Civilization in ancient Egypt began in the fertile, protected Nile River Valley.
- People there formed two kingdoms, Upper and Lower Egypt, that were later united under one ruler.
Egypt was called the gift of the Nile River because the Nile River gave life to the desert.
Civilization developed along the Nile after people began farming in this region.
Traditional irrigation as used today on an Egyptian farm near Luxor, with the Nile in the background.
During the Old Kingdom, new political and social orders were created in Egypt, and many of the pyramids were built.
Egyptian Social Structure
In early Egyptian society, pharaohs ruled as gods and were at the top of the social structure.
Egypt’s power and wealth peaked during the New Kingdom. As society became more complex, people in different classes worked at different jobs. Although Egyptian dynasties rose and fell, daily life for Egyptians did not change very much.
Ancient Egyptians developed one of the best known cultures in the ancient world. Egyptians were famous for their architecture and art. This is a statue of Rameses II from the temple at Luxor.
The pyramids of Egypt were built as tombs for the pharaohs.
The geography of early Nubia helped civilization develop there.
Kush and Egypt traded, but they also fought.
Both internal and external factors led to the decline of Kush.