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Chapter 20 scientific revolution
 

Chapter 20 scientific revolution

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    Chapter 20 scientific revolution Chapter 20 scientific revolution Presentation Transcript

    • Scientific Revolution Copernicus Galileo Chapter 20 Newton
    • Science in the Middle Ages  Most believed the world was flat  Most believed theories developed by Greek philosophers and scientists  Catholic doctrine had most believing geocentric theory.
    • REASONS FOR SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION Exploration created need for new instruments and a desire to discover  Printing Press  Monarch Support  Royal Society (England)  Academy of Sciences (France) 
    • Theories about the Universe Nicolaus Copernicus published heliocentric theory in 1543 (year he died)  Johannes Kepler used math formulas to prove planets moved in ellipses in 1601  Galileo Galilei  Catholic who supported Copernican theory  Inquisition forced him to recant in 1633 
    • Isaac Newton  Used scientific method & mathematics to write “Principia”  Expanded the ideas of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo using calculus to explain his ideas about gravity (1687)
    • Scientific Method  Applied to other areas:  Philosophy  (Bacon,  Descartes) Instruments  (Janssen,  Anatomy  (Vesalius,  Fahrenheit, Celsius) Harvey, Hooke, Jenner) Chemistry  (Boyle, Priestley)
    • Effects of Science  Scientific thought and method influenced political theories with the development of natural laws  Universe was a machine  Use of reason to solve problems  Challenge authority and tradition
    • The Enlightenment Chapter 6 Section 2
    • Age of Enlightenment  God created the universe which was a giant machine that functioned according to fixed laws (Newton’s Laws)  Deism denounced organized religion as corrupt and exploitive  Focus on individualism and use of reason, not superstition
    • CORE BELIEFS OF PHILISOPHES REASON  NATURE  HAPPINESS  PROGRESS  LIBERTY  (p. 196)
    • Salon Life  The minds and middle class of Europe mingled with the nobility  Discussed the new ideas of the era  Denis Diderot combined these writings and ideas into 28 volumes he called the Encyclopedia in 1751  Neoclassical art and classical Music
    •  Approaches to Natural Law Thomas Hobbes Monarchy was the most stable form of gov’t  People should give up their freedom-Social Contract   John Locke people had natural rights from birth, including life, liberty, and property  gov’t was developed by humans to protect those rights 
    • Political Reforms In 1748, Montesquieu wrote “Spirit of Laws”  Gov’t should be equally divided among 3 branches of gov’t 
    • Voltaire  French Deist and Philosophe  Satire criticized the Church and the Royal Court  Wrote Candide  Exiled to England
    • Rousseau  Rousseau criticized civilizations and institutions  Social Contract inspired democratic gov’ts (Differed from Hobbes)  Origin of injustice is possessions  Private interests must come second to the collective whole
    • Enlightened Despots  Rulers respected peoples rights  Frederick II of Prussia  Catherine II of Russia  Joseph II of Austria