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Nwmp & Treaties
Nwmp & Treaties
Nwmp & Treaties
Nwmp & Treaties
Nwmp & Treaties
Nwmp & Treaties
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Nwmp & Treaties

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Transcript

  • 1. WHISKEY TRADE
    • 1869-1874 WHISKEY WAS TRADED IN THE CANADIAN WEST BY AMERICANS OUT OF FORT WHOOP-UP IN WHAT WAS TO BECOME SOUTHERN ALBERTA
      • FIRST NATIONS SUFFERED AS ALCOHOLISM DESTROYED TRADITIONAL HUNTING & FOOD GATHERING
    • PRIME MINISTER MACDONALD HAD REPORTS OF THIS PROBLEM BUT FELT NO PRESSURE TO ACT UNTIL THE CYPRESS HILLS MASSACRE OF MAY 1874
    FORT WHOOP-UP NEAR PRESENT DAY LETHBRIDGE ALBERTA
  • 2. CYPRESS HILLS MASSACRE
    • IN MAY 1873, (note error in your text, pg. 188) AMERICAN AND CANADIAN WHISKEY TRADERS ATTACK ASSINIBOINE INDIANS THEY SUSPECTED OF STEALING THEIR HORSES
      • THE AMERICAN HORSES HAD WANDERED OFF AND THE TRADERS WERE DRUNK DURING THE ATTACK
    • 20-36 NATIVES AND ONE AMERICAN WERE KILLED, 5 ASSINIBOINE WOMEN WERE RAPED
      • THE AMERICANS LATER BRAG OF THIS INCIDENT
    • IN THE UNITED STATES NEWS OF THE CYPRESS HILLS MASSACRE WAS GREETED AS A VICTORY OVER LAWLESS SAVAGES
    • IN CANADA THE EVENT WAS TREATED AS AN UNPROVOKED AMERICAN ATTACK
      • CANADIANS DEMANDED LAWLESSNESS END IN THE WEST
    • PREVIOUSLY STALLED PLANS TO ESTABLISH A POLICE FORCE FOR THE WEST PROCEED
  • 3. NORTH WEST MOUNTED POLICE
    • AMID MUCH FOOT DRAGGING, THE BILL AUTHORIZING A POLICE FORCE FOR THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY WAS APPROVED THE SAME MONTH AS THE CYPRESS HILLS MASSACRE
    • RECRUITING BEGAN IN AUGUST - THE INITIAL FORCE OF 150 FORMER MILITIA REACHING LOWER FORT GARRY IN OCTOBER 1873
    • AN ADDITIONAL 150 ARRIVE THE NEXT SUMMER BEFORE THE FORCE SET OUT FOR FORT WHOOP-UP ON 8 JULY 1874
    • AFTER MANY DIFFICULTIES THE NWMP FINDS THE ABANDONED FORT AT THE END OF SEPTEMBER
    JOHN FRENCH, 1 ST COMMISSIONER OF THE NWMP, RECRUITING NEW MEMBERS
  • 4. NUMBERED TREATIES
    • SEVEN TREATIES WERE SIGNED BETWEEN 1871 AND 1877 THAT SAW LAND OWNERSHIP SHIFT TO THE GOVERNMENT IN OTTAWA
    • MOST NATIVE LEADERS BELIEVED THEY HAD NO CHOICE BUT TO SEEK THE BEST TERMS POSSIBLE FROM THE GOVERNMENT
      • BUFFALO HERDS WERE ON THE VERGE OF EXTINCTION FROM OVER HUNTING AND EXTERMINATION IN THE U.S. AS A MILITARY TACTIC IN THE INDIAN WARS
      • SETTLEMENT WAS A FACT AND PRIOR EXPERIENCE SHOWED IT COULD NOT BE HALTED
    • CANADIAN GOVERNMENT BELIEVED THAT ABORIGINAL RIGHTS HAD TO BE PURCHASED BEFORE SETTLEMENT COULD BEGIN
      • PRECEDENT SET BY PROCLAMATION OF 1763
      • CANADIAN GOVERNMENT HAS LITTLE REAL POWER IN THE WEST – LOW EUROPEAN POPULATION
  • 5. NUMBERED TREATIES
    • FIRST NATIONS INITIALLY SOUGHT TO GRANT ROUTES THROUGH THEIR TERRITORY WHILE RETAINING THE BULK OF THE LAND
    • SOME HISTORIANS HAVE ARGUED THAT FIRST NATIONS CONCEPTS OF PROPERTY OWNERSHIP WERE AT ODDS WITH THE EUROPEAN DEFINITIONS
      • A PERSON OR GROUP COULD OWN THE RIGHT TO CONDUCT A PARTICULAR ACTIVITY ON A SPECIFIC PIECE OF LAND BUT COMPLETE TITLE WAS NOT PART OF FIRST NATIONS CULTURE
      • TREATIES MEANT EUROPEAN SETTLERS RECEIVED THE RIGHT TO FARM ON PROPERTY BUT NATIVES RETAINED RIGHTS FOR FISHING, HUNTING AND EXTRACTING OTHER RESOURCES
    • LAST HOLDOUTS WANT A CONTINUOUS SWATH OF INDIAN TERRITORY
    NUMBERED TREATIES OF THE CANADIAN PRAIRIES
  • 6. NUMBERED TREATIES
    • TREATIES 1 & 2 WITH CHIPPEWA AND CREE IN SOUTHERN MANITOBA, 1871
    • TREATY 3 WITH SALTEAUX AND OJIBWAY IN WESTERN ONTARIO, 1871
    • TREATY 4 WITH CREE AND SALTEAUX IN SOUTHERN SASKATCHEWAN, 1874
    • TREATY 5 WITH SALTEAUX AND SWAMPY CREE IN NORTHERN MANITOBA, 1875
    • TREATY 6 WITH PLAIN AND WOOD CREE IN CENTRAL ALBERTA AND SASKATCHEWAN, 1876
    • TREATY 7 WITH BLACKFEET IN SOUTHERN ALBERTA, 1877

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