Atomic Theory
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Atomic Theory

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A set of slides created to teach Atomic Theory to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

A set of slides created to teach Atomic Theory to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

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    Atomic Theory Atomic Theory Presentation Transcript

    • THE ATOM Atomic Theory GRADE 10 K WARNE
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Rutherford’s experiment • Rutherford shot ................... particles at very thin gold foil. • Most of the radiation ........................................ • Some radiation was .................................. - by significant amounts. 2SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Atomic Structure Revision ELEMENT SYMBOL Z (ATOMIC NUMBER) A (MASS NUMBER) NEUTRONS ELECTRONS TOT VALENCE Hydrogen H 1 1 0 1 1 Lithium Li 3 7 4 3 1 Carbon C 6 12 6 6 4 Nitrogen N 7 14 7 7 5 O Ne Na Ar Ca Fill in the missing information for each of the elements above – note any patterns that begin to develop. 3SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net THE NEUTRAL ATOM Notation Z A XAtomic Number (smaller) Mass Number (bigger) symbol • Atomic Number Z = number of protons (& electrons) • Mass number A = protons + neutrons. • Number of neutrons = A - Z 4SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Atomic Spectra A glass prism can be used to generate a colour ………………….. If this the light generated by a hot (glowing) gas is viewed through a prism specific colour lines are seen as AN ……………… ………….SPECTRUM. If light is shone through a cold sample of the same gas, the same specific colour lines are absent and appear as an ……………………….. LINE SPECTRUM. 5SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Absorption & Emission spectrum • In absorption spectrum radiation is again absorbed by electrons being …………… to higher energy levels. • The same frequencies (colours) are again emitted when the excited electrons ……………………. to the ground state in an ………………………spectrum. ---- ………………………… ……………………… 6 SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Bohr’s Atom - problems • Only explain hydrogen spectrum. • Could not explain molecules (bonding of atoms) - formation or properties. • Why fixed orbits and no energy radiation in orbits. • At variance with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Heisenberg: Not possible to know both the position and velocity of an electron at the same time with the same amount of accuracy. 7SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Bohr Orbits - energy levels N = 4 N = 3 N = 2 N = 1 Electron Structure Energy sub levels and orbitals 1s orbital 2s 2p orbitals 3s 3p orbitals 4s 4p (3d orbitals) 8SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Ei Trends in a group 4s 3s 2s 1s 3p 2p Li 1s2 2s1 4s 3s 2s 1s 3p 2p Na 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 OUTER ELECTRON FURTHER FROM NUCLEUS – LESS ENERGY REQUIRED TO REMOVE IT – LOWER EI1 COMPLETE INNER LEVELS SHIELD THE OUTER ELECTRONS FROM THE EFFECTS OF THE INCREASED NUCLEAR CHARGE 3 PROTONS 11 PROTONS FIRST Ei DECREASES DOWN A GROUP! 9SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Successive Ionization Energies FIRST ionisation energy (Ei1): Energy required to remove OUTERMOST electron. M  M+ + 1e- SECOND ionisation energy (Ei2): Energy required to remove SECOND OUTERMOST electron. M+  M2+ + 1e- Inner level Hard to remove close to nucleus Second energy level Outer (valence) level Easy to remove far from the nucleus This graph provides EVIDENCE for energy levels. 10 SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net FIRST ionisation energy (Ei1): Energy required to remove OUTERMOST electron. M  M+ + 1e- Patterns in First Ionization Energies (Ei1) 11 SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Isotopes Isotopes Atoms of the same element which have different numbers of neutrons. Others – Boron 10 & 11, Hydrogen 1 & 2, Chlorine 35 & 37. Write notation and work out numbers of neutrons. e- e - e- e- e- e- e- e - e- e- e- e- The two atoms below both belong to carbon but they are not identical – can you spot what is different? 6 12C 6 13C 5 10B 5 11B 17 35Cl 17 37Cl 1 1H 1 2H12 SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Isotopes • Isotopes - Atoms of the _______________ which have different _____________________________________. Eg: 6 13C & 6 12C • 37Cl (25%) & 35Cl (75%) - ratio _________ Av Ar(Cl) = Or Av Ar(Cl) = Relative atomic mass is (actually) the ____________ mass of an atom of an element relative to 1/12 of the mass of a carbon-twelve atom. 13 SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net THE NEUTRAL ATOM • The atom consists of a _____________________ ______________________________ surrounded by a __________________________. • Atomic Number Z: ___________________ in the Nucleus = _________________ in a ______ atom. • Mass number A - Number of ______ + ________ Notation Z A X______________ Number (smaller) ___________ Number (bigger) symbol 14SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY
    • SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Hi - This is a SAMPLE presentation only. My FULL presentations, which contain a lot more more slides and other resources, are freely available on my resource sharing website: www.warnescience.net (click on link or logo) Have a look and enjoy! WarneScience