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Atomic Structure
K Warne
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Elements
ELEMENTS - cannot be...
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Chlorine:
• _________
• _____...
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The Atom
An atom consists
of ...
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THE NEUTRAL ATOM
• Atomic Num...
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Atomic Structure
Symbol
Notat...
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Isotopes
…………………
Atoms of the...
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Isotopes
Boron 10 & 11, Hydro...
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ISOTOPES
Symbol PROTONS ELECT...
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• Electrons orbit the nucleus...
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Full Shells- Maximum Electron...
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2s
1s
8 p
8 n
Oxygen
8
O
16
V...
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VALENCY – BOHR DIAGRAMS
Valen...
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15p
16 N
Phosphorus
15
P
31
B...
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VALENCY
• Valency – number of...
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Valency
• The …………. of an
ele...
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Name Symbol Z A N e- G.No Val...
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Periodic Table Investigation
...
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The Periodic TableInteractive...
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The Periodic TableInteractive...
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The Periodic Table
I VIII
1
2...
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Diatomic Molecules
Some eleme...
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The Periodic TableColumns - G...
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Atomic Structure P

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A set of slides created to teach Atomic Structure P to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

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Transcript of "Atomic Structure P"

  1. 1. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Atomic Structure K Warne
  2. 2. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Elements ELEMENTS - cannot be broken up into simpler substances. - their smallest particles are atoms. - they are found on the periodic table. element atom
  3. 3. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Chlorine: • _________ • _________ • _______ Compounds Sodium: • ______ • _______ • Very _______ ClNa Elements Compound (can be chemically broken down into two original elements) NaCl molecule Different to original atoms REACTION • Energy ________ • Atoms ________ NaCl Sodium Chloride • ______________ • ______________. • ______________
  4. 4. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net The Atom An atom consists of a NUCLEUS made of …………….. and ……………… …………………. orbit the nucleus at high speed. Helium atom The electrons are ……………… charged - the protons are …………………. The number of electrons is always ………… to the number of protons. e- Proton (….) Electron (....) e- Neutron (….) + + The element is determined by the number of ………………!! charge
  5. 5. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net THE NEUTRAL ATOM • Atomic Number (_) = number of ______ • Mass number (…) = ________ + ________. • Number of neutrons = ______ Notation Z A X………. Number (_________) ………… Number (________) symbol e- proton electron e- neutron
  6. 6. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Atomic Structure Symbol Notation Name Protons Neutrons Mass Number Electrons 40 20Ca Calcium 20 40-20 = 20 40 20 31 15P 14 28 12 6 Mg
  7. 7. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Isotopes ………………… Atoms of the ……. ………….. which have …………. ………… of ………………. Others – Boron …….., Hydrogen …..….., Chlorine ……………………... Write notation and work out numbers of neutrons in each of these. + + + + + e- e- e- e- e- e- + + + + + + e- e- e- e- e- e- The two carbon atoms below both are not identical – can you spot what is different? (Write down A and Z in the symbol notations.) … …..C … …..C +
  8. 8. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Isotopes Boron 10 & 11, Hydrogen 1 & 2, Chlorine 35 & 37 5 10B 5 11B 5 neutrons! 6 neutrons! 1 1H 1 2H 0 neutrons! 1 neutrons! 17 35Cl 17 37Cl 18 neutrons! 20 neutrons!
  9. 9. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net ISOTOPES Symbol PROTONS ELECTRONS NEUTRONS Carbon 12 12 6C 6 6 6 Carbon 13 13 6C 6 6 7 Boron 10 10 5B 5 5 5 Boron 11 11 5B 5 5 6 Hydrogen 1 Hydrogen 2 Chlorine 35 Chlorine 37
  10. 10. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net • Electrons orbit the nucleus in various __________________. • These levels ______________ from the nucleus. • Levels further from the nucleus have _____________ _______. • The OUTERMOST LEVEL is called the _______________ energy level. • The electrons in the OUTER ENERGY LEVEL are known as the _________________ ELECTRONS. • The number of valence electrons for any element is equal to it’s _______________ NUMBER on the periodic table. e- e- e- e- This atom has _____ valence electrons. The number of valence electrons of the following elements are: • Oxygen: • Hydrogen: • Sodium: • Chlorine: • Carbon: Energy levels
  11. 11. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Full Shells- Maximum Electrons • The FIRST or innermost shell as having a maximum of 2 electrons. • The next two shells have a maximum of 8 electrons each. • The FOURTH shell can take many more electrons but we shall only consider elements up to the first TWENTY. 2 1 8 7 3 4 5 6 1 2 At Junior Level we can take: 2 + 8 + 8 + (2) = 20 Atomic No = total electrons Group number = valence electrons (outer shell) Valency = no electrons lost or gained to get a full outer shell K L M N
  12. 12. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net 2s 1s 8 p 8 n Oxygen 8 O 16 Valence Electrons Valence electrons are those which are found in the outer energy level or shell. An oxygen atom has 8 electrons in total – 6 of which would be in its outer energy level. The number of valenc electrons in an atom of oxygen is therefore 6. O 1s2 2s2 2p4 2p 1 2 3 4 5 6
  13. 13. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net VALENCY – BOHR DIAGRAMS Valency – ……………….. of electrons ……..….. or ……….... to have a FULL valence level. (Outer shell) H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Valence electrons – those in ……………. shell. Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Mass INCREASES from Left to Right! More Protons and more electrons! 1 2 ....
  14. 14. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net 15p 16 N Phosphorus 15 P 31 Bohr Diagram for Phosphorus
  15. 15. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net VALENCY • Valency – number of electrons lost or gained to have a FULL valence level. (Outer shell) Valence electrons – those in outer shell. Group No I II III IV V VI VII VIII Valence electrons Valency
  16. 16. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Valency • The …………. of an element is the number of ………….. it must ……….. gain or lose to get a full outer shell (8 electrons). • For METALS the valency is just equal to the ………… ……………….. • For NON-Metals the valency is equal to ………………………. This atom has a valency of -2. The valencies of the following elements are: • Oxygen: • Hydrogen: • Sodium: • Chlorine: • Carbon:
  17. 17. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Name Symbol Z A N e- G.No Valence e- Valency sodium Na 11 23 12 11 I 1 1 Mg Al Si phosphor us 31 15P 15 31 16 15 V 5 -3 32 ___ 16 32 35 ___ 17 18 --- -- Ca
  18. 18. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Periodic Table Investigation • On the supplied blank outline of the periodic table. • Type in symbols for all the elements you know of which are: – Metals – Gasses – Liquids – Non Metals (substances that are not metals) Use some form of colour scheme to distinguish the various kinds of elements. Interactive Periodic Tables you may wish to use: www.ptable.com http://www.webelements.com/ Identify any possible trends in the layout of elements.
  19. 19. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net The Periodic TableInteractive Periodic Table; www.ptable.com I II <--GROUP NUMBERS--> III IV V VI VII 0 1 2 H He 1 KEY 4 3 4 Atomic number 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 Li Be Li Symbol B C N O F Ne 7 9 Mass number 7 11 12 14 16 19 20 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar 23 24 27 28 31 32 35.5 40 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr 39 40 45 48 51 52 55 56 59 59 64 65 70 73 75 79 80 84 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe 86 88 89 91 93 96 99 101 103 106 108 112 115 119 122 128 127 131 55 56 57 * 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 133 137 139 179 181 184 186 190 192 195 197 201 204 207 209 210 210 222 87 88 89  Fr Ra Ac 223 226 227 * 58 - 71 Lanthanides58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 140 141 144 145 150 152 157 159 163 165 167 169 173 175 90 - 103 Actinides90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Nd No Lr 232 231 238 237 239 243 247 247 252 (252) (257) (258) (259) (260)
  20. 20. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net The Periodic TableInteractive Periodic Table; www.ptable.com GI Metals – light grey, react vigorously with water – release Hydrogen gas – reaction gets more vigorous as you go down the group. GVII HALOGENS toxic reactive gases, liquids & solids – reactivity DECREASES as you go down!
  21. 21. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net The Periodic Table I VIII 1 2 3 4 Periods II III IV V VI VII<-- Group Numbers --> •Each period relates to one ENERGY LEVEL •All elements in a PERIOD have valence electrons in the same ENERGY LEVEL First Energy Level Second Energy Level Third Energy Level etc.
  22. 22. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Diatomic Molecules Some elements have atoms that ALWAYS exist in PAIRS. Two atoms of the element bond to form a DIATOMIC MOLECULE. In their natural (uncombined) states they are ALWAYS written as: H2 N2 O2 F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 At2 They can exist singly in compounds: H2 + Cl2  2HCl Diatomic molecules single atoms in compound I VIII II III IV V VI VIIH N O F Cl Br I At Hydrogen Gas H H H x H• H2 H Cl H Cl
  23. 23. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net The Periodic TableColumns - Groups - 8 Non-metals metals semi-metals HalogensI II III IV V VI VII Rows - Periods Nobel/Inert Gases
  24. 24. SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY For FULL presentation click HERE >> www.warnescience.net Hi - This is a SAMPLE presentation only. My FULL presentations, which contain a lot more more slides and other resources, are freely available on my resource sharing website: www.warnescience.net (click on link or logo) Have a look and enjoy! WarneScience
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