MONARCHIES OF EUROPE
Chapter 5
Philip II

Elizabeth I

Louis XIV

Peter the Great
Age of Absolutism
• Monarchs had complete
authority
• Divine Right legitimized
their rule to the common
people
• Period de...
Spain
• Philip II was given
control of the western
Hapsburg empire
• Ruled from 1556-1598
• Philip II was a hard
working, ...
Social Unrest in Spain
• Spanish were a regional people
• Castile region in power under Philip II
– Language, Capital (Mad...
Philip’s Religious Policy
• Religious minorities faced inquisitorial
persecution
• Protestantism never took hold in
Spain
...
Spanish Armada
• Protestant England
threatened Catholic
Spain worldwide
• In 1588, the Spanish
Armada attacked
England, bu...
Golden Century
• Miguel de Cervantes
wrote Don Quixote
• Expulsion of religious
minorities leads to over
taxing of middle ...
England
Tudors (1485-1603)
•
•
•
•

Henry VII was first Tudor
Henry VIII was most powerful
Edward VI (age 9)
Mary married Philip I...
Elizabeth’s Reign
•
•
•
•

Intelligent and strong willed
Refused marriage
Period of cultural growth
Social classes were im...
English Foreign Policy
• With no more holdings on Europe,
English Channel was vital for
protection and thus the Navy
• Bal...
FRANCE
FRANCE’S BOURBON DYNASTY
• Henry IV (1589-1610)
– First Bourbon
– Edict of Nantes

• Louis XIII / Cardinal
Richelieu (1610...
LOUIS XIV (1643-1715)
•
•
•
•
•

Gave power to middle class
1685-Cancels Edict of Nantes
Moved Capital to Versailles
Domes...
GERMAN STATES
Conflict
• Protestant princes vs. Catholic Hapsburgs
• 30 Years War (1618-1648)
– Ruined German Economy
– French Influence...
Chapter 19 royal power and conflict
Chapter 19 royal power and conflict
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Chapter 19 royal power and conflict

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Chapter 19 royal power and conflict

  1. 1. MONARCHIES OF EUROPE Chapter 5 Philip II Elizabeth I Louis XIV Peter the Great
  2. 2. Age of Absolutism • Monarchs had complete authority • Divine Right legitimized their rule to the common people • Period defined by rulers who kept power for decades • Charles V split the Hapsburg Empire when he retired in 1556
  3. 3. Spain • Philip II was given control of the western Hapsburg empire • Ruled from 1556-1598 • Philip II was a hard working, suspicious leader as well as devoutly Christian • Married Mary I of England ESCORIAL
  4. 4. Social Unrest in Spain • Spanish were a regional people • Castile region in power under Philip II – Language, Capital (Madrid) • Other regions resented Castile
  5. 5. Philip’s Religious Policy • Religious minorities faced inquisitorial persecution • Protestantism never took hold in Spain • Efforts to Catholicize the Netherlands led to Dutch independence and a war with England
  6. 6. Spanish Armada • Protestant England threatened Catholic Spain worldwide • In 1588, the Spanish Armada attacked England, but was defeated • Defeat marked the beginning of the end of Spanish naval power
  7. 7. Golden Century • Miguel de Cervantes wrote Don Quixote • Expulsion of religious minorities leads to over taxing of middle class • Inflation
  8. 8. England
  9. 9. Tudors (1485-1603) • • • • Henry VII was first Tudor Henry VIII was most powerful Edward VI (age 9) Mary married Philip II and led a return to Catholicism (1553-1558) • Elizabeth I became Queen in 1558 and ruled for 45 years
  10. 10. Elizabeth’s Reign • • • • Intelligent and strong willed Refused marriage Period of cultural growth Social classes were important and fixed • Kept England in severe debt
  11. 11. English Foreign Policy • With no more holdings on Europe, English Channel was vital for protection and thus the Navy • Balance of power in Europe helped control growing nations • Conflict existed with Scotland and Ireland • Execution of Mary, Queen of Scots
  12. 12. FRANCE
  13. 13. FRANCE’S BOURBON DYNASTY • Henry IV (1589-1610) – First Bourbon – Edict of Nantes • Louis XIII / Cardinal Richelieu (1610-1643) – Centralize Monarch’s power – Attempted to weaken Hapsburgs
  14. 14. LOUIS XIV (1643-1715) • • • • • Gave power to middle class 1685-Cancels Edict of Nantes Moved Capital to Versailles Domestication of the Nobility Wars vs. the Netherlands – League of Augsburg • War of Spanish Succession 17001714
  15. 15. GERMAN STATES
  16. 16. Conflict • Protestant princes vs. Catholic Hapsburgs • 30 Years War (1618-1648) – Ruined German Economy – French Influence – Peace of Westphalia (p. 170) • • • • • Hapsburgs focus on Austria Maria Theresa Emergence of Prussia (Frederick II) War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748) 7 Years War (1756-1763)

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