Equivalent Exposures For every photograph, there are a number of aperture/shutter speed combinations that allow exactly the same amount of light to strike the camera’s CCD, resulting in exactly the same amount of exposure. These are called EQUIVALENT EXPOSURES.
Indicates the camera's sensitivity to light
The ISO scale for the a typical digital camera is: 100 - 160 - 200 - 400 - 800 - 1600 - 3200
The higher the ISO number the more sensitive your camera is to light.
Use a high ISO if you want to shoot in low light
Every time an ISO doubles or halves it is a change of 1 STOP
Therefore ISO 400 is 1 stop more light sensitive than ISO 200
ISO settings determine the amount of digital 'noise' High ISO settings (left) allow you to shoot in low light, but create digital noise.
For the best quality image, always use the lowest ISO that will give you enough exposure for a good picture in your lighting conditions.
Preset exposure modes: Auto, Program or Scene
Safest bet if you don't want to customize your shot
Picks the best exposure combination for the mode you select (landscape, macro, portrait etc)
Does not allow any customization of your image
Uses a large aperture (small number) which helps to keep your background out of focus (ie it sets a narrow depth of field – ensuring your subject is the only thing in focus and is therefore the centre of attention in the shot).
Portrait mode works best when you’re photographing a single subject so get in close to your subject
Used to take a close up picture (flowers, insects, etc).
Focussing is more difficult as at short distances the depth of field is very narrow (just millimeters at times).
Keep your camera and the object you’re photographing parallel if possible or you’ll find a lot of it will be out of focus.
Use a tripod
Uses a small aperture (large number) to make sure as much of the scene you’re photographing will be in focus as possible (ie it give you a large depth of field).
At times your camera might also select a slower shutter speed in this mode (to compensate for the small aperture) so you might need to use a tripod.
Uses a fast shutter speed to freeze action
Try panning your camera along with the subject and/or attempt to pre-focus your camera on a spot where the subject will be when you want to photograph it (takes practice).
Aperture priority mode
You select the aperture, the camera chooses the shutter speed to create a good exposure
Use this if you want to control the depth of field
What F Stop would you use for a wide depth of field?
F16 or 22
What F Stop would you use for a narrow depth of field?
F4 or 5.6
Shutter priority mode
You select the shutter speed, the camera chooses the F Stop to create a good exposure
Use this if you want to blur or freeze motion
What shutter speed would you use to blur motion?
1/60 or less
What shutter speed would you use to freeze motion?
1/250 or higher
MANUAL: You set the ISO number.
AUTO: The camera sets the ISO mode that will give you the best image under your lighting conditions.
Not all digital cameras have a manual ISO mode; many point & shoot cameras have fully automatic ISO settings only.
Exposure modes: ISO
How cameras measure light
A camera’s internal reflective light meter is designed to give good exposure results when pointed at a scene with typical — more or less even—distributions of light and dark tonal values, like the scene below.
The tonal values in a typical, well-exposed scene, when averaged together, will form a single MIDDLE-GREY value. Middle Grey* This value is also known a s 18% GREY because it reflects 18% of the light that strikes it when it is reproduced on printed matter.
Your camera’s light meter sees the scene only as a single gray tonal value, which it compares to the averaged tonal distribution of a typical scene, middle grey. Middle Grey How a light meter sees any scene—as a single grey value
Since most scenes have a typical distribution of light and dark values, you can point your camera at most scenes in general and get good exposure results.
Middle Grey Your camera light meter will see a typical scene which is overexposed as a grey tonal value which is lighter than middle grey. It will decrease exposure to correct this, until the scene is a middle grey.
Your light meter will see a tonally typical scene which is underexposed as grey tonal value which is darker than middle grey. It will correct by increasing exposure – lightening the tonal value—until it is middle grey. Exposure Corrected to Middle Grey Middle Grey
If you have a manual exposure setting on your camera, you can use a grey card to set your exposure for a scene. http://tinyurl.com/3ehsksl Taking a grey card reading
Center -weighted averaging metering mode: meters entire scene, most heavily in the center. Multi-pattern metering mode: Measures brightness over several independent segments across the screen. Useful when you have a range of darks and lights. Spot (averaging) metering mode: for metering a very small area of the scene. Exposure metering modes
Shooting a scene at normal exposure, then taking extra shots which are overexposed and/or underexposed in order to record a range of exposures.
Normal F/4 +1 Stop F/2.8 -1 Stop F/5.6
3 ways to achieve bracketing
Some cameras have AUTOMATIC BRACKETING which allows the user to program the camera to automatically bracket by up to 5 stops, usually in 1/3 or ½ stop increments (depending on the camera model) over 2 or more exposures.
Bracketing can also be done manually, using your camera’s EXPOSURE COMPENSATION control.
Bracketing can be achieved in Manual exposure mode by adjusting your camera’s aperture and/or shutter speed to overexpose or underexpose
Your camera’s exposure compensation control allows you to underexpose (darken) or overexpose (lighten) your image in stops to insure proper exposure, or for creative control. Typical Exposure Compensation camera icon Exposure Compensation
A typical digital camera Exposure Compensation display may look similar to this.
EV stands for exposure value. Exposure values are measured in stops.
This camera display indicates that exposure compensation can be adjusted in ½ stop increments. Many digital cameras also can be adjusted in 1/3 stop increments.
Dynamic Range The camera cannot record the same range (dynamic range) of lights and darks that we see with our eyes. For example, we can see details in a scene outside and inside a window. But a camera cannot display both of these, therefore we have to choose to portray one or the other. This is the camera's limitation.
Dynamic Range Photo exposed using aperture-priority mode, no exposure compensation
Dynamic Range Photo exposed using aperture-priority mode, 2 stops exposure compensation
Your digital camera’s White Balance settings adjust your camera so that it reproduces natural looking color in most lighting situations. DAYLIGHT FLUORESCENT TUNGSTEN OPEN SHADE OVERCAST SKIES AUTOMATIC WB CUSTOM WB FLASH
Natural daylight is white. Your digital camera’s Daylight White Balance setting adjusts your camera so that it reproduces color accurately in daylight and all other lighting conditions.
However, if you shoot under lights that are not white, you will see a color cast in your digital photographs.
Tungsten light, for instance, has a red-orange-yellow cast.
Fluorescent lights may have a yellow, green, blue, or magenta cast.
Daylight white balance setting shows blue cast LIGHT SOURCE: FLUORESCENT LIGHTS
Fluorescent white balance setting corrects blue color cast LIGHT SOURCE: FLUORESCENT LIGHTS
Daylight white balance setting shows yellow cast LIGHT SOURCE: TUNGSTEN
TUNGSTEN white balance setting: Corrects yellow cast LIGHT SOURCE: TUNGSTEN
LIGHTING CONDITIONS: OPEN SHADE Shadows in open shade are blue because the light source is the blue sky.
Open shade WB setting corrects blue color cast. LIGHTING CONDITION: OPEN SHADE
Overcast skies give scene slightly green color cast LIGHTING CONDITIONS: Overcast Skies
“ Overcast” WB camera setting corrects green color cast LIGHTING CONDITIONS: Overcast Skies
For shooting in most lighting conditions—even mixed—for instance, tungsten with daylight coming in windows. Usually does good job. Good for general shooting. LIGHTING CONDITIONS: ANY
CUSTOM WHITE BALANCE: Produces more precise color corrections based on white card reading, than other WB settings. LIGHTING CONDITIONS: ANY
AF-S (S: Single-AF servo)
AF-C (C: Continuous-AF servo)
MF (M: Manual focus)
FOCUS MODES Allow users to select HOW the camera focuses
AF-S (S: Single-AF servo)
AF-C (C: Continuous-AF servo)
MF (M: Manual focus)
AF AREA MODES
Allow the user to change the focusing method used for automatic
focusing (when the focusing mode is set to S-AF or C-AF. )
These settings generally determine WHERE in the scene the camera
will automatically focus using focus areas.
In this example, AF focus areas are
Indicated by “+” symbols.
You may choose one of these areas
as an autofocus point, or let the
camera choose automatically.
Your camera may use some other
symbol or icon to indicate AF areas.
Check your manual.
AF Area Modes
Single-Frame: One shot is taken each time you press the shutter release. Use this mode to take a single clearly defined shot in each frame. Continuous Shooting: This mode allows you to take consecutive shots by holding down the shutter release. (Generally cannot be used with built-in flash. Self-timer Mode: Sets the camera to delay exposure for a preset period after you press the shutter release. Use when you want to be in the photograph, or to reduce camera shake. Use a tripod or place the camera on a stable surface before using the self-timer.