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Acids & Bases
Acids & Bases
Acids & Bases
Acids & Bases
Acids & Bases
Acids & Bases
Acids & Bases
Acids & Bases
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Acids & Bases

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A set of slides created to teach Titrations to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

A set of slides created to teach Titrations to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

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  • 1. For FULL presentation click HERE >> WarneScience Acids & Bases K Warne WEAK STRONG [H3O+] (mol/dm3) Log [H3O+] pH= - log[H3O+] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 B A S E SA C I D S W A T E R WEAKSTRONG NEUTRAL 1 0.1 0.01 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-14 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 12 -13 -14
  • 2. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> WarneScience Acid strength & pH H3O+ concentration (mol/dm3) 1 0.01 0.001 Strong acids Weak acids 0.0001 0.000001 (1x10-4) (1x10-5)  Diluting a strong acid by a factor of ten changes its pH by one unit. pH = - log10[H3O+] WEAK STRONG [H3O+] (mol/dm3) Log [H3O+] pH= - log[H3O+] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 B A S E SA C I D S W A T E R WEAKSTRONG NEUTRAL 1 0.1 0.01 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-14 0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 12 -13 -14 2
  • 3. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> WarneScience Acids - Ionisation All acids ……………..in solution to give ….. ions. HCl  H+ + Cl- (100%) HCl (+ H2O)  ………(aq) + Cl- (aq) H2O + H+  ……… Nitric Acid: HNO3  …… + NO3 - (nitrate anion) Sulphuric Acid: H2SO4  …… + SO4 2- (sulphate anion) Carbonic Acid: H2CO3  …… + CO3 2- (carbonate anion) Ethanoic acid: CH3COOH  …… + CH3COO- (ethanoate anion) 3
  • 4. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> WarneScience Acids - Ionisation All acids ionise in solution to give H+ ions. HCl  H+ + Cl- (100%) HCl (+ H2O)  H3O+ (aq) + Cl- (aq) H2O + H+  H3O+ Nitric Acid: HNO3  H+ + NO3 - (nitrate anion) Sulphuric Acid: H2SO4  2H+ + SO4 2- (sulphate anion) Carbonic Acid: H2CO3  2H+ + CO3 2- (carbonate anion) Ethanoic acid: CH3COOH  H+ + CH3COO- (ethanoate anion) 4
  • 5. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> WarneScience SALTS  A SALT is a compound formed when a metal is ionically bonded to a non-metal.  Salts are formed in many acid-base reactions. Acid + Metal  SALT + hydrogen Acid + Metal Oxide  SALT + water Acid + Metal hydroxide  SALT + water Acid + Metal carbonate  SALT + carbon dioxide + water Acid + Metal hydrogen carbonate  SALT + carbon dioxide + water SALT ACID BASE ACID BASE SALT MgCl2 HCL Mg HCl Mg(OH)2 MgCl2 Fe(NO3)2 HNO3 Fe(OH)2 H2SO3 NaOH Na2SO3 MgCO3 H2 CO3 MgO H2CO3 CaO CaCO3 Al2 (SO4 )3 H2 SO4 Al(OH)3 H2CO3 CaCO3 CaCO3 (NH4)3 PO4 H3PO4 NH3 H2SO4 Mg MgSO4.SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY 5
  • 6. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> WarneScience Cl- Acids - ionisation 2 H+ H+ H+ Cl- Cl- Cl- H+ H+ Cl- Cl- 20 HCl Dilute Strong acid • all molecules dissociated • few molecules / dm3. Concentrated Strong Acid: • All molecules dissociated • Many molecules per dm3 H Cl H+ Cl- Cl- Cl- Cl- H+ H+ H+ H+ H+H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ Cl- Cl- Cl- Cl- Cl- H Cl 6
  • 7. pH calculations 1 Equations pH = -log10[H+] [H+] = 10-pH Example: Calculate the pH for a specific [H+]: Given [H+] = 1.4 x 10-5 M  pH = log10[H+] = log10(1.4 x 10-5) = 4.85 Calculate the [H+] from pH: Given pH = 3.5 [H+] = 10-pH = 10-3.5 = 3.16 x 10-4 mol.dm-3 SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY 7
  • 8. Hi - This is a SAMPLE presentation only. My FULL presentations, which contain a lot more more slides and other resources, are freely available on my resource sharing website: www.warnescience.net (click on link or logo) Have a look and enjoy! WarneScience

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