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Chapter 22 the french revolution
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Chapter 22 the french revolution

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  • 1. The French Revolution
  • 2. Old Regime • First Estate • 1% of population • Mostly priests w/ many privileges • Second Estate • 2% of population • Nobles who owned 25% of land • Had many privileges as well • Third Estate • 97% of population • Peasants, artists, and bourgeoisie
  • 3. Discontent Grows • 3rd estate began growing angry with their social position • Bourgeoisie wanted more political power • Growing population put strain on resources and raised prices • Previous kings had put nation into severe debt (XIV & XV) • Overseas conflicts (Am. Rev.)
  • 4. Uniting the Estates • Louis XVI tried to tax the nobility but they refused • In May 1789 he called an Estates-General to have them implement taxes • Nobles intended to use the council to weaken the monarchy
  • 5. National Assembly (1789-1791) • 3rd Estate wanted to meet as a delegation to best represent people • They were locked out, so they created the National Assembly • Wanting equality, the Assembly had heated debates and wanted to write a constitution (Tennis Court Oath)
  • 6. THE GREAT FEAR • Assembly mobs stormed the Bastille on July 14th and freed prisoners • Wave of violence throughout the country side followed, with many nobles being driven from their land
  • 7. End of the Old Order • In August 1789, nobles voted to lose power • Declaration of the Rights of Man • Louis XVI refused to accept these changes • Louis was forced to move to Paris • 1791 Constitution limited monarchy and created a unicameral legislature
  • 8. Continued Unrest & Violence • Unrest on the Legislative Assembly (Radicals, Moderates, Conservatives) • Unrest outside the Assembly • Émigrés & Sans-Culottes • King & Queen failed to escape to Austria in June 1791 • Fearing the reinstatement of Louis, war was declared on Austria and Prussia in April 1792 and Louis XVI was arrested (September Massacres)
  • 9. National Convention Reforms (Sep. 1792-1795) • Ended monarchy and formed a republic • Controlled by Radical Jacobins • Implemented the metric system • Beheaded Louis XVI to legitimize the republic in January 1793
  • 10. Revolution Spreads • Radicals won control of the National Convention • Wanted to end monarchies everywhere and expand France • Monarchs of Europe became allies • France adopted conscription to build up the army, angers many
  • 11. Reign of Terror • July 1793-July 1794 • To stop the civil war in France, Robespierre’s Committee of Public Safety executed “traitors” (40,000) • Robespierre’s execution ended the “Terror” but also Jacobin power
  • 12. The Directory (1795-1799) • In 1795, the National Convention had lost all support • A new constitution created the Directory, 2-house legislature • Continued food shortages and inflation doomed the Directory • People began to look for one strong leader once again
  • 13. Rise of Napoleon • Napoleon Bonaparte was a skilled general • Gained fame by defeating the Austrians and winning land for France • He was popular, so when in Paris, he led a coup d´état
  • 14. Napoleon’s Rule • Established a dictatorship in 1799 • Brought order to education and banking systems • Passed Napoleonic Code of laws • Made peace with the Catholic Church (Concordat of 1801)
  • 15. Napoleon’s Empire • By 1812, Napoleon controlled land all the way to Russia • Continental System • Peninsular War • Angry at Russia, Napoleon attacked with 420,000 troops • Defeat eroded Napoleon’s power
  • 16. Napoleon’s Legacy • Though he was a dictator, he spread Enlightenment ideas of equality, toleration and economic reform • Nationalism • Ended Holy Roman Empire • Louisiana Purchase allowed America to become a world Power
  • 17. Peace in Europe
  • 18. Congress of Vienna 1814-1815 • Met in 1814 after 25 years of war • Containment, legitimacy, balance of power • Restored boundaries to 1792 areas • Restored monarchies in France, Spain, & Portugal • Isolated France with buffer states
  • 19. Forces change Europe • Reactionists hoped to stop the spread of liberalism • Alliances formed to prevent spread of nationalism and democracy • Concert of Europe met to avoid any more disturbances or conflicts