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Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
Bonding
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Bonding

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A set of slides created to teach Bonding to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

A set of slides created to teach Bonding to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

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  • 1. BONDING K Warne
  • 2. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Periodic Table Test Give the names of the following elements: 1. Na 2. S 3. N 4. C 5. Ca 6. Cu 7. F 8. Ne 9. Pt 10. Mg Give the SYMBOL of the following elements: 1. Iron 2. Chrome 3. Lead 4. Mercury 5. Gold 6. Platinum 7. Phosphorus 8. Uranium 9. Nickel 10. Silicon
  • 3. Bonding O H2O O H2O O O Two hydrogen molecules and one oxygen molecule react to form two water molecules. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> ScienceCafe
  • 4. HH Reactions H2 + Cl2  2HCl 3H2 + N2  2 NH3 H H Cl Cl ClH ClH H H N N N H H N H H H H H H SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> ScienceCafe
  • 5. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Covalent bond A shared PAIR of electrons.  Electrons from one atom are attracted strongly by the nucleus of another atom.  Formed between non metals. (Attract electrons strongly!)  Pure covalent bonds have EQUAL SHARING of the electrons.  In diatomic Molecules; H2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, I2, N2, H H In covalent substances the electrons are strongly held in the bonds and so the substance will NOT conduct electricity. HH • x Couper structure
  • 6. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Covalent Molecules – Bohr Diagrams  H2, O2, F2, Cl2, Br2, N2, H2O, NH3, CH4 O O p=8 n=8 p=8 n=8 O=O O2 Two shared electron pairs Two shared electron pairs form a DOUBLE covalent bond!
  • 7. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net F F Fluorine F2 p=9 n=10 p=9 n=10 F-F
  • 8. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Diatomic Molecules  O2 indicates that two oxygen atoms are BONDED together into an oxygen molecule.  2O just indicates that you have two oxygen atoms. O2 2OWhat is the difference?  O O O O O2=Bonded oxygen molecule NOT bonded = 2O
  • 9. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Covalent Molecules CH4 H H C C H methane CH H H H Since carbon has 4 valence electrons 4 hydrogens are needed 4 shared pairs = 4 covalent bonds
  • 10. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net x x Covalent Molecules N2 N N N Nx x x 3 shared pairs is a triple bond One lone or unbonded pair each NN A triple covalent bond is very strong so nitrogen is VERY UNREACTIVE! ~70 % of the atmosphere is nitrogen – it does not react with almost anything! Nitrogen is used in crisp packets to keep the crisps fresh because it does NOT react with them.
  • 11. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Ionic Bonding  Formed when there is a …………. of …………………...  Formed between ………….. and ………………….  Metals …………………….. and become ……………………... ions - CATIONS.  Non metals …………………... and become …………………………. ions - ANIONS.  …………………………… between oppositely charged ions bonds the ions together. Na . .. :Cl: - .. Na + . :Cl: .. .. Na . + : Cl: --> [Na]+ [Cl] - . ELECTROSTATIC ATTRACTION
  • 12. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net F- Fluoride F- Bohr Diagram p=9 n=10 -1
  • 13. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net P=8 N=8 2- + 2e- Oxygen (Atom) Oxide (ion) P=8 N=8
  • 14. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Ionic Bonding – Bohr Diagrams  The final compound is ALWAYS NEUTRAL  The total charges of the cations and anions must balance out. p=17 n=18 Cl p=17 n=18 Cl- formula -1 p=11 n=12 Na p=11 n=12 Na+ +1 Chlorine atom Chloride ion (Bohr diagram) Sodium atom Sodium ion Na
  • 15. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Li Br2 P= 35 n= 45 p= 35 n= 45 Br - p= 35 n= 45 2Li + Br2  2LiBr Br - p= 35 n= 45 - - + + Li+ Li+ Li Formation of Lithium Bromide
  • 16. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net MUST BE LEARNT BY HEART! ONE TWO THREE Hydrogen H + Beryllium Be 2+ Aluminium Al 3+ Lithium Li + Magnesium Mg 2+ Iron(III) Fe 3+ Sodium Na + Calcium Ca 2+ Potassium K + Barium Ba 2+ Silver Ag + Lead Pb 2+ Copper(I) Cu + Zinc Zn 2+ Ammonium NH4 + Iron(II) Fe 2+ Oxonium H3O + Copper(II) Cu 2+ VALENCY TABLE 1
  • 17. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Bonding - Metallic Bonding - Exists between _________________. - Metal electrons are _____________ - therefore they become ______________________ (move from one atom to another). - This leaves _______________ - which become surrounded by a ‘sea’ of ______________________ electrons. - A force of _______________________ exists between the delocalized ___________________ and the positive ___________- which forms the ___________________ bond. All the _____________ of metals can be explained in terms of this bonding.
  • 18. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Bonding Summary Covalent  Non metals  Shared electrons  Molecules Ionic • Metals + non metals • +/- Ions - Lattice • electrostatic attraction Metallic • Metals • “delocalised” electrons H x H• Cl-Na+ Properties • Non - conducting • (Electrons held in bond.) • V Low or V High melting points • Insoluble (H2O) Properties • High Melting points • Soluble (H2O) • Conduct electricity when ions free to move(liquid or solution). Properties • Good Conductors • Malleable • Ductile • Luster (shiny). H-H Eg Hydrogen (H2)
  • 19. Bonding Element Number of Bonds(Valency) Lithium 1 Magnesium 2 Silicon 4 Phosphorus 3 Chlorine 1 Aluminum 3 Arsenic 3 Helium 0 Nitrogen 3 SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> ScienceCafe
  • 20. Valency - No of Bonds Element Symbol Group No Period Valence electrons Valency (Bonds) Na 1 3 1 1 N Cl 6 2 1 2 7 2 B 3 2 3 5 Be 2 2 Al 3 3 Si 4 4 H Hydrogen is an exception - it often reacts as a metal! SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> ScienceCafe
  • 21. Bonding Element 1 & Valency Element 2 & Valency Element 1 - bonds Element 2 - bonds Compound Formulae Na +1 Cl -1 Na — Cl— Na —Cl NaCl H +1 O -2 H— O — H O H H2O Na +1 S -2 Ca O H C Li O Si O C O SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> ScienceCafe
  • 22. Hi - This is a SAMPLE presentation only. My FULL presentations, which contain a lot more more slides and other resources, are freely available on my resource sharing website: www.warnescience.net (click on link or logo) Have a look and enjoy! WarneScience

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