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Bonding

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A set of slides created to teach Bonding to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

A set of slides created to teach Bonding to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

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  • 1. Bonding K Warne ClH X + -
  • 2. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net  F        F      O X X X X X X Fluorine oxide (OF2 ) F F O By sharing pairs of electrons all bonding atoms now effectively have a full outer shell (8 electrons). O X X X X X XF      Lewis structure Couper Structure Fluorine atom Oxygen atom 2
  • 3. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Covalent Molecules  CH4, H2O, NH3,  CO2, NH4 +, SAMPLE ONLY 3SAMPLE ONLY
  • 4. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Lewis acid & base  Try and draw the other two and identify the coordinate bonds. H3NBF3 Cu(NH3)4 + Cu(H2O)6 2+ SAMPLE ONLY 4 SAMPLE ONLY
  • 5. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Electronegativity in a Group H Li Na Group 1Electronegativity DECREASES from TOP to BOTTOM in a group as the number of shells increase bonding electrons (outer) are further from nucleus and therefore LESS strongly attracted. ElectronegativityDECREASES SAMPLE ONLY 5SAMPLE ONLY
  • 6. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Electronegativity Trends H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Electronegativity INCREASES from LEFT to RIGHT as the number of protons in the nucleus INCREASES and bonding electrons (outer) are more strongly attracted. Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Electronegativity DECREASES from TOP to BOTTOM in a group as the number of shells increase bonding electrons (outer) are LESS strongly attracted. SAMPLE ONLY 6SAMPLE ONLY
  • 7. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Polar Covalent Bond Each side of the molecule has a small charge due to the electrons being UNEQUALLY SHARED. Chlorine has a higher electro negativity than hydrogen. The “” symbol (delta) stands for small amount or small change. > This type of bonding exists when there is a relatively large difference in electronegativity between the bonding atoms. A dipole (two poles) has been created. Electron density diagram - more electron density around the chlorine - ClH X + SAMPLE ONLY 7SAMPLE ONLY
  • 8. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Bond Polarity in Water The oxygen atom has greater electronegativity so it attracts the electrons more strongly than the hydrogen atoms. O H H - + + The water molecule is a DIPOLE - it has two oppositely charged “poles”. + -O H O H H + - H This unequal sharing of electrons creates a polar molecule has two oppositely charged areas in it. SAMPLE ONLY 8SAMPLE ONLY
  • 9. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Formation of Ionic Bond A large amount of energy (lattice) is released when the gaseous ions bond together into the ionic crystal lattice. Ionic compounds are therefore very stable and require large amounts of energy to break the bonding. Ionic compounds have HIGH MELTING POINTS we say they are thermally stable. Na(s) + 1/2 Cl2(g) NaCl(s) Na(g) + 1/2 Cl2(g) Na(g) + Cl(g) Na+ (g) + e- + Cl(g) Na+ (g) + Cl- (g) Ionisation Energy Dissociation Energy Sublimation Energy Electron Affinity Lattice Energy Born-Haber Cycle SAMPLE ONLY 9 SAMPLE ONLY
  • 10. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Bonding Summary Covalent  Non metals  Shared electrons  Molecules Ionic • Metals + non metals • +/- Ions - Lattice • electrostatic attraction Metallic • Metals • “delocalised” electrons H x H• Cl-Na+ Properties • Non - conducting • (Electrons held in bond.) • V Low or V High melting points • Insoluble (H2O) Properties • High Melting points • Soluble (H2O) • Conduct electricity when ions free to move(liquid or solution). Properties • Good Conductors • Malleable • Ductile • Luster (shiny). H-H Eg Hydrogen (H2) SAMPLE ONLY 10 SAMPLE ONLY
  • 11. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Bonding Summary  Metallic – bonding between metals  Similar electronegativities (small) – delocalized electrons  Covalent - equal sharing of electrons  Similar electronegativities (Large)  ΔEneg = 0  Polar covalent - unequal sharing of electrons, dipoles  Polar bonds - ΔEneg < 1.9  Polar molecules: Polar bonds & Asymmetrical shape  Ionic - complete transfer of electrons, ions formed,  VERY different electronegativities. Increasing electronegativity DIFFERENCE. 11
  • 12. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Hi - This is a SAMPLE presentation only. My FULL presentations, which contain a lot more more slides and other resources, are freely available on my resource sharing website: www.warnescience.net (click on link or logo) Have a look and enjoy! WarneScience
  • 13. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Keith Warne Hi  This is a SAMPLE presentation only.  My full presentations contain loads more slides (20-100) and are freely available on my Science Café website. http://www.sciencecafe.org.za (paste into your browser if link above does not work)  I have other resources available from my Science Café site feel free to have a look. 13