Lecture 9b:Circulatory System
Circulatory SystemUsed to transport nutrients and O2 tocells, and to remove CO2 and wasteSome animals do not need circ. sy...
Open systemFound in Arthropods and some otherinvertebratesHeart-like pump moves hemolymphthrough arteries to the body, and...
Closed systemWhat all vertebrates haveBlood is always contained inside the system anddoes not drain into the body unless t...
3 kinds of vertebrate systemsFish: One circuit loopAmphibians and most reptiles: twocircuit loops, but only one ventricleC...
Human heart
Human Heart- Blood flowFrom body         Lungs            RA       LA             RV      LV                          To b...
HeartEach chamber of the heart is separatedfrom the other  Between each side is the septum  Between each atria and ventric...
HeartbeatWithout the pumping action, the heart isuselessEach beat consists of a series of eventscalled the cardiac cycle  ...
HeartbeatThe beat is controlled by a pacemaker, the SAnode (sinoatrial)   Automatically sends out an impulse that   causes...
Blood vesselsArteries- transport blood away from theheart  Heart creates pressure to send blood  into the arteries- this i...
Blood vesselsArteries branch into arterioles, smaller arteries   Diameter can be regulated by nervous   system, to change ...
Blood VesselsVenules collect blood from the capillaries- these aresmall veinsVenules come together in veins, which return ...
Two CircuitsPulmonary circuit- O2 poor blood is sentfrom the heart to the lungs, where it isoxygenated and returned to the...
Lymphatic SystemThis system has several functionsOne main function is to collect excesstissue fluid and return it to the b...
Lymphatic SystemLymphatic vessels are extensive and occurthroughout the bodySimilar to veins in that:   they are thin   sk...
Cardiovascular DisordersHypertension - leading cause of prematuredeath in US  High blood pressure  BP = systolic/ diastoli...
HypertensionAccumulation of fatty deposits calledplaque in the blood vessels interfereswith the flow of blood = atheroscle...
HypertensionEffects of plaque:    Thrombus- clot that forms where the plaque causes an    irregular shape    Embolus- a cl...
BloodFunctions of blood:  1. Transports things to the capillaries  to exchange with tissue fluid  2. Defend the body again...
PlasmaThe liquidy stuff!Mostly waterAlso some proteins, salts, nutrients thathelp to keep the pH stable at 7.4  The other ...
Formed ElementsRed blood cells, white blood cells, plateletsRBC’s: contain hemoglobin, which ismade from iron, gives the r...
Formed ElementsWBC’s: leukocytes- help fight infection   Large, do have a nucleus   Can move in and out of the capillaries...
Formed ElementsPlatelets: thrombocytes- formed when large cells breakup in the bone marrowUsed in blood clotting:   There ...
Capillary exchangeExchange occurs because of two pressures at work inthe capillary: blood pressure and osmotic pressureBlo...
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9b; circulatory system

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  • 9b; circulatory system

    1. 1. Lecture 9b:Circulatory System
    2. 2. Circulatory SystemUsed to transport nutrients and O2 tocells, and to remove CO2 and wasteSome animals do not need circ. systembecause the cells are exposed to wateryenvironment and are close to each other;things can pass via diffusionTMBG video
    3. 3. Open systemFound in Arthropods and some otherinvertebratesHeart-like pump moves hemolymphthrough arteries to the body, and it thendrains back to the heart The heart is essentially open to the body when it is relaxed, closed to the body when it contracts
    4. 4. Closed systemWhat all vertebrates haveBlood is always contained inside the system anddoes not drain into the body unless there is aninjury Heart: anatomy on board Arteries: Carry blood away from heart Veins: Carry blood to the heart Capillaries: Exchange materials with tissue fluid
    5. 5. 3 kinds of vertebrate systemsFish: One circuit loopAmphibians and most reptiles: twocircuit loops, but only one ventricleCrocodilians, birds, mammals: twocircuit loops, 2 atria and 2 ventricles
    6. 6. Human heart
    7. 7. Human Heart- Blood flowFrom body Lungs RA LA RV LV To body
    8. 8. HeartEach chamber of the heart is separatedfrom the other Between each side is the septum Between each atria and ventricle are valves - keep the blood from flowing backwards
    9. 9. HeartbeatWithout the pumping action, the heart isuselessEach beat consists of a series of eventscalled the cardiac cycle Atria contract, ventricles contract, rest Contraction is called systole Relaxation is called diastole
    10. 10. HeartbeatThe beat is controlled by a pacemaker, the SAnode (sinoatrial) Automatically sends out an impulse that causes atria to contract, and signals the AV node (atrioventricular) The AV node then sends out a signal for the ventricles to contract The beat is intrinsic to the heart, but it can be influenced by outside factors, hormones, etc.
    11. 11. Blood vesselsArteries- transport blood away from theheart Heart creates pressure to send blood into the arteries- this is what blood pressure is Have layer of smooth muscle inside to help provide elasticity
    12. 12. Blood vesselsArteries branch into arterioles, smaller arteries Diameter can be regulated by nervous system, to change blood pressureArterioles branch into capillaries, microscopictubes - only one RBC can pass through themat a time Occur in beds, all cells are less than 1mm from a capillary
    13. 13. Blood VesselsVenules collect blood from the capillaries- these aresmall veinsVenules come together in veins, which return bloodto the heart Veins have much less blood pressure, they are thin Skeletal muscles help move blood through the veins Veins have valves that prevent back flow
    14. 14. Two CircuitsPulmonary circuit- O2 poor blood is sentfrom the heart to the lungs, where it isoxygenated and returned to the heartSystemic circuit- O2 rich blood is sentfrom the heart to all of the body, whereO2 is removed for cellular respiration,and then returned to the heart
    15. 15. Lymphatic SystemThis system has several functionsOne main function is to collect excesstissue fluid and return it to the blood Does this by connecting to the subclavian veins in the shoulders Fat is also collected from the digestive system and delivered here
    16. 16. Lymphatic SystemLymphatic vessels are extensive and occurthroughout the bodySimilar to veins in that: they are thin skeletal muscles cause fluid to move they have valves to prevent backflowSystem is a one-way flow- capillaries to largervessels to the lymphatic ducts, which go into thesubclavian veins
    17. 17. Cardiovascular DisordersHypertension - leading cause of prematuredeath in US High blood pressure BP = systolic/ diastolic systolic- pressure during contraction diastolic- pressure during relaxation Normal = 120/80
    18. 18. HypertensionAccumulation of fatty deposits calledplaque in the blood vessels interfereswith the flow of blood = atherosclerosisPrevention includes low fat diet, nosmoking or excessive drinking, plentyof exercise
    19. 19. HypertensionEffects of plaque: Thrombus- clot that forms where the plaque causes an irregular shape Embolus- a clot that breaks free and moves with the blood flow Stroke- caused when a cranial arteriole bursts or is blocked by an embolus, leading to lack of O2 to part of the brain Heart attack- when an embolus (or emboli) blocks coronary arteriole, preventing blood flow to the heart itself
    20. 20. BloodFunctions of blood: 1. Transports things to the capillaries to exchange with tissue fluid 2. Defend the body against pathogens 3. Helps regulate body temperature 4. Forms clots to prevent catastrophic blood loss from an injury
    21. 21. PlasmaThe liquidy stuff!Mostly waterAlso some proteins, salts, nutrients thathelp to keep the pH stable at 7.4 The other components also serve to maintain osmotic pressure so that water will flow into the capillaries
    22. 22. Formed ElementsRed blood cells, white blood cells, plateletsRBC’s: contain hemoglobin, which ismade from iron, gives the red color Transport O2 to the cells Made inside bones: skull, ribs, vertebrae, and the ends of long bones Do not have a nucleus
    23. 23. Formed ElementsWBC’s: leukocytes- help fight infection Large, do have a nucleus Can move in and out of the capillaries, so can be in tissue fluid and lymph as well as in blood Some live a very short time, others can live for years Some engulf and destroy invaders- neutrophils Lymphocytes- produce antibodies- one per cell
    24. 24. Formed ElementsPlatelets: thrombocytes- formed when large cells breakup in the bone marrowUsed in blood clotting: There are at least 12 factors that participate in the formation of a clot The loss of just one can lead to the inability to form clots- can be life threatening Clots are not just for cuts and scrapes- minute tears appear all the time and are repaired internally
    25. 25. Capillary exchangeExchange occurs because of two pressures at work inthe capillary: blood pressure and osmotic pressureBlood pressure causes water to exit capillaries at thearteriole endOsmotic pressure causes water to enter at venule endIn between, pressures are about equal Passive diffusion causes wastes to enter and nutrients to exit

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