CARBOHYDRATE AND ENERGY
METABOLISM IN TRYPANOSOME AND
PLASMODIA
BY
ASARE, KUMI KWAME
TRYPANOSOMES
Trypanosomes go through a complex life cycle
involving vertebrate host and a vector tsetse
fly.
Vertebrate ...
T. brucei actively catabolize glucose, fructose,
mannose and glycerol.
Long slender form lack mitochondral TCA and
funct...
AEROBIC CONDITION
The long slender forms metabolize glucose to
pyruvate with trace amount CO2 and sometimes
glycerol.
La...
NAD-linked glycerol-3-phosphate
dehydrogenase and mitochondrial FAD-linked
glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-oxidase
com...
ANAEROBIC CONDITION
Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase is
inhibited with salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM).
Long sl...
Causing reversal of glycerol kinase action to form
ATP from glycerol-3-phosphate and ADP.
In anaerobic condition glucose...
VECTOR STAGE
Procyclic form metabolize glucose, fructose,
mannose and glycerol to produce acetate,
succinate, alanine, al...
DIAGRAM
THE PLASMODIA
Erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite do not
reserve carbohydrates.
Utilization of glucose increase ...
There is the presence malate dehydrogenase
in both mammalian parasite and avian
parasite but appears to cytosolic.
Altho...
Mitochondria of P. falciparum oxidize
glutamate.
NADH-fumarate reductase involved in the
reoxidation of mitochondrial NA...
Several non-glycolytic enzymes such as
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase,
diphosphoglycerate mutase and adenylate
kinase ...
Carbohydrate and energy metabolism in trypanosome and plasmodia
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Carbohydrate and energy metabolism in trypanosome and plasmodia

  1. 1. CARBOHYDRATE AND ENERGY METABOLISM IN TRYPANOSOME AND PLASMODIA BY ASARE, KUMI KWAME
  2. 2. TRYPANOSOMES Trypanosomes go through a complex life cycle involving vertebrate host and a vector tsetse fly. Vertebrate host comprising long slender, intermediate and short stumpy form. Vector phase comprising procyclic trypomastigote, epimestigote and metacyclic form.
  3. 3. T. brucei actively catabolize glucose, fructose, mannose and glycerol. Long slender form lack mitochondral TCA and functional respiratory chain. Short stumpy stages is able to utilize alpha ketoglutarate, glucose, fructose and glycerol. Blood stream form do not store energy reserves.
  4. 4. AEROBIC CONDITION The long slender forms metabolize glucose to pyruvate with trace amount CO2 and sometimes glycerol. Lack lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase. Short stumpy form contain mitochondra and produce pyruvate, glycerol, acetate, succinate and co2 . Reoxidation of NADH in the glycosome is mediated G3P-DHAP.
  5. 5. NAD-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial FAD-linked glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-oxidase complex. The terminal oxidase reduce molecular oxygen to water
  6. 6. ANAEROBIC CONDITION Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase is inhibited with salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM). Long slender forms continue to utilize glucose by G3P-DHAP which prevent glycerol-3-phosphate. Glycosomal ATP is trapped by the phosphorylation of glucose. Anaerobiosis leads to high glycerol-3-phosphate and ADP with decrease ATP cause glycerol-3- phosphate to diffuse out.
  7. 7. Causing reversal of glycerol kinase action to form ATP from glycerol-3-phosphate and ADP. In anaerobic condition glucose form equimolar amounts of pyruvate and glycerol with a net ATP of 1. Cells survive and remain motile under anaerobic condition with decrease ATP. Glycerol can not serve as substrate because G3P can not be oxidized to DHAP without molecular oxygen.
  8. 8. VECTOR STAGE Procyclic form metabolize glucose, fructose, mannose and glycerol to produce acetate, succinate, alanine, alpha ketoglutarate and CO2. Under anaerobic condition utilize glucose and glycerol and produce CO2 in a form of succinate and acetate. Glycosomal phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malate dehydrogenase is present in procyclic forms.
  9. 9. DIAGRAM
  10. 10. THE PLASMODIA Erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite do not reserve carbohydrates. Utilization of glucose increase to about 50-100 folds. In infected red cells with P. falciparum utilize glucose in anaerobic glycolysis to lactic acid. Both the parasite and the host lack TCA cycle. However, Avian malaria parasite under TCA cycle with the presence of enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase.
  11. 11. There is the presence malate dehydrogenase in both mammalian parasite and avian parasite but appears to cytosolic. Although intraerythrocytic stages depend mainly on glycolysis but mitochondria function influence the parasite survival. They are capable of oxidizing NADH, glycerol- 3-phosphate and succinate.
  12. 12. Mitochondria of P. falciparum oxidize glutamate. NADH-fumarate reductase involved in the reoxidation of mitochondrial NADH. P. falciparum has a complete set of glycolytic enzyme which is high in the infected cells.
  13. 13. Several non-glycolytic enzymes such as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, diphosphoglycerate mutase and adenylate kinase decreased in activity. Most of the enzymes except for glucose-6- phosphate dehydrogenase can be obtain from the parasite after lysis. The pathway for the synthesis of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate is absent.

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