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Equilibria 1

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A set of slides created to teach Equilibria 1 to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

A set of slides created to teach Equilibria 1 to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

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  • 1. Chemical Equilibrium SAMPLE ONLY K Warne SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net
  • 2. Chemical Equilibrium 1. 2. A + B A + B 1. Reaction begins. • • No products yet formed. • High rate of collisions between A & B. • Rate of forward reaction HIGH. SAMPLE ONLY 4. 3. C + D 2 & 3 Products formed • A + B C + D 4. Rate of forward • reaction EQUAL to • Collisions rate of reverse between reactants reaction. decrease. • Dynamic • Rate of forward equilibrium reaction established. DECREASES • Concentrations • Reverse reaction SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY constant. begins. For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net
  • 3. Reactants ............. Products .............. time Products <1 Reactants SAMPLE ONLY C + D Reactants ................ Products ............... time Products =1 Reactants SAMPLE ONLY To right Concentration A + B Concentration SHIFTED To Left Concentration Equilibrium Position SHIFT Products ................ Reactants ................. time Products >1 Reactants SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net
  • 4. Adding Reactants Reactant added reactants Equilibrium Shifts New equilibrium Conc. products A + B established •Fwd. Rate increases •Reactant [ ] decrease •Product [ ] increases C + D time reactant More .................... added Reactant concentration increases (prod conc. Decreases) ................. Forward reaction rate ................... increases increases Reactant concentration decreases /Product concentration ............ & ................. Reverse reaction rate .................... increases New equilibrium established - higher ratio of ....... RIGHT PRODUCTS/REACTANTS - equilibrium shifted to .................. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net
  • 5. Since the concentration of all substances are constant at a fixed temperature. Each equilibrium has a constant e.g. for H2(g) + I2(g) 2HI(g) 2 N.B [HI] Kc = [H2 ][I2 ] [H2] means conc. of ... Kc is only determined by the concentrations of solutions and gases. PureONLY & solidsSAMPLE ONLY are not included in the equation – SAMPLE liquids SAMPLE ONLY their concentrationspresentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net For FULL are constant.
  • 6. Kc Calculation Examples 8 Initial: Reacts: Eqm: [conc]: 3H2 + 8mol 6mol 2mol 2/2 N2  8mol 2mol 6mol 6/2 [NH3]2 (4/2)2 Kc = [H2]3 [N2] = (2/2)3 (6/2) = 1.33 SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY 2NH3 0mol 4mol 4/2 SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net
  • 7. Ea E prod E react Potential Energy Potential Energy Effect of a Catalyst Ea E react E prod • A CATALYST lowers the ACTIVATION ENERGY of the reaction by providing a different reaction pathway. • Activation Energy is lowered for BOTH FORWARD AND REVERSE REACTIONS. • BOTH rates are therefore increased by the same amount and so the EQUILIBRIUM DOES NOT SHIFT!!!! SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net
  • 8. N2(g) + 3H2(g) 2NH3(g) (H < 0) Favorable conditions: • High • High • LOW • LOW [NH3 ]2 Kc =[N2 ][H2 ]3 Kc In practice a ……………………. Temperature is used. Too ………………… will slow the reaction down. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY time SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net
  • 9. 2  4 6 EXAM QUESTIONS SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY Nov 2010 SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net
  • 10. WarneScience Hi… This is a SAMPLE presentation only. My FULL presentations, which contain a lot more slides and other resources, are freely available on my resource sharing website: www.warnescience.net (paste into your browser if link above does not work) Have a look and enjoy! SAMPLE ONLY Keith Warne SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net