1. The ReapingThe Ten Biblical Plagues Science vs. Religion What Do You Believe?
2. The Movie :The Reaping•The movie is about a womannamed Katherine who used to bea ordained minister but she losther faith because of thecircumstances behind herfamilies murders.• She is now a scientist whogoes around disproving miracleswith her friend and colleagueBen.•They are asked to travel to asmall town called Haven by thelocal high school science teachernamed Doug.•He wants her to prove to thelocal towns people that a little girl( Loren McConnell who’s life isbeing threatened) has notcaused the town to be cursed bythe ten biblical plagues.
3. Main CharactersKatherine Winter (4) Ben (4)
4. Main Characters ContinuedLoren McConnell (4) Doug (4)
5. River Turned To BloodFiction Idea of Biblical The red river from theRiver Turned To Blood movie. (4)
6. Pfisteria Theory THE PFISTERIA THEORY WAS DEVELOPED BY DRS. JOHN MARR AND CURTIS MALLOY. IT BASICALLY STATES THAT THE BIBLICAL PLAGUES CAN ALL BE EXPLAINED SCIENTIFICALLY AS A UNUSUAL AND TRAGIC SERIES OFEVENTS. EACH EVENT HAS A RATIONAL AND EXPLAINABLE REASON FOR HAPPENING.(1)
7. What is Pfisteria?Pfisteria was discover in1991 by Drs. Ed Noga andJoAnne Buckholder at NCState University.(5)Pfisteria is a dinoflagellatethat can produce toxins thatcause lesions on fish and iteventually kills the fish. Itcan also make people sickif they come in closecontact with thismicroscopic organismcausing burningskin, respiratory problemsand difficultyconcentration.(5)
8. Fish that has been exposed to PfisteriaAccording to the Bible the fish in the Nile river diedand the Nile’s waters were fouled. According to Dr. Marr and Dr. Malloy the pfisteria used all of the oxygen in the water killing the fish.
9. FrogsThe Doctors go on to state that the death of the fish ( who eat the tadpoles)caused an over populationof frogs and because of the depleted oxygen levels of the water the frogs fled to the land. According to the Bible the frogs even found their way into the beds, ovens and larders.However frogs can’t live onland permanently the must have a water habitat to survive and breed so thiscombined with the pfisteriabacteria killed the frogs.(1)
10. LiceDr. Marr and Dr. Malloybegan to search for aninsect that would fit thedescription in the Bible andthey believe that insect isthe Culicoide. (aka. No-see-ums) It lays its eggs inthe sand as described inthe Bible and it feeds ondead animals such as fishand frogs. (1)
11. Flies Flies also used the dead frog and fish bodies as a breeding ground. There would be an explosion ofthese insects because theirnatural predator frogs weredead. This situation made a perfect fly breeding ground.(1)
12. Death of the LivestockCulicoides are carriers for thebluetongue virus which only affectcows and sheep. The Doctors believe Sheep with thethat this is what killed the hoofedlivestock of the Egyptians. Culicoides Bluetongue Virusdon’t fly very well so, they probablywouldn’t have been able to fly to theHebrew land of Goshen and affect theJewish slaves livestock.(1)
13. Boils and Sores Dr. Marr searched for a reason why the Egyptianpeople suffered from boils and sores and he discovered that it could have been caused by a bacterial disease called Glanders. It is verycontagious as an airbornedisease and is spread by flying insects and it also can be spread by eating contaminated meat.(1)
14. Fire from the SkyThis is believed to havebeen a severe lighteningand hail storm thatdestroyed much of theEgyptian crops. Which theydescribed as fire in thesky.(1)
15. Swarms of LocustsThen came the swarms oflocusts that would haveeaten the last of the cropsas well as any newlyplanted seedlings.According to the Doctorsthe ancient Egyptianswould have been afraid tolose the food left for themto eat. They had alreadylost the fish in the river andthe cattle to the bluetonguevirus so they would havetried to save what little foodthey had left.(1)
16. Three Days of Darkness Dr. Marr and Dr.Malloy believe this was caused by a huge sandstorm. Sandstorms produce scorching winds allowing the bacteriaand molds to grow.(1)
17. Death of the Firstborn Because the hail would have broken and beaten the crops. Laying on the ground theywould have been contaminated with locust feces full of microorganisms and bacteria.The Egyptian might have takenthe contaminated grain to theirgranaries allowing microtoxins to grow. According to the Doctors the eldest child in anEgyptian family got the largest portion of food at meal time therefore causing them to get the largest portion of microtoxins causing their deaths.(1)
18. What Do You Believe? Science Religion1) Algal Bloom ( Pfisteria ) 1) River turned to Blood 2) Frogs2) Frogs 3) Lice3) Cuilicoides 4) Flies4) Flies 5) Death of the livestock5) Bluetongue Virus 6) Boils and sores6) Glanders 7) Fire in the sky7) Hail and Lightening 8) Locusts8) Locusts 9) 3 Days of Darkness9) Sandstorm 10) Death of the Firstborn10) Microtoxins
19. Questions• Why did these events • Could God have chosen to happen? use nature in his• Was this just a tragic but punishment of the scientifically explained Egyptian Pharaoh a self series of events? proclaimed “ living God”• Could this ever happen for not freeing the Hebrew again? slaves? • Did the Egyptian Pharaoh cause these events by his lack of his pride and lack of faith?
20. Bibliography• Works Cited• 1)Malloy, Dr. John Marr and Dr. Curtis. "New York Times." 11 2 2002. Epidemiologic Analysis of the 10 Plagues of Egypt. 11 3 2011 <http://www.nytimes.com>.• 2) Office, DHHS Public Affairs. What Should You Know About Pfisteria and NCS Waters. 22 September 1997. 11 3 2011 <http://www.enr.state.nc.us/files/pfies.htm>.• 3) Ravers, Anne. Biblical Plagues: A Novel Theory. 4 April 1996. 11 3 2011 <http://www.nytimes.com/1996/04/04/garden/biblical-plagues-a- novel-theory.html>.• 4) The Reaping. Dir. Stephen Hopkins. Perf. Idris Elba Hillary Swank. 2007.• 5) Worrall, Jim. "National Agricultural Library." 6 June 2002. Review of Systems for Early Detection and Rapid response. 11 3 2011 <http://search.nal.usda.gov>.•