Chapter 19 royal power and conflict

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  • 1. MONARCHIES OF EUROPE Chapter 5 Philip II Elizabeth I Louis XIV Peter the Great
  • 2. Age of Absolutism • Monarchs had complete authority • Divine Right legitimized their rule to the common people • Period defined by rulers who kept power for decades • Charles V split the Hapsburg Empire when he retired in 1556
  • 3. Spain • Philip II was given control of the western Hapsburg empire • Ruled from 1556-1598 • Philip II was a hard working, suspicious leader as well as devoutly Christian • Married Mary I of England ESCORIAL
  • 4. Social Unrest in Spain • Spanish were a regional people • Castile region in power under Philip II – Language, Capital (Madrid) • Other regions resented Castile
  • 5. Philip’s Religious Policy • Religious minorities faced inquisitorial persecution • Protestantism never took hold in Spain • Efforts to Catholicize the Netherlands led to Dutch independence and a war with England
  • 6. Spanish Armada • Protestant England threatened Catholic Spain worldwide • In 1588, the Spanish Armada attacked England, but was defeated • Defeat marked the beginning of the end of Spanish naval power
  • 7. Golden Century • Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quixote • Expulsion of religious minorities leads to over taxing of middle class • Inflation
  • 8. England
  • 9. Tudors (1485-1603) • • • • Henry VII was first Tudor Henry VIII was most powerful Edward VI (age 9) Mary married Philip II and led a return to Catholicism (1553-1558) • Elizabeth I became Queen in 1558 and ruled for 45 years
  • 10. Elizabeth’s Reign • • • • Intelligent and strong willed Refused marriage Period of cultural growth Social classes were important and fixed • Kept England in severe debt
  • 11. English Foreign Policy • With no more holdings on Europe, English Channel was vital for protection and thus the Navy • Balance of power in Europe helped control growing nations • Conflict existed with Scotland and Ireland • Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
  • 12. FRANCE
  • 13. FRANCE’S BOURBON DYNASTY • Henry IV (1589-1610) – First Bourbon – Edict of Nantes • Louis XIII / Cardinal Richelieu (1610-1643) – Centralize Monarch’s power – Attempted to weaken Hapsburgs
  • 14. LOUIS XIV (1643-1715) • • • • • Gave power to middle class 1685-Cancels Edict of Nantes Moved Capital to Versailles Domestication of the Nobility Wars vs. the Netherlands – League of Augsburg • War of Spanish Succession 17001714
  • 15. GERMAN STATES
  • 16. Conflict • Protestant princes vs. Catholic Hapsburgs • 30 Years War (1618-1648) – Ruined German Economy – French Influence – Peace of Westphalia (p. 170) • • • • • Hapsburgs focus on Austria Maria Theresa Emergence of Prussia (Frederick II) War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) 7 Years War (1756-1763)