement of half the healthy individuals in a group.
  • 30. 30 Dietary Reference Intakes  Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) The dietary energy intake measured in kcalories that is needed to maintain energy balance in a healthy adult.  Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR) A range of intakes for a particular nutrient that is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intake. Adults: 45-65% of kcal from carbohydrates, 20-35% from fat, and 10 to 35% from protein.
  • 31. 31 Dietary Reference Intakes  RDA and AI – useful in planning diets for individuals  EAR - useful in planning diets for groups
  • 32. 32 Digestion, Absorption, & Metabolism  Digestion: Process by which food is broken down into its components in the gastrointestinal tract with the help of digestive enzymes.  Absorption: The passage of digested nutrients through the walls of the intestines or stomach into the blood or lymph, where they are transported to the cells.  Metabolism: All the chemical processes by which nutrients are used to support life, includes anabolism and catabolism.
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 34 Food Basics 1. Whole foods 2. Fresh foods 3. Organic foods 4. Processed foods 5. Enriched foods 6. Fortified foods
  • 35. 35 Organic Foods  Organic food is produced without using most:  Conventional pesticides  Petroleum-based fertilizers or sewage sludge- based fertilizers  Bioengineering  Ionizing radiation (irradiation)  Organic farms must be inspected annually.  All organically-raised animals may not be given hormones or antibiotics, and must have access to pasture.
  • 36. 36 Labeling of Organic Foods Courtesy of USDA
  • 37. 37 Clip art images may not be saved or downloaded and are only to be used for viewing purposes. Copyright ©2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.