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G11 Chemistry Revision Course
 

G11 Chemistry Revision Course

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A set of slides created to teach G11 Chemistry Revision Course to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

A set of slides created to teach G11 Chemistry Revision Course to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

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    G11 Chemistry Revision Course G11 Chemistry Revision Course Presentation Transcript

    • Grade 11 Revision K Warne
    • G12 Prior knowledge from 10 & 11
      • the use of equations of motion in solving problems dealing with momentum, work, energy and power
      • the use of Newton’s first, second and third laws of motion
      • conservation of mechanical energy
      • sound waves and properties of sound
      • electromagnetism
      • Stoichiometric calculations
      • Concentration calculations
      • Balancing of chemical equations
      • Use of oxidation numbers
      • Identification and description of intermolecular forces (Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds)
    • G12 Prior knowledge from 10 & 11
      • the use of equations of motion in solving problems dealing with momentum, work, energy and power
      • the use of Newton’s first, second and third laws of motion
      • conservation of mechanical energy
      • sound waves and properties of sound
      • electromagnetism
      • Stoichiometric calculations
      • Concentration calculations
      • Balancing of chemical equations
      • Use of oxidation numbers
      • Identification and description of intermolecular forces (Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds)
    • G12 Prior knowledge from 10 & 11
      • the use of equations of motion in solving problems dealing with momentum, work, energy and power
      • the use of Newton’s first, second and third laws of motion
      • conservation of mechanical energy
      • sound waves and properties of sound
      • electromagnetism
      • Stoichiometric calculations
      • Concentration calculations
      • Balancing of chemical equations
      • Use of oxidation numbers
      • Identification and description of intermolecular forces (Van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds)
    • G11 Session 2
      • Decimal conversions
      • Concentration Calculations
      • Calculations map
      • No. of particles
      • Redox reactions
    • Decimal Conversions 1 / 100 c enti c alled 1 / 10 d eci d eath 1 / 1000 1 10 100 1000 m illi m (unit) D ecca H ecta K ilo m easles a m iserable D ied H enry K ing
    • Volume Conversions
      • 1 dm = ……. cm
      • 1 dm 3 = ……… cm 3
      • 1 m 3 = ……………… dm 3 = ……………………………. cm 3
      … .cm 3 ………………………………… …… cm 3 …… cm 3 …… . cm 3 ... m 3
    • Volume Conversions
      • 1 dm = 10 cm
      • 1 dm 3 = 1000 cm 3
      • 1 m 3 = 1000 dm 3 = 1 000 000 cm 3
      1cm 3 1 dm 3 (1 litre) 10 cm 3 10 cm 3 10 cm 3 1 m 3
    • Concentration - Molarity
      • T h e concentration of a solution is defined as the ………………. of ……………………… per ………………. (dm 3 ) of ………………… .
      Final volume of …………….. 500cm 3 = + Concentration = Amount of ……… (……….) Volume of ……………… 30g of NaCl C = n v solute solute
    • Concentration - Molarity
      • T h e concentration of a solution is defined as the AMOUNT of SOLUTE per LITRE (dm 3 ) of SOLUTION .
      c(NaCl) = ( m / Mr ) x 1 / v = ( (30 / (23+35.5) )x 1 / 0.5 = Final volume of solution 500cm 3 = + Concentration = Amount of solute (moles) Volume of solution 30g of NaCl n v C = solute solute
    • The Mole
      • The mole is defined as, “the amount of matter with the same number of elementary particles as 12 grams of carbon 12”.
      • 602 300 000 000 000 000 000 000
      • Six hundred and two thousand, three hundred, billion billion !
      • 6.023x10 23 particles
      12.00 g C Symbol (L) Number of particles = no of moles x no. particles in a mole Particles = n x L
    • Mole Calculations ASKED GIVEN MOLES MOLES MASS MASS VOLUME VOLUME CONCENTRATION CONCENTRATION MOLAR RATIO Number Of particles Number Of particles
    • Mixed example
      • Ammonia gas is made by reacting ammonium chloride with calcium hydroxide according to:
      • NH 4 Cl + Ca(OH) 2  NH 3 + CaCl 2 + H 2 O
      • If 32.1 g of ammonium chloride reacts with 500 cm 3 of a 0.75 M calcium hydroxide solution, Show by calculation; which is the limiting reagent, what volume of ammonia is produced at S.T.P in m 3 and how many hydroxide ions are left after the reaction?
    • Redox Reactions
      • Involve electron transfer
      • Oxidation is ……….. Reduction is ………… O…. R….
      • Na  Na + + e - Cl 2 + 2e -  2Cl -
      • Both processes ALWAYS occur ………………...
      • Oxidation is caused by …………… AGENTS – …………… !!
      • Na  Na + + e - , Na ……………… .: ………….. agent!! (Good one)
      • Reduction is caused by …………… AGENTS – …………… !
      • Cl 2 + 2e -  2Cl - , Cl 2 ………………. .: …………….. agent! (Good)
      • OVERALL: 2Na + Cl 2  Na + + 2Cl -
    • Redox Reactions
      • Involve electron transfer
      • Oxidation is loss Reduction is gain OIL RIG
      • Na  Na + + e - Cl 2 + 2e -  2Cl -
      • Both processes ALWAYS occur together.
      • Oxidation is caused by OXIDIZNG AGENTS – REDUCED !!
      • Na  Na + + e - , Na oxidised .: reducing agent!! (Good one)
      • Reduction is caused by REDUCING AGENTS – OXIDISED !
      • Cl 2 + 2e -  2Cl - , Cl 2 reduced .: Oxidizing agent! (Good)
      • 0 0 +1 -1
      • OVERALL: 2Na + Cl 2  Na + + 2Cl -
      • Reactions written as reductions.
      • Positive potentials accept electrons are good OXIDISING AGENTS .
      • Negativ e potentials donate electrons are good REDUCING AGENTS .
      ELECTROCHEMICAL SSERIES Electrochemical half-cell potentials are listed from +ve to –ve E θ values. Reactions take place
      • Reactions written as reductions.
      • Positive potentials accept electrons are good OXIDISING AGENTS .
      • Negativ e potentials donate electrons are good REDUCING AGENTS .
      ELECTROCHEMICAL SERIES Electrons flow in external circuit. Electrochemical half-cell potentials are listed from +ve to –ve E θ values. Oxidizing Agents REDUCING AGENTS Reactions take place Top LEFT to bottom RIGHT
    • Oxidation numbers
      • Oxidation numbers can be used to identify oxidation and reduction as well as balance equations – particularly when it is difficult to identify e - transfer.
      • Oxidation numbers are …………… charges that an atom of an element ……………. in a compound, if all bonds were ………….. .
      H = …., O = ….. NH 3 H = ….., N = ….. O H H  +  -
    • Oxidation numbers
      • Oxidation numbers can be used to identify oxidation and reduction as well as balance equations – particularly when it is difficult to identify e - transfer.
      • Oxidation numbers are imaginary charges that an atom of an element would have in a compound, if all bonds were ionic .
      H = +1, O = -2 NH 3 H = +1, N = -3 O H H  +  -
    • Oxidation number rules
      • The O.N. of a free element is 0
      • Hydrogen is +1, (except hydrides -1)
      • Metals: GI +1, GII +2, GIII +3, Zn +2
      • Halides -1, Oxides -2, sulphides -2, nitrides -3
      • The O.N. of a simple ion is equal to its ionic charge
      • i.e. Mg 2+ O.N. is +2
      • In allocation of O.N., charge is conserved i.e.
        • the sum of the total O.N. of the atoms in a compound is zero, Na + Cl - +1 = (-1) = 0
        • while that for a polyatomic ion is equal to ionic charge on the ion. MnO 4 -
        • Mn +7 + (4xO -2) = -1
    • BALANCING HALF REACTIONS
      • Balance oxygens by adding H 2 O
      • Balance hydrogens by adding H + ions
      • Balance charges by adding electrons ( to most + side )
      • (Balanced M’s & NM’s first)
      • To combine 1 / 2 reactions
      • Multiply by suitable factors to equal out the electrons.
      • Add the reactions and cancel things appearing on both sides.
      • Add spectator ions.
    • Redox Example
      • An iron II solution can be standardized using a permanganate solution according to the reaction:
      • FeCl 2 + KMnO 4  FeCl 3 + Mn 2+
      • Determine;
      • the oxidation states of all reacting species
      • The forumula of the oxidising and reducing agents
      • the balanced overall (ionic) reaction
      • The identity of spectator ions in the given reaction