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Scientific Revolution

Copernicus

Galileo

Chapter 20

Newton
Science in the Middle Ages
 Most

believed the world was flat
 Most believed theories developed
by Greek philosophers an...
REASONS FOR SCIENTIFIC
REVOLUTION
Exploration created need for new
instruments and a desire to discover
 Printing Press
...
Theories about
the Universe

Nicolaus Copernicus published
heliocentric theory in 1543 (year he died)
 Johannes Kepler us...
Isaac Newton
 Used

scientific method & mathematics
to write “Principia”
 Expanded the ideas of Copernicus,
Kepler, and ...
Scientific Method


Applied to other areas:


Philosophy
 (Bacon,



Descartes)

Instruments
 (Janssen,



Anatomy
...
Effects of Science
 Scientific

thought and method
influenced political theories with
the development of natural laws
 U...
The Enlightenment
Chapter 6 Section 2
Age of Enlightenment
 God

created the universe which was a
giant machine that functioned
according to fixed laws (Newton...
CORE BELIEFS OF
PHILISOPHES
REASON
 NATURE
 HAPPINESS
 PROGRESS
 LIBERTY


(p. 196)
Salon Life
 The

minds and middle class of
Europe mingled with the nobility
 Discussed the new ideas of the era
 Denis ...


Approaches to Natural
Law

Thomas Hobbes

Monarchy was the most stable form of gov’t
 People should give up their free...
Political Reforms

In 1748, Montesquieu wrote “Spirit of
Laws”
 Gov’t should be equally divided among
3 branches of gov’t...
Voltaire
 French

Deist and Philosophe
 Satire criticized the Church and
the Royal Court
 Wrote Candide
 Exiled to Eng...
Rousseau
 Rousseau

criticized civilizations and

institutions
 Social Contract inspired democratic
gov’ts (Differed fro...
Enlightened Despots
 Rulers

respected peoples rights

 Frederick

II of Prussia
 Catherine II of Russia
 Joseph II of...
Chapter 20 scientific revolution
Chapter 20 scientific revolution
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Chapter 20 scientific revolution

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Transcript of "Chapter 20 scientific revolution"

  1. 1. Scientific Revolution Copernicus Galileo Chapter 20 Newton
  2. 2. Science in the Middle Ages  Most believed the world was flat  Most believed theories developed by Greek philosophers and scientists  Catholic doctrine had most believing geocentric theory.
  3. 3. REASONS FOR SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Exploration created need for new instruments and a desire to discover  Printing Press  Monarch Support  Royal Society (England)  Academy of Sciences (France) 
  4. 4. Theories about the Universe Nicolaus Copernicus published heliocentric theory in 1543 (year he died)  Johannes Kepler used math formulas to prove planets moved in ellipses in 1601  Galileo Galilei  Catholic who supported Copernican theory  Inquisition forced him to recant in 1633 
  5. 5. Isaac Newton  Used scientific method & mathematics to write “Principia”  Expanded the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo using calculus to explain his ideas about gravity (1687)
  6. 6. Scientific Method  Applied to other areas:  Philosophy  (Bacon,  Descartes) Instruments  (Janssen,  Anatomy  (Vesalius,  Fahrenheit, Celsius) Harvey, Hooke, Jenner) Chemistry  (Boyle, Priestley)
  7. 7. Effects of Science  Scientific thought and method influenced political theories with the development of natural laws  Universe was a machine  Use of reason to solve problems  Challenge authority and tradition
  8. 8. The Enlightenment Chapter 6 Section 2
  9. 9. Age of Enlightenment  God created the universe which was a giant machine that functioned according to fixed laws (Newton’s Laws)  Deism denounced organized religion as corrupt and exploitive  Focus on individualism and use of reason, not superstition
  10. 10. CORE BELIEFS OF PHILISOPHES REASON  NATURE  HAPPINESS  PROGRESS  LIBERTY  (p. 196)
  11. 11. Salon Life  The minds and middle class of Europe mingled with the nobility  Discussed the new ideas of the era  Denis Diderot combined these writings and ideas into 28 volumes he called the Encyclopedia in 1751  Neoclassical art and classical Music
  12. 12.  Approaches to Natural Law Thomas Hobbes Monarchy was the most stable form of gov’t  People should give up their freedom-Social Contract   John Locke people had natural rights from birth, including life, liberty, and property  gov’t was developed by humans to protect those rights 
  13. 13. Political Reforms In 1748, Montesquieu wrote “Spirit of Laws”  Gov’t should be equally divided among 3 branches of gov’t 
  14. 14. Voltaire  French Deist and Philosophe  Satire criticized the Church and the Royal Court  Wrote Candide  Exiled to England
  15. 15. Rousseau  Rousseau criticized civilizations and institutions  Social Contract inspired democratic gov’ts (Differed from Hobbes)  Origin of injustice is possessions  Private interests must come second to the collective whole
  16. 16. Enlightened Despots  Rulers respected peoples rights  Frederick II of Prussia  Catherine II of Russia  Joseph II of Austria
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