Marine Sediments Types (Detailed)

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Lithogenous, Biogenous, Hydrogenous, and Cosmogenous sediment are explained in detail in this powerpoint.

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Marine Sediments Types (Detailed)

  1. 1.  Diatoms  Photosynthetic algae  Diatomaceous earth Radiolarians  Protozoans  Use external food © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2.  Tests from diatoms and radiolarians generate siliceous ooze. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3.  Coccolithophores  Also called nannoplankton  Photosynthetic algae  Coccoliths – individual plates from dead organism  Rock chalk  Lithified coccolith- rich ooze © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4.  Foraminifera  Protozoans  Use external food  Calcareous ooze © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5.  Depends on three processes:  Productivity  Destruction  Dilution © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6.  Dominated by lithogenous sediment, may contain biogenous sediment Carbonate Deposits  Carbonate minerals containing carbon trioxide (CO3 )  Marine carbonates primarily limestone – CaCO3  Most limestones contain fossil shells  Suggests biogenous origin  Ancient marine carbonates constitute 25% of all sedimentary rocks on Earth. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7.  Stromatolites  Fine layers of carbonate  Warm, shallow- ocean, high salinity  Cyanobacteria © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  10. 10.  Minerals precipitate directly from seawater  Manganese nodules  Phosphates  Carbonates  Metal sulfides Small proportion of marine sediments Distributed in diverse environments © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11.  Fist-sized lumps of manganese, iron, and other metals Very slow accumulation rates Grows ~1 centimeter over several million years Many commercial uses © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12.  Phosphates  Phosphorus-bearing  Occur beneath areas in surface ocean of very high biological productivity  Economically useful as fertilizer Carbonates  Aragonite and calcite  Oolites © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13.  Metal sulfides  Contain:  Iron  Nickel  Copper  Zinc  Silver  Other metals  Associated with hydrothermal vents © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14.  Evaporites  Minerals that form when seawater evaporates  Restricted open ocean circulation  High evaporation rates  Halite (common table salt) and gypsum © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15.  Macroscopic meteor debris Microscopic iron- nickel and silicate spherules (small globular masses)  Tektites  Space dust Overall, insignificant proportion of marine sediments © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
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  17. 17.  Energy resources  Petroleum  Mainly from continental shelves  Gas hydrates Sand and gravel (including tin, gold, and so on) Evaporative salts Phosphorite Manganese nodules and crusts © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. 19. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

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